Jewish Modern and Contemporary Periods Timeline

(ca. 1700-1917)


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1700-1760 Israel Baal Shem Tov (founder of Jewish Hasidism).
1700 Jewish population in America numbers approximately 250.
1703-1758 Jonathan Edwards (American Christian preacher).
1703-1791 and 1707-1788 John and Charles Wesley (Christian).
1712 First public Jewish synagogue in Berlin.
1730 Jews build first North American synagogue in Lower Manhattan, Shearith Israel.
1740 England grants naturalization rights to Jews in the colonies.
ca. 1750 Wahhabi "fundamentalist" movement arises in Islam.
1753 Parliament extends naturalization rights to Jews resident in England.
1761 First English prayer book for High Holidays is published in New York.
1763 The Jews of Newport, Rhode Island, dedicate a Sephardic synagogue, designed by leading Rhode Island architect Peter Harrison.
1768-1828 "Father of Reform [Judaism]," Israel Jacobson.
1775 Pius VI issues Editto sopra gli ebrei, "Edict over the Hebrew," suppressing the Jewish religion.
1775 Frances Salomon elected to South Carolina Provisional Congress; the first Jew to hold elected office in America.
1776 United States Declaration of Independence.
1775-1854 America merchant and philanthropist Judah Touro, funded first New Orleans synagogue.
1729-1786 Moses Mendelssohn (Jewish "enlightenment" scholar).
1762 Although usually considered more liberal than other states, Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony."
1765 Portugal holds the last public Auto de Fe "Act of Faith," a ceremony where the Inquisition announces its punishments, usually a death sentence of burning at the stake.
1769-1821 Napoleon (France).
1775-1781 American Revolution; religious freedom guaranteed.
1781 Joseph II of Austria recinds the 513-year old law requiring Jews to wear distinctive badges.
1781 Haym Solomon, a Polish Jew who arrived in New York in 1772, helps raise funds to finance the American cause in the Revolutionary War.
1781-1869 American philanthropist Rebecca Gratz.
1783 The Sultan of Morocco expells the Jews for the third time in recent years after they failed to pay an exorbitant ransom.
1785-1851 Zionist author, journalist and and diplomat, Mordechai Manuel Noah.
1788 Ratification of the U.S. Constitution means Jews may hold any federal office.
1789 French Revolution.
1784-1885 Leading Jewish philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore, createed numerous agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel.
1789 Gershom Mendes Seixas, minister of New York's Jewish congregation, is invited to Washington's inaugural.
1790 Jews of Newport, Rhode Island welcome President George Washington. George Washington writes letter to Jewish community proclaiming religious liberty.
September 27, 1791 French Jews granted full citizenship for the first time since the Roman Empire.
1791 Tsarist Russia confines Jews to Pale of Settlement, between the Black and Baltic Seas.
1795 First American Ashkenazi synagogue, Rodeph Shalom, is established in Philadelphia.
1796 The Netherlands grants citizenship to Jews.
1798 Napoleon, battle of the Pyramids in Islamic Egypt.
1799 Napoleon's army moves from Egypt, capturing Haifa and gets as far north as Akko which is successfully defended by the British.
1801-1804 Muslim Wahhabis capture Mecca & Medina, raid Karbala.
1801 The first American Jewish orphan care society established in Charleston, South Carolina.
1804-1881 English Statesman Benjamin Disraeli.
1808 Polonies Talmud Torah, the first Jewish school on record in the United States established in New York.
1811-1884 "Brains of the Confederacy," Judah P. Benjamin.
March 11, 1812 Prussia's Edict of Emancipation grants citizenship to Jews.
1812-1875 Moses Hess, author, socialist and Zionist.
1813 President Madison appoints Mordechai Noah as consul to Tunis and then rescinds the appointment when the Tunisians object to dealing with a Jew.
1814 King Ferdinand VII of Portugal reestablishes the Inquisition six years after it was abolished by Joseph Boneparte
March 29, 1814 Denmark grants citizenship to Jews.
1818-1883 Although born a Jew, he converted to Protestantism and later became the father of Communism, Karl Marx.
mid-19th century Rise of the Jewish Reform movement in Europe (Abraham Geiger.)
1819 Rebecca Gratz establishes the first independent Jewish women's charitable society in Philadelphia.
1819-1900 Head of the American Reform movement and founder of Hebrew Union College and the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Isaac Mayer Wise.
1820 (ended in 1834) A royal decree officially abolished the Spanish Inquisition.
1821-1891 Well-known physician and early Zionist, Leon Pinsker.
