||Participants in the First
Crusade massacre Jews in several Central European
cities, beginning centuries of pogroms linked to
||More than 5,000 Jews were murdered in Germany
in several different attacks.
|May 3, 1096
||Count Emico of Leiningen, on his way to join a
Crusade, attacked the synagogue at Speyers and killed
all the defenders.
|May 27, 1096
||1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape
Count Emico, who tried to forcibly convert them.
Halevi (Jewish author).
||Crusaders (European Christians) capture Jerusalem
and massacre tens of thousands of the city's Jews.
||Germans, including German Jews, migrate
It is seen as “the land of opportunity.”
||Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yoseph Ibn Tashfin orders
Jews to convert or leave.
falls to the Crusaders.
||After reconquering Toledo, Spain
from the Muslims, Alphonso I invited all Jews to
||Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle in
||Records of a Jewish gate in Kiev
attest to the presence of a Jewish community there.
(Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar).
||Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy
of Judaism known
as The Kuzari. He is a friend of commentator
Ibn Ezra, who also left Spain for the life of
a wandering Jewish scholar.
||150 Jews killed in Ham, France.
||Jews in Norwich, England,
are accused of murdering a Christian child in what
is believed to be the first ritual murder charge.
The blood libel, as well as others in England that
follow in the 12th century, incites anti-Jewish
||Benjamin of Toledo, The Itinerary of Benjamin
||Benjamin of Toledo writes of 40,000 Jews living
complete with 28 synagogues and 10 Torah academies.
(1138-1193) overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
||Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from Crusaders grants
Jews permission to re-enter.
|March 16, 1190
over 150 die after a six day standoff in York, England.
||Approximately 2,500 Jews live in England, enjoing
more rights than Jews on the continent.
||French King Phillip starts the Third Crusade,
cancels debts to Jews, drives many Jews out of France,
confiscates their property.
||Scholar and Jewish leader Moses
Ben Nachman (Nachmanides).
||Moses Maimonides completes The Guide to the
Perplexed, considered the most important work
of medieval Jewish thought.
||A group of 300 rabbis from France and England
settle in Palestine (Eretz Yisrael), beginning what
might be interpreted as Zionist aliyah.
||Pope Innocent III (Christian).
built in Vienna,
a city where Jews enjoyed more freedom than in other
areas of Austria.
||Fourth Lateran Council expands anti-Jewish decrees
in Europe, forces Jews to wear the Yellow Patch,
the "Badge of Shame.
||Deacon Robert of Reading, England, was burned
for converting to Judaism, setting a precedent for
the burning of "heretics".
||Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury and
a prime mover of the Lateran Council, forbids Jews
from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing
|ca. 13th cen.
Zohar (a Jewish kabbalistic book): .
||Death of Genghis Khan (roving Mongol conqueror).
by Christians in Spain.
||The Jewish community of Marrakech, Morocco,
is reestablished, leading to massacres of Jews caused
by Islamic political revolt and grassroots hatred.
||Pope Gregory IX orders the kings of France, England,
Spain and Portugal
to confiscate Hebrew books, Following this edict,
the Talmud is condemned and burned in France and
||Thomas Aquinas (Christian scholar).
||Spanish Kabbalist Abraham Abulafia.
||First accusation of desecration of the Host (the
wafers used is Christian Mass) - the blood libel
- in Berlitz, Germany.
||Rule by Tartars, Mongols, Ayybids, and Mamelukes.
||Pope Innocent IV issued a Bull refuting blood
libels and sent it throughout Germany and France.
||Mamluk Islamic rule (new dynasty) in Egypt.
||Fall of Islamic Abbasid
dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol).