||Edict of Cyrus (first return from Exile).
||Jerusalem ("Second") Temple rebuilt.
||Judean Prophet Haggai.
||The notion of a Messiah,
a political/military-religious/moral leader, develops.
||Reformation led by Ezra and Nehemiah.
|ca. 450 B.C.E.
= first division of Jewish Scriptures) begins to gain recognition
||Achashverosh becomes king of Persia.
||First decrees by Haman; fast ordered by Esther, Haman's downfall
||Haman's ten sons executed; Purim celebration.
||Bagoas, a Persian, is made governor of Jerusalem.
||Alexander the Great conquers the Land of Israel.
|ca. 320-168 B.C.E.
||Judaism under Greek Ptolemies & Seleucids.
|ca. 250 B.C.E.
||"Septuagint" translation of Torah into Greek.
|ca. 230-146 B.C.E.
||Coming of Rome to the
|ca. 201 B.C.E.
division of Jewish Scriptures) recognized by some as Scripture
|ca. 200 B.C.E.-135 C.E.
||Jewish Qumran community.
||Selicid, king of Syria, plunders Jerusalem,
||Jewish Maccabean revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple.
||Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
||Rome (Pompey) annexes
the land of Israel.
||First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
||Vespasian gives Yochanan
ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study
at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
||Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.