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Saudi Arabia: The “Islamic Affairs Department” of the Saudi Embassy in Washington, D.C.

by Steven Stalinsky

Saudi Arabia's embassy in Washington, D.C. recommends the homepage of its Islamic Affairs Department (IAD) to Americans who want to learn about Islam and Muslims. [1] The website,, [2] contains hundreds of pages of information about Islam and is linked via the Internet to branches of the Saudi government worldwide, including embassies in London [3] and Rome. [4]

Officials of the Saudi government working at the IAD in Washington, D.C. and its worldwide offices have been mentioned in media reports in 2002 and 2003 for suspected connections with terrorist activities. [5] During the past week, it was reported that the FBI has subpoenaed records and documents of Saudi government bank accounts in the U.S., including accounts from the IAD. [6]

The website of the IAD is divided into the following subjects: Islam, Qur'an, Pillars, Sunna, Multimedia, and Languages. The center of the homepage has an interactive section titled "What is the religion of Islam?" which opens to a content list of the website, with the following subjects: Allah, Faith, Rights, Women, Islamic Law, Tolerance, War, and Human Rights. The front page of the IAD's website displays the official flag of the Saudi government, which bears a sword beneath the Muslim creed: "There is no God but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." [7] The IAD states, " Islam is not, as some imagine in the West, a religion of the sword nor did it spread primarily by means of war. " [8]

This report focuses on how the following topics are presented by the IAD of the Saudi Embassy in Washington, D.C.: Jihad and Martyrdom, Teaching Islam's Superiority over Christianity and Judaism, Rights in Islam of Dhimmis (non-Muslims under Muslim rule), the Punishment of Non-Believers, the Superiority of Polygamy in Islam to Western Monogamy, and the Rights of Women.

The website contains information that is anti-Western in general and anti-American in particular. In one instance for example, the IAD states, " Today's false idols, which dominate over the entire world, are Democracy, Capitalism, Socialism and Communism. Islam instead calls for a Khilafa (Caliphate) based on consultation, and a just economic system based on Zakat and a prohibition of usury. " [9]

The website also contains many documents answering Western criticism of Saudi Arabia and Islam. One example states, " Islam is not a terrorist group as the stereotype would have one believe… We are told that Muslims are terrorists, barbaric and what not. But let us recall what the Christian authorities did… [10] over 12 million people were put to death through the authority of the 'Inquisitions.' Such barbaric act has never been committed by any Islamic authority in the history of Islam. Where was the media then and where are they now - let us judge. Who is barbaric, who chops heads?…" [11]

All material in this report appears in its original English as published by the IAD.

Part I: Jihad, Martyrdom, & The Rewards of the Martyr

The IAD explains the concepts of Jihad and martyrdom in Islam. Excerpts from the Qur'an and Hadiths are provided as evidence to foster these concepts in the contemporary Muslim world.

'The Muslims are Required to Raise the Banner of Jihad in Order to Make the Word of Allah Supreme in this World'

The IAD explains that any system opposed to Islam must be fought by Jihad: "The Muslims are required to raise the banner of Jihad in order to make the Word of Allah supreme in this world, to remove all forms of injustice and oppression, and to defend the Muslims. If Muslims do not take up the sword, the evil tyrants of this earth will be able to continue oppressing the weak and [the] helpless…" [12]

Hadiths Exalting Jihad & Martyrdom

The IAD cites many Hadiths on the importance of martyrdom as well as the rewards of the martyrs in order to inspire Muslims. Among these are some of the most widely associated with Jihad:

"Narrated Anas: Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said: 'A man from among [the] people of Paradise will be brought forward. Allah will ask him: 'O Son of Adam! How did you find your home?' He will reply: 'O my Lord! It is the best home,' then Allah will say: 'Ask and wish anything you like.' The man will say: 'I would ask You to send me back to the world in order to be killed in Your way ten times.' (This is because of the superiority of the martyrdom and the high position which martyrs would have in heaven)… We are alive in Paradise where we are provided with sustenance, so that they would neither renounce fighting in the way of Allah nor retreat at the time of war… " [13]

"Narrated Ibn 'Umar : The Prophet (pbuh) said: 'Whoever of My slaves comes out to fight in My way seeking My pleasure, I guarantee him that I will compensate his suffering with reward and booty (during his lifetime) and if he dies, I would forgive him, have mercy on him and let him enter Paradise.'" [14]

