Baal Shem Tov (founder of Jewish Hasidism).
population in America numbers
||Jonathan Edwards (American Christian
|1703-1791 and 1707-1788
||John and Charles Wesley (Christian).
||First public Jewish synagogue
||Jews build first North American synagogue
in Lower Manhattan, Shearith Israel.
grants naturalization rights to Jews
in the colonies.
||Wahhabi "fundamentalist" movement
arises in Islam.
||Parliament extends naturalization rights
to Jews resident in England.
||First English prayer
book for High Holidays is published
in New York.
||The Jews of Newport, Rhode Island,
synagogue, designed by leading Rhode
Island architect Peter Harrison.
||"Father of Reform
[Judaism]," Israel Jacobson.
||Pius VI issues Editto sopra gli ebrei, "Edict
over the Hebrew," suppressing the
||Frances Salomon elected to South
Carolina Provisional Congress;
the first Jew to hold elected office
||United States Declaration of Independence.
||America merchant and philanthropist Judah
Touro, funded first New Orleans
Mendelssohn (Jewish "enlightenment"
||Although usually considered more liberal than
other states, Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews
Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating
"no person who is not of the Christian religion
can be admitted free to this colony."
holds the last public Auto de Fe "Act
of Faith," a ceremony where the Inquisition
announces its punishments, usually a
death sentence of burning at the stake.
||American Revolution; religious freedom
||Joseph II of Austria recinds the 513-year
old law requiring Jews to wear distinctive
Solomon, a Polish Jew who arrived
in New York in 1772, helps raise
funds to finance the American cause
in the Revolutionary War.
||American philanthropist Rebecca
||The Sultan of Morocco
expells the Jews for the third time in
recent years after they failed to
pay an exorbitant ransom.
journalist and and diplomat, Mordechai
||Ratification of the U.S. Constitution
means Jews may hold any federal office.
||Leading Jewish philanthropist, Sir
Moses Montefiore, createed numerous
agricultural settlements in Eretz
Mendes Seixas, minister of New
York's Jewish congregation, is invited
to Washington's inaugural.
||Jews of Newport, Rhode Island welcome
President George Washington. George
Washington writes letter to Jewish community
proclaiming religious liberty.
|September 27, 1791
||French Jews granted full citizenship
for the first time since the Roman Empire.
confines Jews to Pale
of Settlement, between the Black
and Baltic Seas.
||First American Ashkenazi
synagogue, Rodeph Shalom, is established
grants citizenship to Jews.
||Napoleon, battle of the Pyramids in
||Napoleon's army moves from Egypt, capturing Haifa
and gets as far north as Akko
which is successfully defended by the
||Muslim Wahhabis capture Mecca & Medina,
||The first American Jewish orphan care
society established in Charleston, South
||English Statesman Benjamin
||Polonies Talmud Torah, the first Jewish
school on record in the United States
established in New York.
||"Brains of the Confederacy," Judah
|March 11, 1812
||Prussia's Edict of Emancipation grants
citizenship to Jews.
author, socialist and Zionist.
||President Madison appoints Mordechai
Noah as consul to Tunis and then rescinds
the appointment when the Tunisians object
to dealing with a Jew.
||King Ferdinand VII of Portugal reestablishes the
Inquisition six years after it was abolished by
|March 29, 1814
grants citizenship to Jews.
||Although born a Jew, he converted to Protestantism
and later became the father of Communism, Karl
||Rise of the Jewish Reform movement in Europe (Abraham
||Rebecca Gratz establishes the first independent
Jewish women's charitable society in Philadelphia.
||Head of the American Reform movement and founder
of Hebrew Union College and the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations, Isaac
|1820 (ended in 1834)
||A royal decree officially abolished the Spanish
||Well-known physician and early Zionist, Leon
||The Monroe Doctrine closes the American continent
to foreign colonization.
||The first American Jewish periodical, The
Jew, published in New York.
||Society of Reformed Israelites is established
||Mordechai Emmanual Lassalle led a failed movement
to colonize New York's Grand Island for Jewish refugees.
||In the last known Auto Da Fe, in Valencia,
Spain, a poor
school master was executed for adhering to Judaism.
