Rabbinic Jewish Period of Talmud Development

(70-500 C.E.)


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66-73 First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple,
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues.
ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture.
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses.
136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of the Second Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel.
138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah the Prince.
203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris.
212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.
220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.
220-470

Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim's commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud.

222-235 Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem.
ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I.
306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews.
315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine's first anti-Jewish act.
359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.
370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
410 Rome sacked by Visigoths.
425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome.
426 Babylonian Talmud compiled.
439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of new synagogues.
500

Babylonian Talmud recorded.

After conquering Italy in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship.

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