"Narrated Masruq: We asked 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud about this verse: 'Think not of those who have been killed in the way of Allah as dead; rather as alive at their Lord sustained.' [15] He 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud said: 'We asked the Prophet (pbuh) the meaning of this verse. So he explained it like this: Their souls are in… some green birds beside lanterns suspended from the divine throne roaming freely in the Paradise where ever they like. Then they take shelter at those lanterns. Once their Lord looked at them and said: 'Do you want anything else?' They said: 'What more shall we want? We roam freely in Paradise as we like.' Allah asked them the same question three times. When they felt that they would not be spared from being asked, they said: 'O Lord! We like you to put back our souls into our bodies so that we may be killed in Your way once again.' As Allah saw that they had no wish, they would be let for joy in heaven.'" [16]

The Rewards of the Martyrs

According to Islamic tradition, those who are killed waging Jihad are rewarded in the afterlife. The IAD of the Saudi Embassy in Washington, D.C. cites Hadiths to describe what happens when a believer wages Jihad and commits martyrdom:

"Narrated Anas bin Malik that Allah's Messenger said: 'Allah has made in Paradise a wide valley in which He has created dunes of white musk. When it is Friday, Allah descends to it. The pulpits of gold are kept thin there for the prophets and chairs made of pearl are arranged for the martyrs and the maidens with big lustrous eyes will get down from their upstairs rooms. They all praise Allah and glorify Him.' The Prophet said: 'Then Allah will say: 'Cloth My slaves.' So they will be dressed. He will say: 'Feed My slaves.' So they will be fed. He will say: 'Make them drink.' So they will be made to drink. He will say: 'Perfume My slaves.' So they will be perfumed. Then He will ask: 'What do you want?' They will say: 'O our Lord! We want Your pleasure.' The Prophet said: 'Allah will say: 'I am pleased with you.' Then He will order them to disperse. So they will deport. And the maidens with big lustrous eyes ascend to the upstairs rooms. Which are made of green emerald and red ruby.'" [17]

"Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said: 'When your brethren were killed as martyrs in the battle of Uhud, Allah put their souls into some green birds which arrived at the rivers of Paradise, ate from its fruits and took shelter beside lanterns, made of gold, and suspended in the shade of the divine Throne. When they enjoyed eating, drinking and sleeping, they said: 'Who will convey to our brethren on earth that; (we are alive in Paradise where we are provided with sustenance, so that they would neither renounce fighting in the way of Allah nor retreat at the time of war).' Allah, the Glorified, said: 'I shall inform them of you.'" [18]

Part II: Teaching Islam's Superiority Over Christianity and Judaism

Islam Is The Universal and Final Message: Christianity and Judaism Are Not Acceptable

The IAD explains: "It is our opinion that whoever claims that any religion other than Islam is acceptable, such as Judaism, Christianity and so forth, is a non believer. He should be asked to repent. It is also our opinion that whoever rejects the universal message of Muhammad, (pbuh), rejects the message of all messengers, even if he claims that he believes and follows His Messenger." [19]

Verses from the Qur'an are cited to explain the Muslims' superiority over Christians and Jews: "Allah does not accept any other religion from anyone, for He, the Exalted, said: 'Surely, the true religion according to Allah is Islam…" [20] Another verse states, "Whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted from Him, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers." [21]

A Hadith is used by the IAD to clarify who is a believer and who is a non-believer: "This is also clear from the following verses: 'Those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers, and wish to make division between Allah and His Messengers, and say: 'We believe in some and disbelieve in others,' wishing to take a midway course. Those indeed are the unbelievers, and We have prepared for the unbelievers a humiliating punishment.'" [22] The IAD adds, "We believe that the Muslim Ummah is the best among nations, and Allah, the Dignified and Exalted, has blessed it, because He said: 'You are the best nation ever brought forth for mankind, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah, The Prophet's Companions.'" [23]

The Qur'an Abrogated All Previous Religious Scriptures (The Torah and the Gospels)

