ASHKELON (Heb. אַשְׁקְלוֹן; Askelon, Ascalon).
One of the five Philistine city-states and a seaport in the southern coastal plain of Ereẓ Israel situated 12 mi. (19 km.) north of Gaza and 10 mi. (16 km.) south of Ashdod. The etymology of the name Ashkelon is probably Western Semitic and may be derived from the root (shkl; "to weigh"), indicating thereby that it served as a center for mercantile activities. Ashkelon is first mentioned in the Egyptian Execration Texts of the 11th dynasty (c. 20th–19th centuries) as Asqanu. The city would appear to have been a Canaanite city-state under strong Egyptian influence throughout the 18th to 20th Dynasties. Ashkelon appears in several *El-Amarna letters (EA, 287, 320–2, 370). Although it seems to have remained loyal to Egypt on the whole (EA, 320, 322), Abdihiba, the ruler of Jerusalem, complained to Pharaoh that the people of Ashkelon helped the *Habiru, Egypt's enemy (EA, 287:14–16). About 1280 B.C.E., Ashkelon revolted against Ramses II, who put down the rebellion; the conquest is depicted on reliefs at the Karnak temple. It was again captured by Pharaoh *Merneptah approximately 1229 B.C.E., as indicated on his "Israel Stele." Ashkelon is also mentioned in an ivory tablet from *Megiddo. Toward the middle of the 12th century B.C.E. it was taken by the Philistines and was thereafter one of their Pentapolis (Josh. 13:3; I Sam. 6:17; II Sam. 1:20). According to Judges 1:18, the tribe of Judah conquered Ashkelon together with Gaza and Ekron (cf., however, Judg. 1:18 in the Septuagint, which states that Ashkelon, Gaza, and Ekron were not taken). Ashkelon is mentioned in connection with several details of the Samson stories (Judg. 14:19). During the period of the monarchy, it continued to be one of the main Philistine cities and ports (II Sam. 1:20), and Amos predicted its punishment (Amos 1:8). In the eighth century B.C.E. the size of its kingdom was substantially reduced by the Assyrians, who referred to it as Iskaluna or Askaluna, and it was eventually brought under their suzerainty by Tiglath-Pileser III in 734 B.C.E. A first unsuccessful rebellion by the King of Ashkelon against the Assyrians led a severe punishment in 732 B.C.E. Later, Sidqia, king of Ashkelon, became one of the participants in another rebellion against Assyria led by Hezekiah. In Sennacherib's account of his campaign in 701 B.C.E., he describes the capture of some of Sidqia's cities in the vicinity of Jaffa, Ashkelon's submission, and the deportation of its king (Sennacherib Prism, 1:50ff.). Tribute received from Ashkelon is mentioned in the inscriptions of the rulers Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal. They used the city as a base for their campaigns against Egypt (end of the seventh and early sixth centuries B.C.E.) and the hardships that the city endured were mentioned by the prophets (e.g. Zeph. 2:4; Jer. 25:20). With the collapse of Assyrian rule, Ashkelon fell into the hands of Psammetichus and Necho of Egypt. The city was subdued and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 47:5–7), who deported many of its inhabitants. In an Aramaic letter found in Egypt, which belongs to this period, a certain Adon, probably the king of Ashkelon, pleads for help, stating that the Babylonian king has reached *Aphek.
