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Einbeck, Germany

EINBECK (Heb. איינבכא, איימביק), town in Lower Saxony (formerly in Hanover), Germany. Several Jews were burned there at the stake about the year 1298. A Jewish street and synagogue in Einbeck are first mentioned in 1355. An "old" Jewish cemetery is referred to in 1454. The Jews were expelled from Einbeck around 1579 at the instance of a pastor, Johann Velius. They made several attempts to return, and are again mentioned in Einbeck in 1667. They were granted letters of protection in 1673 and 1678, and although these were opposed by the local inhabitants the duke refused to withdraw them. In 1718 the elector of Hanover, George I of England, restricted further Jewish settlement in Einbeck and few Jews were authorized to reside there in the 18th century. The number of Jewish families increased from nine in 1806–13 to 16 in 1816, and 139 persons in 1880 (2.04% of the total population). A new synagogue was dedicated in 1896. It was destroyed by the Nazis in 1938. Around 60 Jews remained in Einbeck in 1933. About half emigrated and most of the others were deported to the east. In 1968 there were two Jewish residents.

Sources:W. Feise, Zur Geschichte der Juden in Einbeck (1901); Germ Jud, 2 (1968), 194–7; Salfeld, Martyrol, 163–4; MGADJ, 2 (1910), 78, 88, 91; FJW, 138; F. Bertram, Verloren, aber nicht vergessen. Juedisches Leben in Einbeck (1998).

Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.