According to the IAD, the Qur'an "abrogated all previous revealed books" [24] such as the Torah and the Gospels: "We believe it is obligatory to take the texts of the Qur'an and the prophetic traditions conceding Allah's attributes at their face value and to interpret them in a way that is suitable to Almighty Allah. We reject the practice of those who twist the meanings of these texts and understand them in a way that was not intended by Allah and His messenger. We also reject the practice of those who make them devoid of their meanings as conveyed by Allah and His Messenger." [25] The IAD cites a series of Qur'anic verses to conclude, "By means of the Qur'an, Allah abrogated all the previous revealed books." [26]

The Qur'an Exposed the Distortions and Revisions of the Torah and the Gospels

According to the IAD, "The previous scriptures were meant for a limited period. Their use ended with the revelation of the Qur'an, which abrogated them and exposed their distortions and changes… They underwent distortion, addition, and omission: 'Some of the Jews pervert words from their meanings.'" [27] The IAD cites additional Qur'anic verses as further evidence: "So woe to those who write the Book with their hands, and then say: 'This is from Allah,' that they may sell it for a little price. So woe to them for what their hands have written, and woe to them for their earnings." [28] Regarding Jews and Christians, the IAD explains, "there is a group among them who twist their tongues with The Book, that you may think it is a part of The Book but it is not part of The Book. And they say 'It is from Allah,' yet it is not from Allah, and they tell a lie against Allah and they know it.'" [29]

The Disobedience of Jews and Christians

The IAD also cites a verse from the Qur'an that says most Jews and Christians are disobedient in their religious beliefs: "You [Muslims] are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind… Had the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them; among them are some who have Faith, but most of them are disobedient to Allah and rebellious against Allah's Command." [30]

Christians, according to a Qur'anic verse cited by the IAD, made a mistake that amounts to blasphemy: "Indeed they do blaspheme who say that Allah is Christ the son of Mary. But Christ said: 'O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord… Whoever joins other gods with Allah - Allah will forbid him Heaven, and the Fire [meaning Hell] will be his abode. And there will be no-one to help the wrong-doers.'" [31]

The IAD also attacks rabbis and monks for perverting Judaism and Christianity by citing a verse from the Qur'an: "They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allah), and (they also took as their lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded (in the Torah and the Gospel) to worship none but One Ilah (God i.e., Allah), La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshiped but He)." [32]

'Any Form of Worship That Does Not Conform To Islam Is Not Valid'

According to the IAD, only prayers of Muslims are of value: "From… Qur'anic injunctions we can conclude that any form of worship that does not conform to Islam is not valid. Any prayer outside Islamic teachings becomes useless because Allah will never accept it… W hen Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it (the news of the coming of Prophet Muhammad and the religious knowledge) known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed the worst is that which they bought." [33]

Part III: Rights of Non-Muslim 'Dhimmi' Under Islam

Islamic Law on the Status of Minorities

Non-Muslims living under Muslim rule should follow certain Islamic laws and regulations relating to them. The term "Dhimmi" is defined by the IAD as follows: "Dhimmis are the group most eligible for rights, because they live in an Islamic territory and under the protection of the Muslims, besides the Jizya (head-tax set by Islamic law on Non-Muslims under Muslim rule) they pay to the public treasury… The leader of the Muslims is under strict obligation to provide protection to them and shield them against any sort of potential or actual harm that may befall them." [34]

The IAD adds, "It is one function of Islamic law to protect the privileged status of minorities, and this is why non-Muslim places of worship have flourished all over the Islamic world. [35] History provides many examples of Muslim tolerance towards other faiths…" [36]

'Dhimmi Must Be Discriminated'; Christians May not Display any 'Abominable' Crosses

According to the IAD, "Dhimmis must be discriminated from Muslims in their attire. They are not allowed to display any abominable deed or gesture that could go in conflict with Islam such as the cross or bell. Observation of the above mentioned rules promotes amity among Muslims and removes all traces of enmity and hatred." [37]

The IAD clarifies who is a non-Muslim, and the rights they are entitled to: "The term 'non-Muslim' comprises all disbelievers. They can be classified into four categories: hostile non-Muslims, non-Muslims seeking asylum in an Islamic environment, covenanted non-Muslims and Dhimmis (non-Muslims living among the Muslims and paying Jizya)." [38]

