(1812 - 1875)
Moses Hess was a Jewish philosopher and socialist, and one of the founders of Labor Zionism.
Hess (born June 21, 1812; died April 6, 1875) was born in Bonn to an orthodox Jewish family. He received a traditional Jewish education
but as an autodidact learnt German and French as a means to secular
learning. Initially, Hess was a utopian socialist but following his
acquaintance with Marx he moved toward a more scientific determinist
Hess contributed toward Marx's "Communist Manifesto"
written in 1848 in particular the term "religion as the opium of
the masses."Following the unification of Italy, the rise of nationalism
in that country and the emergence of German antisemitism, Hess returned
to his Jewish roots. His booklet Rome and Jerusalem; The Last National
Question, written in 1862 is evidence of this change. However, his
proposed Jewish State was to be socialist in nature. Hess died in Paris
although at his request was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Cologne.
However, in 1961 his remains were transferred to Israel where they were
buried in the Kinneret cemetery alongside other Socialist-Zionists such as Nahum Syrkin, Ber Borochov, and Berl
Sources: "New Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel," ed.,
Geoffrey Wigoder. Copyright 1994 by Associated University Press, The
Jewish Agency for Israel and The
World Zionist Organization.