Kurt Waldheim was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who served two terms as the fourth secretary-general of the United Nations (UN), from 1972 to 1981. He was the elected president of Austria from 1986 to 1992.
Waldheim’s father, a Czech by ethnic origin, changed his name from Waclawik to Waldheim. Kurt Waldheim served in the Austrian army as a volunteer (1936–37) before he began to study for a diplomatic career. He was soon conscripted into the German army, however, and served on the Russian front until 1941, when he was wounded. Waldheim’s later claims that he spent the rest of World War II studying law at the University of Vienna were contradicted by the rediscovery in 1986 of documents suggesting that he had been a German army staff officer stationed in the Balkans from 1942 to 1945.
Waldheim entered the diplomatic service in 1945. He served in Paris (1948–51) and was head of the personnel department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Vienna from 1951 to 1955. He led Austria’s first delegation to the UN (1955) and subsequently represented the country in Canada (1956–60), first as minister plenipotentiary and then as ambassador. After a period as director general for political affairs in the Austrian Foreign Ministry, he became his country’s ambassador to the UN (1964–68, 1970–71). During 1968–70 he served as Austrian foreign minister. After the electoral defeat of the Austrian People’s Party, Waldheim was elected chairman of the Safeguards Committee of the International Atomic Energy Agency. In 1971 he ran for president on the People’s Party ticket but lost.
Waldheim’s UN secretaryship beginning in 1972 was characterized as efficient and ministerial. He oversaw effective and sometimes massive relief efforts in Bangladesh, Nicaragua, the Sudan-Sahel area of Africa, and Guatemala, as well as peacekeeping operations in Cyprus, the two Yemens, Angola, Guinea, and, especially, the Middle East. Waldheim also took a special interest in the future of Namibia and South Africa. He was reelected in 1976 despite some opposition from less-developed countries, but a third term was vetoed by the Chinese government in 1981.
In 1986, Waldheim ran once again as the People’s Party candidate for president of Austria. His candidacy became controversial, however, with the revelation that his name appeared on the list of 40,000 suspected Nazi war criminals compiled by the Allied War Crimes Commission during and directly after the war. Documents proved he had been an interpreter and intelligence officer for a German army unit that engaged in brutal reprisals against Yugoslav partisans and civilians and deported most of the Jewish population of Salonika (Thessaloníki), Greece, to Nazi death camps in 1943. Waldheim admitted that he had not been candid about his past but disclaimed all knowledge of or participation in wartime atrocities. He won election to the Austrian presidency in June 1986 for a six-year term.
The controversy over his wartime activities did not go away, however, and an international commission of historians was appointed in 1988 to investigate. Its final report found “no proof” that Waldheim committed war crimes. It did, however, accuse him of concealing and lying about his wartime activities. A Belgian member of the commission, Jan van Welkhuizen, said he believed Waldheim played a significant role in the deportation of about 63,000 Yugoslav civilians, including 23,000 children. Manfred Messerschmidt, a West German historian, said Waldheim “knew his unit committed war crimes” and that the commission concluded unanimously that Waldheim could be considered “an accomplice.”
As a result of the allegations regarding his wartime behavior, he was a rather isolated figure on the international scene. Consequently, he chose not to run for a second term in 1992. The “Waldheim affair” triggered a fundamental debate in Austria about the country’s past during World War II.
Kurt Waldheim, Encyclopaedia Britannica, (December 29, 2017);
“Panel Finds ‘No Proof’ Waldheim Committed War Crimes, but Says He Lied About His War Record,” JTA, (February 9, 1988).