The IAD cites a verse from the Qur'an to explain how non-Muslims should be treated by Muslims: "Hostile non-Muslims have no right to protection, whatsoever. Non-Muslims seeking refuge and security in an Islamic territory have the right to full protection, and here Allah says: 'And if anyone of the Mushrikin (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbeliveers) seek your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an)…'" [39]

Another verse is cited by the IAD, adding the following: "The covenantee non-Muslims have the right to holding us committed to honor the covenant we entered with them so long as they commit themselves to the articles of the agreement, and neither conspire against us nor slander our religion. Allah says: 'Except those of the Mushrikin with whom you have a treaty… So fulfill their treaty to them to the end of its term…' But Allah Almighty goes on saying: 'But if they violate their oaths after they signed the covenant, and attack your religion with disapproval and criticism, then fight the leaders of disbelief… [40] for surely their oaths are nothing to them.'" [41]

Those Who Disobey a Muslim Ruler Should be Punished by Beheading

The IAD also cites the Qur'an as an authoritative source on the obligations of those living under Islamic law, including Muslims, to obey authority: "The Noble Prophet (pbuh) said: 'It is obligatory upon a Muslim to listen and obey (to the authority) whether he likes it or not; except when he is asked to do something that implies disobedience (to Allah and His Messenger); when he is asked [to commit] a sinful act then he is under no obligation to hear or obey. Therefore the person who desires to be immune from the Fire [meaning, Hell] and to enter Paradise should face his death believing in Allah and the Day of Judgement, and should deal with others in the same way as he wishes to be dealt with. One who has already taken oath of allegiance to one leader (Imam) and has committed his hand and heart to him, should obey him as much as may be possible for him. If somebody else opposes and contests the authority of that leader (Imam), the said opponent should be beheaded." [42]

Part IV: The Punishment of Those Who Do Not Believe in Islam

'The Fire Will Burn Their Faces, and They Will Grin With Displaced Lips'

On multiple occasions the IAD discusses the rewards of believers and punishment of non-believers, as described in the Qur'an: "We believe in paradise and hell. Paradise is the abode of enjoyment which Allah, the Exalted, prepared for the righteous… Hell is the abode of punishment that Allah has prepared for the unbelievers and the evildoers. The torture and horror in it cannot be imagined: 'Surely, we have prepared for the evildoers a fire... If they call for help, they will be helped with water like molten copper which will scald their faces. How dreadful a drink and how evil a resting place!'" [43]

According to the IAD, the Qur'an further explains the agony of death for unbelievers: "We likewise confirm hell to whom it is confirmed in the Qur'an… that is based on description includes every unbeliever, polytheist, or hypocrite. What Happens in the Grave: The believer will say: 'Allah is my Lord, Islam is my religion, and Muhammad is my prophet." The unbeliever or the hypocrite will say: 'I do not know. I heard the people saying something and I said it.' We believe in the punishment of the grave for the transgressing unbelievers: "If you could only see when the evildoers are in the agonies of death and the angels are stretching out their hands, saying, 'Give up your souls! Today you shall be rewarded with the punishment of humiliation for what you used to say untrue about Allah, and for scornfully rejecting His signs.'" [44]

The punishment of hell for those who do not believe in Islam is explained as follows: "From every 100 persons, 99 persons will go to Hell… Those on their way to hell are called 'hypocrites' who are broken down into 6 categories: There are six aspects of hypocrisy in belief: 1. To belie the Messenger (Muhammad) 2. To belie some or all that was brought by the Messenger (Muhammad). (e.g. the Qur'an, the Sunna, laws and principles of Islam). 3. To hate the Messenger (Muhammad) 4. To hate some or all that was brought by the Messenger (Muhammad).e.g. Islamic monotheism, etc. 5. To feel happy at the disgrace of, or setback for, the religion of Allah's Messenger (Muhammad) 6. To dislike that the religion of Allah's Messenger (Islamic Monotheism) becomes victorious (not being pleased at the victory of Islam). 'The hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire.'" [45]

"Whoever opens his heart to dis-belief," the IAD explains, "on them is Allah's wrath and they shall have a severe punishment." [46] The IAD elaborates that those who believe in Islam are rewarded greatly, while those who do not will receive a tremendous punishment, such as fire burning off the non-believer's face. For example, the following Qur'anic verse is cited: "Those whose scales (of good deeds) are light, they are those who lose their ownselves; in Hell they abide. The Fire will burn their faces, and they will grin with displaced lips (disfigured)." [47] On another occasion, the IAD explains that, "disbelief is the rejection of any of the pillars of Islamic faith…" [48]

