LUENEBURG, city in Germany. The mention of a Judenstrasse in 1288 indicates that Jews were living there earlier. They maintained a synagogue and mikveh in the 14th century. The Jews dealt in moneylending and were under the protection of the dukes of Lueneburg. In 1350, during the *Black Death, the Jews were massacred, only a few managing to escape despite the feeble attempt of the duke to protect them. The houses of the Jews were subsequently sold by the duke to the very burghers who had participated in the massacre. By the late 14th century, Jews were again living in Lueneburg. Community life was repeatedly interrupted by expulsions in the 16th century (1510, 1553, and 1591). Jacob, son of Leffmann Behrends (the Hanover *Court Jew), was allowed to settle there in 1680; a number of *Schutzjuden were subsequently permitted to reside there. The Jewish population increased slowly from 27 in 1811 to 145 in 1910. Between 1927 and 1930 the large synagogue, consecrated in 1894, was repeatedly desecrated and bombed by local antisemites and Nazis. By Oct. 1, 1936, only 36 Jews remained and on Oct. 30, 1938, final services were conducted in the synagogue which was then closed down. During World War II, 11 Jews were deported and lost their lives.
Germ Jud, 2 (1968), 498–501.
Sources: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.