||Reinterpretation of Russia's Conscription Law
mandates 31 years of military service for Jews,
beginning at age 12.
||French occupation of Muslim Algiers.
||German Jews begin to immigrate to America in substantial
|November 30, 1830
grants citizenship to Jews.
||Jewish Impressionist painter, whose works focused
on the streets of Paris and landscapes, Camille
||Louis Philippe of France grants state support
grants citizenship to Jews.
||Although Jews had been living in Jamaica since
1655, they are finally given the right to vote.
||Banker and philanthropist, who donated millions
of dollars to Jewish organizations and attempted
to resettle Eastern European and Russian Jews by
estabishing the Jewish Colonial Association (JCA),
grants Jews political rights.
||The first book by an American Jewish woman, Penina
Moise's Fancy's Sketch Book, published
in South Carolina.
||An earthquake in Tzfat
kills four thousand people and damages monuments
and archeological sites.
Haggadah printed in America.
||Rebecca Gratz establishes Hebrew Sunday School
||Jews are accused of murdering a Franciscan friar
in the Damascus
||First organized movement by American Jewry to
protest false accusations of blood libel in Damascus,
||The first Hebrew printing press in India
||The use of the word "Jew" as a verb
comes into popular parlance in North America. "To
Jew" means to strike a bargain or employ questionable
business practices, according to this prejudicial
Levy Yulee of Florida elected to the United
States Senate, the first Jew in Congress.
||B'nai B'rith is organized, the first secular Jewish
organization in the United States.
Charles Levin was the first Jew elected to the
U.S. House of Representatives.
publishes his translation of the Pentateuch
from the Hebrew into English.
||Zionist leader Baron
Edmond James de Rothschild.
||London elects its first Jewish member of Parliament,
Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild. However, he cannot
be seated as a member of Parliament because he will
not swear the oath of office, which affirms Christianity
as the true faith.
||Author, scholar and leader of the American Conservative
||In every part of Germany,
excluding Bavaria, Jews had been granted granted
civil rights, allowing Gabriel Riesser, a Jewish
advocate, to be elected vice-president of the Frankfurt
Vor Parliament and to become a member of the National
Assembly. The civil rights, however, existed on
paper only and were not enforced.
||American poet whose "New Colossus" was
inscribed on the Statue of Liberty: Emma
||Mount Sinai, the first Jewish Hospital in the
United States is founded by a group of mostly German
||The Ghetto of Prague
is officially abolished.
||Reign of Napoleon III of France.
||Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the
into English, the first complete Anglo-Jewish translation
of the Pentateuch.
||First acknowledged non-Muslim visitor permitted
to enter Temple Mount since 1187 CE.
||Sabato Morais, rabbi of Congregation Mikveh Israel
in Philadelphia, denounces the evils of American
slavery from his pulpit.
Mortara, an Italian Jewish child, is abducted
by Papal Guards and placed in a monastery.
||"Yiddish Mark Twain," famed novelist,
|1859-1941 (Reign 1888-1918)
||Kaiser William II of Germany.
||First neighborhood, Mishkenot
Sha'ananim, built outside Jerusalem's walls.
||Frenchman Adolohe Cremieux launches the Alliance
Israelite Universelle to defend Jewish rights and
establish worldwide Jewish educational facilities.
||Father of Zionism, Theodore
||Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies,
Szold, founder of Hadassah, the Amerian Woman's
||Morris Raphall is the first rabbi
to offer prayers at the opening session of Congress.
allows Jews to enter the country.
||Judah Benjamin becomes attorney general of the
Confederacy, the first Jew to hold a cabinet-level
office in any American government.
||1,200 Jews fought for the Confederacy and 6,000
for the Union, including nine generals and 21 colonels
in the American Civil War.
||Essayist and publicist who headed the Jewish and
Zionist Organization during the 1930s, was editor
of He-Tsefriah and published a history of Zionism,
writes Rome and Jerusalem.
||General Ulysses S. Grant expels
Jewish civilians issues General Order No. 11
expelling the Jews "as a class" from the
area under the jurisdiction of the Union army in
his military department.
||Jacob Frankel is appointed first Jewish chaplain
in the United States Army.