1823 The Monroe Doctrine closes the American continent to foreign colonization.
1823 The first American Jewish periodical, The Jew, published in New York.
1824 Society of Reformed Israelites is established in Charleston.
1825 Mordechai Emmanual Lassalle led a failed movement to colonize New York's Grand Island for Jewish refugees.
1826 In the last known Auto Da Fe, in Valencia, Spain, a poor school master was executed for adhering to Judaism.
1827 Reinterpretation of Russia's Conscription Law mandates 31 years of military service for Jews, beginning at age 12.
1830 French occupation of Muslim Algiers.
1830 German Jews begin to immigrate to America in substantial numbers.
November 30, 1830 Greece grants citizenship to Jews.
1830-1903 Jewish Impressionist painter, whose works focused on the streets of Paris and landscapes, Camille Pissarro.
1831 Louis Philippe of France grants state support to synagogues.
1831 Belgium grants citizenship to Jews.
1831 Although Jews had been living in Jamaica since 1655, they are finally given the right to vote.
1831-1896 Banker and philanthropist, who donated millions of dollars to Jewish organizations and attempted to resettle Eastern European and Russian Jews by estabishing the Jewish Colonial Association (JCA), Baron De Hirsch.
1832 Canada grants Jews political rights.
1833 The first book by an American Jewish woman, Penina Moise's Fancy's Sketch Book, published in South Carolina.
1837 An earthquake in Tzfat and Tiberias kills four thousand people and damages monuments and archeological sites.
1837 First Passover Haggadah printed in America.
1838 Rebecca Gratz establishes Hebrew Sunday School in Philadelphia.
1840 Jews are accused of murdering a Franciscan friar in the Damascus blood libel.
1840 First organized movement by American Jewry to protest false accusations of blood libel in Damascus, Syria.
1840 The first Hebrew printing press in India is established.
1840s The use of the word "Jew" as a verb comes into popular parlance in North America. "To Jew" means to strike a bargain or employ questionable business practices, according to this prejudicial usage.
1841 David Levy Yulee of Florida elected to the United States Senate, the first Jew in Congress.
1843 B'nai B'rith is organized, the first secular Jewish organization in the United States.
1844 Lewis Charles Levin was the first Jew elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
1845 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Pentateuch from the Hebrew into English.
1845-1934 Zionist leader Baron Edmond James de Rothschild.
1847 London elects its first Jewish member of Parliament, Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild. However, he cannot be seated as a member of Parliament because he will not swear the oath of office, which affirms Christianity as the true faith.
1847-1915 Author, scholar and leader of the American Conservative movement, Solomon Schechter.
1848 In every part of Germany, excluding Bavaria, Jews had been granted granted civil rights, allowing Gabriel Riesser, a Jewish advocate, to be elected vice-president of the Frankfurt Vor Parliament and to become a member of the National Assembly. The civil rights, however, existed on paper only and were not enforced.
1849-1887 American poet whose "New Colossus" was inscribed on the Statue of Liberty: Emma Lazerus.
1852 Mount Sinai, the first Jewish Hospital in the United States is founded by a group of mostly German Jewish immigrants.
1852 The Ghetto of Prague is officially abolished.
1852-1870 Reign of Napoleon III of France.
1853 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Bible into English, the first complete Anglo-Jewish translation of the Pentateuch.
1855 First acknowledged non-Muslim visitor permitted to enter Temple Mount since 1187 CE.
1856 Sabato Morais, rabbi of Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, denounces the evils of American slavery from his pulpit.
1858 Edgar Mortara, an Italian Jewish child, is abducted by Papal Guards and placed in a monastery.
1859-1916 "Yiddish Mark Twain," famed novelist, Shalom Alechem Rabinowitz.
1859-1941 (Reign 1888-1918) Kaiser William II of Germany.
1860 First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha'ananim, built outside Jerusalem's walls.
1860 Frenchman Adolohe Cremieux launches the Alliance Israelite Universelle to defend Jewish rights and establish worldwide Jewish educational facilities.
1860-1904 Father of Zionism, Theodore Herzl.
1860-1911 Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies, Gustav Mahler.
1860-1945 Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah, the Amerian Woman's Zionist Organization.
1860 Morris Raphall is the first rabbi to offer prayers at the opening session of Congress.
1861 Norway allows Jews to enter the country.
1861 Judah Benjamin becomes attorney general of the Confederacy, the first Jew to hold a cabinet-level office in any American government.
1861-1865 1,200 Jews fought for the Confederacy and 6,000 for the Union, including nine generals and 21 colonels in the American Civil War.
1861-1936 Essayist and publicist who headed the Jewish and Zionist Organization during the 1930s, was editor of He-Tsefriah and published a history of Zionism, Nahum Sokolow.