Part V: Polygamy Under Islam is Superior to the Monogamy of the West

In American Society Men Often Leave Wives for Prostitutes

Polygamy, according to the IAD of Saudi Arabia's Washington, D.C. embassy, is superior to the monogamy of the West: "The religion of Islam was revealed for all societies and all times and accommodates widely differing social requirements. Circumstances may warrant the taking of another wife but the right is granted, according to the Qur'an, only on condition that the husband is scrupulously fair." [49]

The IAD relates to the creation of marriage in early Christianity by explaining the following: "Monogamy was introduced into Christianity at the time of Paul when many revisions took place in Christianity. This was done in order for the church to conform to the Greco-Roman culture where men were monogamous but owned many slaves who were free for them to use: in other words, unrestricted polygyny. [50] Early Christians invented ideas that women were 'full of sin' and man was better off to 'never marry.' Since this would be the end of mankind these same people compromised and said 'marry only one.'" [51]

Marriage in the contemporary U.S. is described by the IAD as follows: "In the American society many times when relations between husband and wife are strained, the husband simply deserts his wife. Then he cohabits with a prostitute or other immoral woman without marriage. Actually there are three kinds of polygyny practiced in Western societies: (1) serial polygyny, that is, marriage, divorce, marriage, divorce and so on any number of times; (2) marriage to one woman but having and supporting one or more mistresses; (3) remaining unmarried and having a number of mistresses. Islam condones but discourages the first and forbids the other two." [52]

"Monogamy Protects Men, Allowing Them to 'Play Around'"

The IAD further criticizes the behavior of Western men: " Some Western men take the position that monogamy protects the rights of women. But are these men really concerned with the rights of women? The society has so many practices which exploit and suppress women, leading to women's liberation movements from the suffragettes of the early twentieth century to the feminists of today. The truth of the matter is that monogamy protects men, allowing them to 'play around' without responsibility. Easy birth control and easy legal abortion has opened the door of illicit sex to woman and she has been lured into the so-called sexual revolution. But she is still the one who suffers the trauma of abortion and the side effects of the birth control methods. Taking aside the plagues of venereal disease, herpes and AIDS, the male continues to enjoy himself free of worry. Men are the ones protected by monogamy while women continue to be victims of men's desires. Polygyny is very much opposed by the male dominated society because it forces men to face up to responsibility and fidelity. It forces them to take responsibility for their polygynous inclinations and protects and provides for women and children." [53]

In order to avoid the mistakes of the West, Muslim men are advised by the IAD to: "... Marry women of your choice, two, or three, or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (a captive) that your right hands possess…" [54] This verse from the Qur'an allows a man to marry more than one woman but only if he can deal justly with them.

In the U.S. Monogamy has Ruined the Family: 'The (American) Male is Very Polygynous, Getting Away with Not Taking Responsibility for Families'

The IAD further details how the U.S. has been weakened by monogamy: "The present Western society, which permits free sex between consenting adults, has given rise to an abundance of irresponsible sexual relationships, an abundance of 'fatherless' children, many unmarried teenage mothers; all becoming a burden on the country's welfare system. In part, such an undesirable welfare burden has given rise to a bloated budget deficit which even an economically powerful country like the United States cannot accommodate… In short, we find that artificially established monogamy has become a factor in ruining the family structure, and the social, economic and political systems of the country." [55]

Unlike the West, the IAD explains, "Islam wants people to be married and to develop a good family structure. Also Islam realizes the requirements of the society and the individual in special circumstances where polygyny can be the solution to problems. Therefore, Islam allows polygyny, limiting the number of wives to four… In the Muslim societies of our times, polygyny is not frequently practiced despite legal permission in many countries. On the other hand, it appears that the (American) male is very polygynous, getting away with not taking responsibility for the families for which he should be responsible." [56]