Pinsker writes Autoemancipation and
argues for creation of a Jewish state.
||Jews become a majority in Jerusalem.
a hotbed of anti-Jewish edicts grants Jews equal
rights only after threats by the United States,
France and Britain.
||First rabbinical school in America, Maimonides
College, is founded in Philadelphia.
||The original Ku
Klux Klan is organized to maintain "white
passes legislation emancipating the Jews.
||German journalist Wilhelm Marr publishes a popular
book, The Victory of Judaism over Germanism.
He coins the word "antisemitism"
so that Judenhass, or Jew-hatred, can be discussed
in polite society.
||Benjamin Disraeli becomes prime minister of Great
Britain — and the first prime minister of
Jewish descent in Europe.
||Suez Canal opens.
emancipation to Jews.
grants citizenship to Jews.
||Ghettos abolished in Italy.
||The Edict of Pope Nicholas III which required
compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons
since 1278 is abolished.
newspaper in America is published.
||The the first American kosher cookbook, Jewish
Cookery Book, by Esther Jacobs Levy is published.
||Great Britain grants full emancipation to Jews.
|January 12, 1871
||A new German constitution gives German Jews full
||Reform Judaism in U.S. establishes Union of American
||Poet laureate of the Jewish national movement,
authored "In City of Slaughter," "El
Ha Tsippor-To the Bird" and "Metai Midbar-Dead
of the Desert, Hayim
||Leading theologian of the Reform movement, refused
to escape Nazi Germany and spent five years in Terezin
||Jews in Switzerland receive full rights of citizenship
under the new constitution.
||Eric Weiss, better known as Harry
Houdini, the master escape artist, was born
into an orthodox home.
||Young Men's Hebrew Associations in New York and
Philadelphia become prototypes for the more than
120 YMHAs established throughout the US in the next
15 years. In the 20th century, many of these evolve
into Jewish Community Centers.
||Statesman and scientist Chaim
Mayer Wise founds Hebrew Union College, the
rabbinical seminary of the Reform movement, in Cincinnati.
becomes the last state to offer Jews political equality.
||Petah Tikvah (Gate of Hope) founded as agricultural
colony by orthodox Jews. Although it was abandoned
in 1881 after Arab attacks, it was reestablished
in 1883 after the First
||The antisemitic German Christian Social Party
is founded by Adolf Stoecker, a court chaplain.
The party demands that Jews convert to Christianity.
||Zionist, physicist, Nobel Prize winner and discoverer
of the special and general theory of relativity
||Zionist leader Joseph
||Zionist leader, founder of the New Zionist Organization,
government announces permission for foreign (non-Ottoman)
Jews to settle throughout Ottoman Empire.
||Start of mass migrations of eastern European Jews.
||French occupation of Muslim Tunisia.
Gompers founds the Federation of Unions, the
forerunner of the American Federation of Labor.
||May Laws restricting the movements and conduct
of Jews are enacted in Russia.
||The word "pogrom" enters the English
language, as Russian mobs begin a series of violent
attacks against Jews and their property.
||British occupation of Muslim Egypt.
||First halutz (pioneering) movement, Bilu,
founded in Kharkov Russia.
||Ottoman government adopts policy to allow Jewish
pilgrims and business-people to visit Palestine,
but not settle.
Tzion societies founded.
||First Conference of Hovevei
||Ottoman government closes Palestine to foreign
(non-Ottoman) Jewish business, but not to Jewish
||Reform Jewish Pittsburgh
||Scientist who developed the theory on the nature
of the atom, rescued from Nazi
||Sir Nathaniel Meyer Rothschild becomes the first
Jew in England's in the House of Lords. The Christian
oath was amended so that non-Christians could also
serve in the House of Lords.
||Philosopher, author, helped create the Free Jewish
House of Study in Frankfurt, Franz Rosenweig.
||Etz Chaim, the first yeshiva for Talmudic studies
in the United States, established in New York.
||Jewish Theological Seminary opens in New York
and, later, becomes the intellectual center of the
||Famous artist Marc
||Jewish Publication Society of America is founded
to publish English books of Jewish interest.
