ROZWÓJ, antisemitic Polish nationalist organization. Rozwój was founded in 1913 as the propaganda wing of the Polish National-Democratic Party (*Endecja), bearing the official name "Organization for the Support of Polish Trade and Industry." Its rise was due to Polish-Jewish tensions in Warsaw after the elections to the Fourth *Duma in 1912, which reached a climax in the announcement of an anti-Jewish boycott (see Róman *Dmowski). The goal of Rozwój was to assure the nationalists' influence on the Polish petite bourgeoisie by means of demagogical propaganda slogans, emphasizing the liberation of the Polish homeland from Jewish and other foreign influences. Apart from the economic areas, the organization was active in publishing tendentious literature and propaganda, such as Rozwój (1918–19) and Gazeta Niedzielna (1924–25). Party membership increased markedly after 1917, and in 1923 reached 80,000. Since it was believed that the assassination of G. Narutowicz, Poland's first president, was partly due to anti-Jewish agitation and popular demonstrations, the government of W. Sikorski ordered a temporary ban on Rozwój's activities at the beginning of 1923. As a result, the party's influence declined somewhat but eventually Rozwój was successful in constantly assuming new forms and remaining a pressure group, largely through urging an anti-Jewish boycott.
I. Schiper et al. (eds.), Żydzi w Polsce odrodzonej, 2 vols. (1932/33).
Sources: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.