1862 Moses Hess writes Rome and Jerusalem.
1862 General Ulysses S. Grant expels Jewish civilians issues General Order No. 11 expelling the Jews "as a class" from the area under the jurisdiction of the Union army in his military department.
1862 Jacob Frankel is appointed first Jewish chaplain in the United States Army.
1864 Leon Pinsker writes Autoemancipation and argues for creation of a Jewish state.
1866 Jews become a majority in Jerusalem.
1866 Switzerland, a hotbed of anti-Jewish edicts grants Jews equal rights only after threats by the United States, France and Britain.
1867 First rabbinical school in America, Maimonides College, is founded in Philadelphia.
1867 The original Ku Klux Klan is organized to maintain "white supremacy".
1867 Hungary passes legislation emancipating the Jews.
1867 German journalist Wilhelm Marr publishes a popular book, The Victory of Judaism over Germanism. He coins the word "antisemitism" so that Judenhass, or Jew-hatred, can be discussed in polite society.
1868 Benjamin Disraeli becomes prime minister of Great Britain — and the first prime minister of Jewish descent in Europe.
1869 Suez Canal opens.
1869 Italy grants emancipation to Jews.
1870 Sweden grants citizenship to Jews.
1870 Ghettos abolished in Italy.
1870 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III which required compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons since 1278 is abolished.
1871 First Yiddish and Hebrew newspaper in America is published.
1871 The the first American kosher cookbook, Jewish Cookery Book, by Esther Jacobs Levy is published.
1871 Great Britain grants full emancipation to Jews.
January 12, 1871 A new German constitution gives German Jews full legal equality.
1873 Reform Judaism in U.S. establishes Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
1873-1934 Poet laureate of the Jewish national movement, authored "In City of Slaughter," "El Ha Tsippor-To the Bird" and "Metai Midbar-Dead of the Desert, Hayim Nahman Bialik.
1873-1956 Leading theologian of the Reform movement, refused to escape Nazi Germany and spent five years in Terezin (Theresienstadt) concentration camp, Leo Baeck.
1874 Jews in Switzerland receive full rights of citizenship under the new constitution.
1874-1926 Eric Weiss, better known as Harry Houdini, the master escape artist, was born into an orthodox home.
19th-20th centuries Young Men's Hebrew Associations in New York and Philadelphia become prototypes for the more than 120 YMHAs established throughout the US in the next 15 years. In the 20th century, many of these evolve into Jewish Community Centers.
1874-1952 Statesman and scientist Chaim Weizmann.
1875 Isaac Mayer Wise founds Hebrew Union College, the rabbinical seminary of the Reform movement, in Cincinnati.
1877 New Hampshire becomes the last state to offer Jews political equality.
1878 Petah Tikvah (Gate of Hope) founded as agricultural colony by orthodox Jews. Although it was abandoned in 1881 after Arab attacks, it was reestablished in 1883 after the First Aliyah.
1878 The antisemitic German Christian Social Party is founded by Adolf Stoecker, a court chaplain. The party demands that Jews convert to Christianity.
1879-1955 Zionist, physicist, Nobel Prize winner and discoverer of the special and general theory of relativity Albert Einstein.
1880-1920 Zionist leader Joseph Trumpeldor.
1880-1939 Zionist leader, founder of the New Zionist Organization, Haganah, Jewish Legion, Irgun, Betar, Revisionist Party, Vladimir Jabotinsky.
1881 Ottoman government announces permission for foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle throughout Ottoman Empire.
1881 Start of mass migrations of eastern European Jews.
1881 French occupation of Muslim Tunisia.
1881 Samuel Gompers founds the Federation of Unions, the forerunner of the American Federation of Labor.
1881 May Laws restricting the movements and conduct of Jews are enacted in Russia.
1881 The word "pogrom" enters the English language, as Russian mobs begin a series of violent attacks against Jews and their property.
1882 British occupation of Muslim Egypt.
1882 First halutz (pioneering) movement, Bilu, founded in Kharkov Russia.
1882 Ottoman government adopts policy to allow Jewish pilgrims and business-people to visit Palestine, but not settle.
1882 Hibbat Tzion societies founded.
1884 First Conference of Hovevei Zion Movement.
1884 Ottoman government closes Palestine to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jewish business, but not to Jewish pilgrims.
1885 Reform Jewish Pittsburgh Platform.
1885-1962 Scientist who developed the theory on the nature of the atom, rescued from Nazi Germany, Neils Bohr.
1885 Sir Nathaniel Meyer Rothschild becomes the first Jew in England's in the House of Lords. The Christian oath was amended so that non-Christians could also serve in the House of Lords.