||European powers press Ottoman government to allow
foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle in Palestine
provided they do not do so en masse.
||Hebrew novelist and Nobel prize winner, Samuel
||The Educational Alliance founded on the Lower
East Side to assist Eastern European immigrants.
|April 20, 1889
Hitler is born in Braunau am Inn, Austria.
||Grand Duke Segai orders the expulsion of 14,00
Jewish families living in Moscow. Those who refuse
to convert or become prostitutes are sent to the
Pale of Settlement.
||Christian Zionist William E. Blackstone and 413
prominent Americans petition President Benjamin
Harrison to support resettlement of Russian Jews
||Baron de Hirsh donates 2 million pounds and establishes
the Jewish Colonial Association in order to resettle
3 million Russian Jews in agricultural areas in
||Workmen's Circle established to promote Yiddishist
and socialist ideas among the masses of Jewish laborers.
||American Jewish Historical Society established.
||Ottoman government forbids sale of state land
to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews in Palestine.
||National Council of Jewish Women founded in Chicago.
||French general staff officer Alfred
Dreyfus is sentenced to life on Devil's Island
in the Dreyfus Affair.
||Sholem Aleichem begins writing the first episode
of the life of Tevye the Dairyman.
||Last Russian Czar, commissioned what became the
of the Elders of Zion," Nicholas II.
||Artist known for his passionate and often disturbing
use of color and form, Chaim Soutine (Smiliouchi).
Wald founds Henry Street Settlement.
||Theodor Herzl publishes Der
The Jewish State (Zionism): .
Jewish Zionist congress convened by Theodor
Herzl in Basle, Switzerland, Zionist
||Yiddish Socialist Labor party (the Bund) is founded
Cahan founds leading Yiddish newspaper, Jewish
Daily Forward in New York.
||The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary
(RIETS), later part of Yeshiva University, begins
training Orthodox rabbis.
||Eastern European immigrants organize a Union of
Orthodox Congregations, whose viewpoint clashes
with that of the Reform movement's Union of American
Hebrew Congregations (UAHC).
||Perhaps the greatest composer of the 20th century,
whose works include "Rhapsody in Blue,"
||Fourth Prime Minister of Israel, Golda
||Acting on behalf of Col. Dreyfus, Emile Zola publishes
||A section of the Old City Wall is removed to facilitate
the entrance of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and
his entourage on his visit to Jerusalem.
||The term "concentration camp" is coined
by the British during the Boer War to denote holding
areas for potentially threatening Afrikaners (descendents
of Dutch who immigrated to South Africa in the mid-1800s).
||Emile Zola wins a new trial for Alfred Dreyfus,
and despite new charges, Dreyfus is aquitted and
promoted to Major.
||Theodor Herzl establishes the Jewish
Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist
||American composer and conductor best known for
"Appalachian Spring," "Billy the
Kid" and "Rodeo," Aaron
|early 20th century
||Founding of the Modern Jewish Orthodox
||The Industrial Removal Office, organized by several
Jewish organizations, relocate Jewish immigrants
from the Lower East Side to communities across the
||The Fifth Zionist Congress decides to establish
Keren Kayemet LeIsrael (KKL) - The Jewish National
||Theodor Herzl publishes a romantic utopian novel,
Altneuland, Old-New Land, a vision
of the Jewish State.
||Russian Jews organize U.S.-based Hebrew Immigrant
Aid Society to serve as counselors, interpreters,
||Composer and partner of Oscar
Hammerstein II (1895-1960), known for "Oklahoma!"
and" South Pacific," Richard Rogers.
||Solomon Schechter comes from England to America
to head the Jewish Theological Seminary of America,
Conservative Judaism's rabbinical seminary.
||British Government proposes "Uganda
Scheme," rejected by the Sixth Zionist
||Kishinev massacre increases Jewish exodus from
||Oscar Straus is appointed Secretary of Commerce
and Labor by President Roosevelt, the first Jew
to serve in the U.S. Cabinet.
||500,000 Jews flee Russia, 90% go to the United
Aliyah, mainly from Russia and Poland.
||Gimnazia Herzilia, the first Hebrew high school,
opens in Tel Aviv.
||Zionist Labor Party (Poale Zion) formed in Minsk
in an effort to combine Zionism and Socialism.
||American Jewish Committee is founded to safeguard
Jewish rights internationally.
|early 20th century
||Sholem Aleichem comes to New York from Russia
to write for the American Yiddish theater. The musical
Fiddler on the Roof is based on his story
||First Hebrew high school founded in Jaffa and
school founded in Jerusalem.
