One of the founders of the Zionist Forum for Soviet Jewry, Avigdor Lieberman was a member of the Board of the Jerusalem Economic Corporation and the Secretary of the Jerusalem branch of the Histadrut Ovdim Le'umit and was the editor of a newspaper (Yoman Yisraeli). Leiberman served as Director-General of the Likud Movement from 1993-1996, and then as Director-General of the Prime Minister's Office (1996-1997). In 1999, he founded and became Head of the Yisrael Beiteinu Party.
First elected to the Knesset in 1999, he has served as a member of the Foreign Affairs & Defense Committee and State Control Committees, and as Chairman of the Israel-Moldova Parliamentary Friendship League.
In March 2001, Lieberman was appointed Minister of National Infrastructures. He resigned his post in March 2002. He served as Minister of Transportation from February 2003 until June 2004.
Lieberman served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Strategic Affairs in Olmert's coalition government beginning in October 2006. He resigned in January 2008 when Yisrael Beiteinu withdrew from the coalition in protest against what the party viewed as unacceptable concessions to the Palestinian Authority. Following the party's withdrawal from government, news sources reported that Lieberman was under ongoing investigation for allegedly receiving a bribe from Jericho's Oasis Casino financier, Austrian-Jewish businessman Martin Schlaff.
In March 2009, Avigdor Lieberman was appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs in Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's coaltion government.
In December 2012, Lieberman announced that he would resign from his Foreign Minister and Vice Prime Minister positions due to the pending indictment against him for fraud and breach of public trust. He said he would resign so that he could fight the charges, which would enable him to serve in the next government if exonerated.
In order to expand his majority in the Knesset, Prime Minister Netanyahu signed a coalition agreement with the Yisrael Beiteinu party on May 24, 2015, appointing Lieberman to Defense Minister. In November 2018, Lieberman resigned his post over disagreements with Netanyahu regarding how to respond to terror attacks from Gaza. He was also seen as positioning himself for a possible run for prime minister.
He is married, with three children.