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Rule of Rome Timeline (230 BCE-400 CE)

Return to Timeline of Jewish History: Table of Contents

Overview: Roman Rule

ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean.
142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel.
37-4 B.C.E. Herod the Great (Jewish Roman ruler of the land of Israel).
37 B.C.E. Herod captures Jerusalem, has Antigonus II executed, and marries the Hasmonean princess Mariamne I.
20 B.C.E. Herod creates Temple Mount and begins to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. Project continues until 72 C.E..
ca. 4 B.C.E.-ca. 30 C.E. Joshua/Jesus “the Christ.”


Hillel & Shammai (Jewish sages).
6 C.E. Rome establishes direct rule of prefects in Judea.
ca. 13 B.C.E.- 41 C.E. Philo Judaeus of Alexandria.
ca. 30 C.E. Jesus is crucified.
36-64 C.E. Paul “the apostle” (Jewish “Christian”).
ca. 37-100 C.E. Josephus (Jewish leader, historian).
ca. 40 C.E. Gamliel/Gamaliel I (Jewish leader-scholar).
ca. 50-125 C.E. Christian Testament (NT) writings.
66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues.
ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture.
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses.
136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of the Second Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel.
138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah the Prince.
200-254 Origen (Christian scholar, biblical interpreter).
203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris.
212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.
220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.


Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim's commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud.


Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem.

240-276 Rise of Mani/Manichaean World Religion synthesis.
ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I
250-330 Early development of Christian monasticism in Egypt.
263-339 Eusebius (Christian author, historian)
303 Violent persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian.
To 311 Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome.
306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews
312/313 Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity, announces Edict of Toleration
315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine's first anti-Jewish act.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.

Timeline of Jewish History