A. Michelson is first American Jew to win Nobel
||Adolf Hitler is rejected for study at the Vienna
Academy of Art.
||Discovery of oil in Persia; leads to Anglo-Persian (later British Petroleum).
||Revolution by "young Turks" depose Sultan
Abdul Hamid the Damned under Ottoman.
||Turkey grants Jews political rights.
||Hijaz Railway from Damascus to Medina.
||Julius Rosenwald, American merchant and philanthropist,
converts Sears, Roebuck and Co. into the largest
mail-order house in the world.
||Founding of Tel
Aviv as Hebrew speaking Jewish city.
the first Jewish self-defense organization is founded
to replace Arab guards protecting Jewish settlements.
||Russian neurologist Sikowsy testifies thet Jews
use Christian blood for ritual purposes in the Beilis
||Hall of Fame baseball player Hank
||A tragic fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
in New York's Lower East Side kills 146 women, mostly
||Palestinan journalist Najib Nasser publishes first
book in Arabic on Zionism entitled, "Zionism:
Its History, Objectives and Importance." Palestinian
newspaper Filastin begins addressing its
readers as "Palestinians" and warns them
||In Russia, Menahem Mendel Beilis, a Jew, is put
on trial for the ritual murder of a Christian boy.
After two years followed by a "show trial,"
Beilis is acquitted.
||United States abrogates treaty of 1832 with Russia
because of Russia's refusal to honor passports of
||Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the Women's Zionist
||Agudah (Agudat Israel) formed as the World Organization
of Orthodox Jewry at Katowitz.
||12 of the 100 members of the Reichstag (German
parliament) are Jewish.
||Trial of Leo
Frank in Atlanta leads to the founding of the
Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith.
||Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological
Seminary, founds the United Synagogue of America
(later the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism).
||First Arab Nationalist Congress meets in Paris.
||Commander of the Etzel,
statesman and Israeli prime minister, Menachem
||Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds
for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers is established.
||World War I.
||Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated
in Sarajevo prompting World War One.
||During First World War, Russian forces in retreat
drive 600,000 Jews from their homes.
||American Jewish Relief Committee established to
distribute funds to needy Jews; it later combined
with other Jewish relief organizations to become
the Joint Distribution Committee.
||The Ottoman empire enters the war on the side
||Moses Alexander elected Governor of Idaho
- the first Jew to win the governorship of an American
Mule Corps established by Yosef Trumpeldor in
||Avshalom Feinburg and Aaron
Aaronsohn form NILI
(Netzah Israel Lo Yeshaker), recruited
to spy on the Turks for the British.
||The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is created in
the wake of the Leo Frank Affair.
Dayan, Haganah fighter, Israeli minister of
||Leo Frank, a southern American Jew falsely convicted
of murdering a 14 year-old girl is hung by a lynch
Miller, American playwright whose works include,
"Death of a Salesman," The Crucible"
and "A View From the Bridge." .
Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of
British and French influence.
||Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule.
Dembitz Brandeis is first Jew appointed to the
||Germany accuses Jews of evading active service
in WWI, despite 100,000 Jews serving, 12% higher
than their population ratio.
||British capture Baghdad.
||Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded.
||Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British
Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State.
||As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the
Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave
Tel-Aviv and Jaffa.
||Jews granted full rights in Russia.
||Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting
in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews
live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the
lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years.
||The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately
250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers)
served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews
only made up 3.25% of the general American population.
||The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves
the social and religious requirements of Jewish
soldiers; expands after the war.
||355,000 people chose representatives for the first
American Jewish Congress.
||Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish
Legion of the British Army which fought in Transjordan,
among other places.
||Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted
Kerensky and took over the Russian government.
||Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied
Forces under General Sir Edmund Allenby.