Part VI: The Rights of Women

Rights of a Husband over his Wives

Qur'anic verses and Hadiths are used by the IAD to explain the rights a husband has over his wives: [57] "The husband's rights on his wife are greater than hers over him." Another source states, "Men have a supervisory authority on account of the physical advantage they possess…" [58] It is also stated, "When the husband calls his wife to his bed and she disobeys, and he spends the night in anger against her, the angels keep cursing her till the morning." [59] In addition, "If a woman dies while her husband was pleased with her," it is explained that "she will enter into Paradise." [60]

American Law is Consistent with a Muslim Husband's Right to Strike His Wife

The IAD explains that the Qur'an [61] authorizes a husband to beat his "disobedient wife." Like many sources in modern Islamic history, the IAD tries – by basing its interpretation on Hadith – to explain this authority as limited in circumstances as well as in harshness (i.e. limited to use of small, unharmful methods, such as beating with a toothpick). [62]

If a woman does not follow authority, the IAD explains at what point men are allowed to discipline her: "The maximum disciplining measure is limited by the following: a) It must be seen as a rare exception to the repeated exhortation of mutual respect, kindness and good treatment. Based on the Qur'an and Hadith. This disciplining measure may be used in the case of lewdness on the part of the wife or extreme refraction and rejection of the husband's reasonable requests on a consistent basis. Even then other measures such as exhortation should be tried first. b) As defined by the Hadith, it is not permissible to strike anyone's face, cause any bodily harm or even be harsh. What the Hadith qualified as 'dharban ghayra mubarrih' or light beating, was interpreted by early jurists as a (symbolical) use of the 'miswak' (a small natural toothbrush)." [63]

"They [qualify] the permissible 'beating' as beating that leaves no mark on the body. It is interesting that this latter fourteen centuries old [Hadith] is the criterion used in contemporary American law to separate a light and harmless tap or strike from 'abuse' in the legal sense. This makes it clear that even this extreme, last resort… that may save the marriage does not meet the definitions of 'physical abuse,' 'family violence,' or 'wife battering' in the twentieth century laws in liberal democracies, where such extremes are commonplace that they are seen as national concerns." [64]

*Steven Stalinsky is Executive Director of MEMRI.

[1] The website's introduction states, "Welcome to the Religion of Islam page brought to you by the Islamic Affairs Department at the Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia."

[2] In the quotes referenced throughout this report, there are inconsistencies and inaccuracies in spelling and grammar. These are from the material that is on the IAD website, and not an oversight by the author and editors of this report.



[5] Beginning in November of 2002, it was reported that the wife of Saudi Ambassador to the U.S. Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Princess Haifa, gave money through the IAD which made its way to two of the Saudi 9/11 hijackers. (MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 444 – November 28, 2003, "Osama Basnan to 'Al-Sharq Al-Awsat': Saudi Ambassador's Wife Helped My Wife With A Monthly Check for Medical Treatment; I Have Not Seen Al-Mihdhar or Al-Hazimi."). A Saudi diplomat based in the IAD branch of the Saudi consulate in Los Angeles was expelled from the U.S. in May 2003 because of reported links to terrorist elements (Los Angeles Times, November 17, 2003, 'Saudi Cash Scrutinized by U.S. for Terror Ties,' by Josh Meyer), while a Saudi diplomat stationed in the IAD of Berlin has also been tied to planners of the attacks of 9/11 (Wall Street Journal, 'Muslim Missionary: How a Diplomat from Saudi Arabia Spread His Faith,' by David Crawford, September 10, 2003).

[6] Washington Post, November 23, 2003, "Bank Data for Saudi Embassy Subpoenaed; "Los Angeles Times, November 17, 2003, "Saudi Cash Scrutinized by U.S. for Terror Ties."

[7] The official emblem of the Saudi royal family similarly consists of two crossed swords, symbolizing "justice and strength rooted in faith," in between a date palm.

[8] IAD website: "Prophet Muhammad."

[9] IAD website: "Why do We Pray?"

[10] The IAD cites a book by Misha'al ibn Abdullah, titled "What Did Jesus Really Say." In his book Misha'al states that: 'A single decree of the Trinitarian Church in 1568 would later condemn 3 million men and women of the Netherlands to the scaffold as heretics.' For more on this book, see

[11] IAD website: "Islam and the West."

[12] IAD website: "Why do We Pray?"

[13] IAD website: "100 Hadith Qudsi." This Hadith is credited to "An-Nasa'i."

[14] IAD website: "100 Hadith Qudsi." This Hadith is credited to "Musnad of Ahmad."