In the Persian period, Ashkelon was under the control of Tyre (according to Pseudo-Scylax, fourth century B.C.E.). With the division of Alexander's empire, Ashkelon – Ascalon as it was then known – was included in the Ptolemies' domain and it became a free port and an autonomous city. A Jewish community flourished in the city under their rule. Ashkelon subsequently fell into the hands of Antiochus III and became an important center of Greek civilization in Hellenistic times. In 111 B.C.E. it was minting its own coins. With the decline of the Seleucid kingdom, it regained its independence in 104 B.C.E., from which time it reckoned the beginning of its own era. Ashkelon maintained its independence throughout the reigns of the Hasmonean rulers John *Hyrcanus and Alexander *Yannai who were unsuccessful in their bids to conquer the city. In the Roman period it was considered a "free and allied city" (Colonia Ascalon liberate et foederata). Pagan cults included the worship of Isis, Apollo and Heracles, and of Atargatis/Derceto – a goddess with the face and upper body of
Neolithic and Chalcolithic remains have been reported in the vicinity of Tel Ashkelon (Ar. Tell el-Hadr) and substantial Early Bronze Age I remains have been uncovered in the Afridar neighborhood of the modern city about a mile to the north of the ancient mound. Tel Ashkelon has been the focus of archaeological excavations ever since the first probes made there by W.J. Phythian-Adams and J. Garstang in 1920–21 that brought to light Hellenistic and Roman remains – including remains of a large building identified as a council-house (bouleuterion) or forum, as well as earlier Middle Bronze fortifications and pottery in fill layers indicating the links that the city had with Aegean and Cypriot cultures. During subsequent archaeological investigations a remarkable painted tomb was discovered by J. Ory bearing scenes of two nymphs in a Nilotic landscape, the god Pan playing a syrinx, a dog chasing a gazelle, a Gorgon mask, etc. Dating from the Byzantine period are the remains of a church and a synagogue with a chancel screen decorated with menorot. From 1985 large-scale excavations were initiated at Tel Ashkelon on a yearly basis by L.E. Stager. Apart from scanty remains from the Early Bronze II–III, an impressive Middle Bronze II defensive system and a well-preserved gate flanked by towers were uncovered. Nearby a small shrine (the "sanctuary of the silver calf") was uncovered. Late Bronze Age building remains and sunken burial vaults are known from the site. Philistine remains are represented by fortifications dated to 1100 B.C.E. The discovery of vats suggests that one of the occupations of the inhabitants was wine production. The Philistine city was destroyed in 604 B.C.E. Persian remains of the fifth century B.C.E. include the discovery of an unusual dog cemetery; the town was destroyed c. 300 B.C.E. In addition to these remains, signs of later occupation represented by public buildings and dwellings were also revealed from the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Early Islamic periods. A bathhouse/brothel dating from the fourth century C.E. was found with the bones of hundreds of newborn babies in the underground sewers. A hexagonal Byzantine church with decorated mosaic floors has also been uncovered. An inscription from 1150 B.C.E. relates to the refortification of Ashkelon under the Fatimids. These walls, however, did not prevent the eventual capture of the site by the Crusaders.
M. Ish-Shalom, Masei Noẓerim le-Ereẓ Yisrael (1965), 94–95, 97; Mann, Egypt, 2 (1922), 198–201; Ben-Zvi, Ereẓ Yisrael, index; Sefer ha-Yishuv, 2 (1944), 4–6; J. Prawer, in: Eretz Israel, 4 (1956), 231–42; 5 (1958), 224–37; B. Mazar, in: EM, 1 (1965), 769ff.; Schuerer, Gesch, 2 (19674), 119ff.; J. Garstang, Joshua, Judges (1931), 357ff.; idem, in: PEFQS (1923); J. Ory, in: QDAP, 8 (1939), 38ff.; Beyer, in: ZDPV, 56 (1933), 250ff.; Z. Vilnay, Ashkelon ha-Ḥaḍashah ve-ha-Attikah (1963). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: W.J. Phythian-Adams, "History of Askalon," in: PEFQS (1921): 163–71; idem, in: "Report on the Stratification of Askalon," in: PEFQS (1923): 60–84; L. Stager, "Ashkelon," in: NEAEHL 1 (1993), 102–3; idem, in: Biblical Archaeology Review, 17 (1991); P. Wapnish and B. Hesse, "Pampered Pooches or Plain Pariahs," BA, 56 (1993), 55–80; B.L. Johnson and L.E. Stager, "Ashkelon: Wine Emporium of the Holy Land," in: S. Gitin (ed.), Recent Excavations in Israel (1995), 95–109. For a comprehensive list of later historical sources, see Y. Tsafrir, L. Di Segni, and J. Green, Tabula Imperii Romani. Iudaea – Palaestina. Maps and Gazetteer (1994), 68–70. WEBSITE: www.ashkelon.muni.il.