("the Prophet" of Islam).
||Prophetic call and start of Quranic
invasion, Jews allowed to controll Jerusalem.
||Persians change policy toward Jews,
forbid them from living within three
miles of Jerusalem.
||The hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina.
||Muhammad attacks Jewish Arabian tribes for refusing
to convert to Islam. Eventually the Southern Arabian
tribes are destroyed.
||While proselytizing Arabia, Muhammad captures
the Banu Kurara tribe and forces the group of about
600 to chose between conversion and death. After
spending all night praying, all but three or four
Banu Kurarans are beheaded.
||Emperor Heraclius breaks his promise of protection
to Jews, massacring any he found and forbidding
them from entering Jerusalem. Hundreds of Jews were
killed and thousands exhiled to Egypt,
ending the Jewish towns in the Galilee and Judea.
Heraclius' decree remained in effect until the Muslim
conquest of Jerusalem.
||Capitulation of Mecca, rededication of Kaba.
||The Jewish tribe Kaibar defends itself against
Muslim forces, negotiating a settlement in which
half of their crops would go to Mohammed in exchange
for peace. Other Jewish tribes, including Fadattr,
Tedma and Magna reached similar deals.
||Pope Gregory the Great.
||Period of the Jewish Rabbinic Geonim.
||Muhammad dies, creating the four "rightly
guided caliphs" of Islam.
||Muslim forces capture Caesarea,
forcing the city's estimated 100,000 Jews to follow
the Pact of Omar, which meant they had to pray quietly,
not build new synagogues and not prevent Jews from
converting to Islam. The Jews were also forbidden
from riding horses and holding judicial or civil
posts, and were forced to wear a yellow patch for
||Caliph Umar conquers Jerusalem and Jews are permitted
to return to the city under Islam.
||Assassination of Ali (last of the four).
Dynasty of Islam in Damascus (Syria).
||Muslim Attacks on Christian Constantinople.
||Massacre of Ali's son Husayn and Shiites (Iraq).
||Muslims extend Jerusalem and rebuild walls and
of the Rock built on site of First and Second
by Caliph Abd el-Malik.
||Muslim Forces Attack Spain
Mosque built, Jerusalem.
||Islam repulsed at Tours (France),
gateway to Europe.
founded (Jewish reaction to Rabbinic
||Baghdad founded by Abbasids.
||Anan Ben David, organizer of the Karaite sect
that only believed in the literal Biblical writings
and not the Oral
||Charlemagne, French Holy Roman Emperor, protected
and helped develop Jewish culture in his kingdom,
seeing Jews as an asset.
||Jewish Kingdom of Khazar lasts over 500 years,
defending itself from the Muslims, Byzantines
and Russians, finally subdued by Mongols under Genghis
Dynasty of Islam in Baghdad (Iraq)—the
"golden age" of Islamic culture.
||Abu Hanifa (Muslim theologian and jurist in Iraq).
||Malik ibn Anas (jurist, collector of hadiths,
||Caliph Harun al-Rashid rules in "1001 Nights"
||Mutazilite rationalism developed and debated.
Al Rashid, Caliph of the Abbasids forces Baghdad
Jews to wear a yellow badge and Christians to wear
a blue badge.
||Caliph Mamun sponsors translations of Greek learning
into Arabic (Arabic science flourishes).
||Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pius, who succeeded
his father as king, expanded his father's positive
policies towards the Jews, like changing "market
day" from Saturday (Shabbat) to Sunday.
||Ibn Hanbal (jurist, collector of hadiths, Baghdad).
||Palestine annexed to Egypt.
||Bukhari and Muslim (collectors of hadiths).
||Al-Ashari (ex-Mutazilite Muslim scholar).
Gaon (Rabbinic Jewish sage).
||Office of the Exilarch was abolished after seven
centuries, primarily because of dissention with
the Muslims. David ben-Zaccai held the postion.
||Execution of Hallaj, radical Persian Muslim mystic/sufi.
||“Golden Age” in Spain (Islamic Umayyad
||Founding of Cairo (and soon thereafter Azhar University)
by the Islamic Shiite Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
||Caliph al-Aziz defeated the Turkish princes at
Ramleh, marking the beginning of Fatamid rule over
||Al-Azhar University Founded, Cairo.
||Rabbi Gershon of Mainz, Germany,
publishes a ban on bigamy. This marks the beginning
of Ashkenazi (Franco-German) halachic creativity.
||Ibn al-Bawwab produces earliest exist Qur'an copy
on paper, Baghdad.
||Diplomat and poet, as well as vizier to King Habus
and author of a Biblical Hebrew dictionary, Samuel
||Egyptian Caliph Hakkim, who claimed to be divine,
pressured all non-Muslims
to convert and forced all Jews to wear a "golden
calf" around their necks.
||Oldest existing text of full Hebrew Bible is written.
||Earthquake causes structrual damage on Temple
||Messianic poet and philosopher, Solomon
Hanagid becomes vizier of Granada. He is the
first of the poets of the Golden Age of Spain, and
symbolic of both the political power and literary
creativity of Jews in Spain at the time.
||Rebel Abul Kamal Tumin conquered Fez and decimated
the Jewish community, killing 6,000 Jews.
||Final split ("schism") between Latin
(Roman) and Greek (Byzantine) Classical Christian
Churches: 1053/54 William the Conqueror (Norman)
||Abraham Ibn Daud: On Saumuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier
(Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac; Jewish sage): .
||Ghazali (Persian Muslim scholar and mystic): .
of Tudela, Jewish traveller and historian, who
wrote a famous journal called Sefer Hamassa'ot (Book
||Rashi, a French-Jewish thinker, completes his
commentaries on most parts of the Bible.
||Poet and philiospher Moses
||Seljuk occupation of Jerusalem.
Crusade Begins rule in Jerusalem.
||Philip expels Jews from France.
al-Din returns Jerusalem to Muslim rule.
||Philip expands his kingdom and allows Jews to
return, for a fee and under strict conditions.