||Visigothic ruler Sesbut prohibits Judaism
after several anti-Jewish edicts are ignored. Exiled Jews return
to Byzantine Spain under Sesbut's
||Persian General Romizanes captures Jerusalem
and allows Jews to run the city. At this time, aproximately 150,000
Jews are living in 43 settlements in Eretz-Israel.
||The Persians renege on their promises and forbid Jews to settle
within a three mile radius of Jerusalem.
||Although Chintilla decrees that only Catholics are permitted to
live in Visogoth Spain, many
Jews continue to live there.
||Islamic conquest of Jerusalem.
||Visigoth King Erwig continues oppression of Jews, making it illegal
to practice any Jewish rites and pressing for the conversion or
emigration of the remaining Jews.
||First account of Jews in England.
||Jews help Muslim
invaders capture Spain, ending
Visogoth rule and beginning a 150 year period of relative peace,
in which Jews were free to study and practice religion as they wished.
||In the wake of a narrow military defeat over Muslim forces, Leo
III of Constantinople decided his nation's weakness lay in its heterogenious
population, and began the forcible conversion of the Jews, as well
as the "New Christians."
Most converted under Leo III clandestinely continued their Jewish
||Birth of Rashi.
|| In the wake of the Norman conquest of England,
Jews left Normandy and settled in London and later in York, Norwich,
Oxford, Bristol and Lincoln.
||Pope Gregory VII prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom.
||The greatest Hebrew poet of his time, Judah
||Iban Iashufin, King of the Almoravides, captured Granada
and destroyed the Jewish community, the survivors fled to Toledo.
||Henry IV of Germany, who
granted Jews favorable conditions whenever possible, issued a charter
to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism.
||Birth of Rambam.
||In the town of Blois, southwest of Paris, Jews are falsely accused
of committing ritual murder ((killing of a Christian child) and
blood libel. The adult Jews
of the city are arrested and most are executed after refusing to
convert. Thirty-one or 32 of the Jews are killed. The Jewish children
are forcibly baptized.
||Group of 300 French and English rabbis
make aliyah and settle in Israel.
|| The Church's Fourth Lateran Council decrees that Jews be differentiated
from others by their type of clothing to avoid intercourse between
Jews and Christians. Jews are sometimes required to wear a badge;
sometimes a pointed hat.
||Christian theologian, who called for the slavery of all Jews,
Saint Thomas Aquinas.
||King Henry III of England
forced Jews to pay half the value of thier property in taxes.
||Burning of the Talmud in Paris.
||Tartars capture Jerusalem.
||King Henry III of England
ordered Jewish worship in synagogue
to be held quietly so that Christians passing by do not have to
hear it. e also ordered that Jews may not employ Christian nurses
or maids, nor may any Jew prevent another from converting to Christianity.
||French King Louis IX expelled the Jews from France,
ending the Tosaphists period. Most Jews went to Germany and further
||Seeing himself as the "master of the Jews," King Henry
II of England transferred his rights to the Jews to his brother,
Richard, for 5,000 marks.
||In a special session, the Vienna
city council forced Jews to wear the Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped
headress prevelent in many medieval woodcuts illustrating Jews.
This form of distinctive dress was an additon to badge Jews were
forced to wear.
arrives in Israel.
||King Edward of England
banned usury and unsuccessfully encouraged Jews in agriculture,
crafts and local trades. He also forced Jews over the age of seven
to wear an indentifying badge.
||The Archbishop of Canterbury, John Pectin, ordered all London
synagogues to closed and prohibited Jewish physicians from practicing
||Blood libel in Munich,
Germany results in the death
of 68 Jews. An additional 180 Jews are burned alive at the synagogue.
||A mob in Oberwesel, Germany
kills 40 Jewish men, women and children after a ritual murder accusation.
||Bowing political pressure, English King Edward I expels the Jews
from England. They were
only allowed to take what they could carry and most went to France,
paying for thier passage only to be robbed and cast overboard by
the ship captains.
|| Philip IV orders all Jews expelled from France,
with their property to be sold at public auction. Some 125,000 Jews
are forced to leave.
||Similar to accusations made during the Black Plague, Jews were
accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells in France.
An estimated five thousand Jews were killed before the king, Philip
the Tall, admitted the Jews were innocent.
|| Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear yellow badges.
|| Charles IV of France
expels all French Jews without the one year period he had promised
||Much of Europe blames the Black Plague on the Jews and tortured
to confess that they poisoned the wells. Despite the pleas of innocence
of Pope Clement VI, the accusations resulted in the destruction
of over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities.
|| Basle burns 600 Jews at the stake and forcibly baptizes 140 children,
expelling the city's other Jews. The city's Christian residents
convert the synagogue into a church and destroy the Jewish cemetery.
|| Pope Clement VI issues an edict repudiating the libel against
Jews, saying that they too were suffering from the Plague.
|| Samuel ben Meir Abulafia
is arrested and tortured to death by King Pedro without any explination.
The king also confiscated his great wealth.
||German Emperor Wenceslaus
arrests Jews living in the Swabian League, a group of free cities
in S. Germany, and confiscates their books. Later, he expelled the
Jews of Strassburg after a community debate.
||Emperor Wenceslaus expelles the Jews from Strassbourg and confiscate
||After a priest was hit with some sand from a few small Jewish
boys playing in the street, he insisted that the Jewish community
was plotting against him and began a virulent campaign against the
city's Jews, resulting in the massacre of thousands and the destruction
of the city's synagogue
and Jewish cemetery. King Wenceslaus refused to condemn the act,
insisting that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside
during the Holy Week.
|| Pope Boniface continues the policy of Clement VI, forbidding
the Christians to harm Jews, destroy their cemeteries or forcibly
||Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Ecija, begins a campaign against
Spanish Jewry, killing over 10,000 and destroying the Jewish quarter
in Barcelona. The campaign quickly spreads throughout Spain,
except for Granada, and
destroys Jewish communities in Valencia and Palma De Majorca.
|| King Pedro I orders Spain
not to harm the remaining Jews and decrees that synagogues not be
converted into churches.
|| King Pedro I announces his compliance with the Bull of Pope Boniface
IX, protecting Jews from baptism. He extends this edict to Spanish
||Benedict XIII bans the study of the Talmud
in any form, institutes forced Christian sermons and tries to restrict
Jewish life completely.
||Pope Martin V favorably reinstates old privleges of the Jews and
orders that no child under the age of 12 can be forcibly baptized
without parental consent.
|| All Jews are expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from
Paris who were expelled 20 years earliers. Jews now only remain
in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See.
|| Pope Martin V issues a bull reminding Christians that Christianity
was derived from Judaism and
warns the Friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn
the following year, alleging that the Jews of Rome attained the
Bull by fraud.