[15] The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 3:169.

[16] IAD website: "100 Hadith Qudsi." This Hadith is credited to "Al-Bukhari."

[17] IAD website: "100 Hadith Qudsi." This Hadith is credited to "Musnad of Abi Yala."

[18] IAD website: "100 Hadith Qudsi." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 3:169.

[19] IAD website: "Rationale and Benefits of Salat (Islamic Prayer)." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 26:105.

[20] IAD website: "Rationale and Benefits of Salat (Islamic Prayer)." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 3:19.

[21] IAD website: "Rationale and Benefits of Salat (Islamic Prayer)." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 3:85.

[22] IAD website: "Rationale and Benefits of Salat (Islamic Prayer)." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 4:150-51.

[23] IAD website: "Rationale and Benefits of Salat (Islamic Prayer)."

[24] IAD website: "Faith: The Muslim's Belief."

[25] IAD website: "Faith: The Muslim's Belief."

[26] IAD website: "Faith: The Muslim's Belief." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 5:44, 5:46, and 3:50.

[27] IAD website: "Faith: The Muslim's Belief." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 4:46.

[28] IAD website: "Faith: The Muslim's Belief." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 2:79.

[29] IAD website: "Faith: The Muslim's Belief."

[30] IAD website: "Negative Qualities of Mankind in the Holy Qur'an." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 3:110.

[31] IAD website: "The Greatest Injustice." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 5:72.

[32] IAD website: "Polytheism." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 9:31.

[33] IAD website: "Negative Qualities of Mankind in the Holy Qur'an." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 3:187.

[34] IAD Website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights Due to Non Muslims"

[35] According to a March 10, 2003 interview with the Saudi daily Okaz, Saudi Defense Minister Prince Sultan discussed the issue of the presence of churches in Saudi Arabia: "Those who talked [about churches in Saudi Arabia] are church people and they are, unfortunately, fanatics. We are not against religions at all... but there are no churches - not in the past, the present or future, and I am saying this and I am responsible for what I say." Associated Press, March 12, 2003.

[36] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights Due to Non Muslims."

[37] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights Due to Non Muslims."

[38] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights Due to Non Muslims."

[39] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights Due to Non Muslims." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 9:12.

[40] This refers to the leaders of the pagan Quraish tribe of Mecca.

[41] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights Due to Non Muslims." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 9:12.

[42] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature - The Rights of the Rulers and the Ruled Ones." This Hadith is credited to "Muslim."

[43] IAD website: "The Muslim's Belief." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 18:29.

[44] IAD website: "The Muslim's Belief." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 6:93.

[45] IAD website: "Hypocrisy." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 4:145.

[46] IAD website: " Negative Qualities of Mankind in the Holy Qur'an." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 16:106.

[47] IAD website: "Polytheism." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 23:101-108.

[48] IAD website: "Disbelief."

[49] IAD website: "Women in Islam."

[50] Polygamy is defined as having more than one spouse at the same time. Polygyny is defined as a husband having more than one wife at the same time. The IAD uses both terms, but the term polygamy is still used by the IAD to refer only to multiple wives.

[51] IAD website: "Who Practices Polygyny."

[52] IAD website: "Who Practices Polygyny."

[53] IAD website: "Who Practices Polygyny."

[54] IAD website: "Who Practices Polygyny." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 4:3.

[55] IAD website: "Who Practices Polygyny."

[56] IAD website: "Who Practices Polygyny."

[57] In Saudi Arabia today, women are denied certain rights and privileges afforded to male citizens. Women are denied the right to drive a car, to obtain a state identification without the consent and presence of a male guardian, or to travel outside the country without the permission a male guardian.

[58] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights of Both Spouses on Each Other."

[59] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights of Both Spouses on Each Other." The IAD cites Qur'anic verse 4:129.

[60] IAD website: "Rights Dictated by Nature: Rights of Both Spouses on Each Other."

[61] The IAD cites Sura 4, Verse 34 of the Qur'an.

[62] IAD website: "Women in Islam."

[63] IAD website: "Gender Equity in Islam."

[64] IAD website: "Gender Equity in Islam." The IAD cites Chapter 4, verse 34, of the Qur'an.

Sources: MEMRI