||First Jewish Revolt
||Vespasian gives Yochanan
ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study
at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
||Destruction of Jerusalem
and the second Temple,
||Last stand of Jews at Masada.
||Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the
||Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed
and accepted as sacred scripture.
||Jewish Revolts against Rome
in Cyprus, Egypt and
Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria
are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus.
Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
||Rabbi Akiva active
in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
||Bar Kokhba rebellion
(Second Jewish Revolt).
Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985
villages and 50 fortresses.
||Hadrian renames Jerusalem
Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of
the Second Temple.
He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion
of what is now called the West
Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish
identification with the land of Israel.
||Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's sucessor, repeals many of the previously
instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
||Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively
well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt
from formalities contrary to Judaism.
However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
(Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah
||Because of his health,
Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth
Shearim to Sepphoris.
||Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to
become full Roman citizens.
||Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.
Amoraim, or Mishna
scholars, flourish. The Amoraim's commentary, along with the Mishna,
comprises the Talmud.
||Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights,
including permission to visit Jerusalem.
flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I.
||One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids
intermarriage and social interaction with Jews.
||Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine's
first anti-Jewish act.
||Hillel creates a
new calendar based
on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin,
which previously announced the festivals.
||Hillel founds Beit
Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel,
a descendant of King David,
is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
||Rome sacked by Visigoths.
||Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome.
||Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important
positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the
building of new synagogues.
After conquering Italy
in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding
the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes
and freedom of worship.