1886-1929 Philosopher, author, helped create the Free Jewish House of Study in Frankfurt, Franz Rosenweig.
1886 Etz Chaim, the first yeshiva for Talmudic studies in the United States, established in New York.
1886-1973 Statesman David Ben-Gurion.
1887 Jewish Theological Seminary opens in New York and, later, becomes the intellectual center of the Conservative movement.
1887-1990 Famous artist Marc Chagall.
1888 Jewish Publication Society of America is founded to publish English books of Jewish interest.
1888 European powers press Ottoman government to allow foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle in Palestine provided they do not do so en masse.
1888-1970 Hebrew novelist and Nobel prize winner, Samuel Joseph Agnon.
1889 The Educational Alliance founded on the Lower East Side to assist Eastern European immigrants.
April 20, 1889 Adolf Hitler is born in Braunau am Inn, Austria.
1891 Grand Duke Segai orders the expulsion of 14,00 Jewish families living in Moscow. Those who refuse to convert or become prostitutes are sent to the Pale of Settlement.
1891 Christian Zionist William E. Blackstone and 413 prominent Americans petition President Benjamin Harrison to support resettlement of Russian Jews in Palestine.
1891 Baron de Hirsh donates 2 million pounds and establishes the Jewish Colonial Association in order to resettle 3 million Russian Jews in agricultural areas in other countries.
1892 Workmen's Circle established to promote Yiddishist and socialist ideas among the masses of Jewish laborers.
1892 American Jewish Historical Society established.
1892 Ottoman government forbids sale of state land to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews in Palestine.
1893 National Council of Jewish Women founded in Chicago.
1894 French general staff officer Alfred Dreyfus is sentenced to life on Devil's Island in the Dreyfus Affair.
1894 Sholem Aleichem begins writing the first episode of the life of Tevye the Dairyman.
1894-1917 Last Russian Czar, commissioned what became the anti-Semitic "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," Nicholas II.
1894-1943 Artist known for his passionate and often disturbing use of color and form, Chaim Soutine (Smiliouchi).
1895 Lillian Wald founds Henry Street Settlement.
1896 Theodor Herzl publishes Der Judenstaat, The Jewish State (Zionism): .
1897 First Jewish Zionist congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basle, Switzerland, Zionist Organization Founded.
1897 Yiddish Socialist Labor party (the Bund) is founded in Russia.
1897 Abraham Cahan founds leading Yiddish newspaper, Jewish Daily Forward in New York.
1897 The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS), later part of Yeshiva University, begins training Orthodox rabbis.
1898 Eastern European immigrants organize a Union of Orthodox Congregations, whose viewpoint clashes with that of the Reform movement's Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC).
1898-1936 Perhaps the greatest composer of the 20th century, whose works include "Rhapsody in Blue," George Gershwin.
1898-1978 Fourth Prime Minister of Israel, Golda Meir.
1898 Acting on behalf of Col. Dreyfus, Emile Zola publishes J'Accuse.
1898 A section of the Old City Wall is removed to facilitate the entrance of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and his entourage on his visit to Jerusalem.
1899-1902 The term "concentration camp" is coined by the British during the Boer War to denote holding areas for potentially threatening Afrikaners (descendents of Dutch who immigrated to South Africa in the mid-1800s).
1899 Emile Zola wins a new trial for Alfred Dreyfus, and despite new charges, Dreyfus is aquitted and promoted to Major.
1899 Theodor Herzl establishes the Jewish Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist movement.
1900-1990 American composer and conductor best known for "Appalachian Spring," "Billy the Kid" and "Rodeo," Aaron Copland.
early 20th century Founding of the Modern Jewish Orthodox movement.
1901 The Industrial Removal Office, organized by several Jewish organizations, relocate Jewish immigrants from the Lower East Side to communities across the United States.
1901 The Fifth Zionist Congress decides to establish Keren Kayemet LeIsrael (KKL) - The Jewish National Fund.
1902 Theodor Herzl publishes a romantic utopian novel, Altneuland, Old-New Land, a vision of the Jewish State.
1902 Russian Jews organize U.S.-based Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society to serve as counselors, interpreters, attorneys, etc.
1902-1979 Composer and partner of Oscar Hammerstein II (1895-1960), known for "Oklahoma!" and" South Pacific," Richard Rogers.
1902 Solomon Schechter comes from England to America to head the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Conservative Judaism's rabbinical seminary.
1903 British Government proposes "Uganda Scheme," rejected by the Sixth Zionist Congress.
1903 Kishinev massacre increases Jewish exodus from Russia.
1903 Oscar Straus is appointed Secretary of Commerce and Labor by President Roosevelt, the first Jew to serve in the U.S. Cabinet.
1903-1907 500,000 Jews flee Russia, 90% go to the United States.
1904-1914 Second Aliyah, mainly from Russia and Poland.
1905 Gimnazia Herzilia, the first Hebrew high school, opens in Tel Aviv.
1905 Zionist Labor Party (Poale Zion) formed in Minsk in an effort to combine Zionism and Socialism.
1906 American Jewish Committee is founded to safeguard Jewish rights internationally.
early 20th century Sholem Aleichem comes to New York from Russia to write for the American Yiddish theater. The musical Fiddler on the Roof is based on his story Tevye's Daughters.
1906 First Hebrew high school founded in Jaffa and Bezalel school founded in Jerusalem.
1907 Physicist Albert A. Michelson is first American Jew to win Nobel Prize.
1907 Adolf Hitler is rejected for study at the Vienna Academy of Art.
1908 Discovery of oil in Persia; leads to Anglo-Persian (later British Petroleum).
1908 Revolution by "young Turks" depose Sultan Abdul Hamid the Damned under Ottoman.
1908 Turkey grants Jews political rights.
1908 Hijaz Railway from Damascus to Medina.
1909 Julius Rosenwald, American merchant and philanthropist, converts Sears, Roebuck and Co. into the largest mail-order house in the world.
1908-1914 Second Yemenite Aliyah.
1909 First kibbutz, Degania, founded.
1909 Founding of Tel Aviv as Hebrew speaking Jewish city.
1909 Hashomer, the first Jewish self-defense organization is founded to replace Arab guards protecting Jewish settlements.
1911-1913 Russian neurologist Sikowsy testifies thet Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes in the Beilis Trial (Russia).
1911-1986 Hall of Fame baseball player Hank Greenberg.
1911 A tragic fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York's Lower East Side kills 146 women, mostly Jews.
1911 Palestinan journalist Najib Nasser publishes first book in Arabic on Zionism entitled, "Zionism: Its History, Objectives and Importance." Palestinian newspaper Filastin begins addressing its readers as "Palestinians" and warns them about Zionism.
1913 In Russia, Menahem Mendel Beilis, a Jew, is put on trial for the ritual murder of a Christian boy. After two years followed by a "show trial," Beilis is acquitted.
1912 United States abrogates treaty of 1832 with Russia because of Russia's refusal to honor passports of Jewish Americans.
1912 Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization.
1912 Haifa's Technion is founded.
1912 Agudah (Agudat Israel) formed as the World Organization of Orthodox Jewry at Katowitz.
1912 12 of the 100 members of the Reichstag (German parliament) are Jewish.
1913 Trial of Leo Frank in Atlanta leads to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith.
1913 Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological Seminary, founds the United Synagogue of America (later the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism).
1913 First Arab Nationalist Congress meets in Paris.
1913-1993 Commander of the Etzel, statesman and Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin.
1914 Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers is established.
1914-1919 World War I.
1914 Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo prompting World War One.
1914 During First World War, Russian forces in retreat drive 600,000 Jews from their homes.
1914 American Jewish Relief Committee established to distribute funds to needy Jews; it later combined with other Jewish relief organizations to become the Joint Distribution Committee.
1914 The Ottoman empire enters the war on the side of Germany.
1915 Moses Alexander elected Governor of Idaho - the first Jew to win the governorship of an American state.
1915 MacMahon-Hussein correspondence.
1915 Zion Mule Corps established by Yosef Trumpeldor in British army.
1915 Avshalom Feinburg and Aaron Aaronsohn form NILI (Netzah Israel Lo Yeshaker), recruited to spy on the Turks for the British.
1915 The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is created in the wake of the Leo Frank Affair.
1915-1981 Moshe Dayan, Haganah fighter, Israeli minister of Defense.
1915 Leo Frank, a southern American Jew falsely convicted of murdering a 14 year-old girl is hung by a lynch mob.
1915-2005 Arthur Miller, American playwright whose works include, "Death of a Salesman," The Crucible" and "A View From the Bridge." .
1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence.
1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule.
1916 Louis Dembitz Brandeis is first Jew appointed to the Supreme Court.
1916 Germany accuses Jews of evading active service in WWI, despite 100,000 Jews serving, 12% higher than their population ratio.
1917 British capture Baghdad.
1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded.
1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest.
1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State.
1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa.
1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia.
1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years.
1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population.
1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war.
1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress.
1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought in Transjordan, among other places.
1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government.
1917 Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied Forces under General Sir Edmund Allenby.

Timeline of Jewish History