Zionism: Hibbat Zion
Hibbat Zion was a pre-Zionist movement, beginning in the 1880s, advocating revival of Jewish life in the Land. Its adherents worked toward the physical development of the Land, and founded agricultural settlements in Palestine. By the time the First Zionist Congress met in 1897, they had already begun to transform the face of the Land. Herzl, though, saw the aim of the Zionist movement as a charter for a Jewish national entity in the Land of Israel rather than its development through piecemeal settlement.