|ca. 230-146 B.C.E.
||Coming of Rome
to the east Mediterranean.
||Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
||Rome (Pompey) annexes
the land of Israel.
||Herod the Great (Jewish
Roman ruler of the land of Israel).
||Herod captures Jerusalem,
has Antigonus II executed, and marries the Hasmonean
princess Mariamne I.
||Herod creates Temple
Mount and begins to rebuild the Temple
in Jerusalem. Project
continues until 72 C.E..
|ca. 4 B.C.E.-ca. 30 C.E.
|Hillel & Shammai
||Rome establishes direct
rule of prefects in Judea.
|ca. 13 B.C.E.- 41 C.E.
||Philo Judaeus of Alexandria.
|ca. 30 C.E.
||Jesus is crucified.
||Paul “the apostle” (Jewish “Christian”).
|ca. 37-100 C.E.
|ca. 40 C.E.
||Gamliel/Gamaliel I (Jewish leader-scholar).
|ca. 50-125 C.E.
||Christian Testament (NT) writings.
||First Jewish Revolt
||Vespasian gives Yochanan
ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study
at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
||Destruction of Jerusalem
and the second Temple.
||Last stand of Jews at Masada.
||Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the
||Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed
and accepted as sacred scripture.
||Jewish Revolts against Rome
in Cyprus, Egypt and
Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria
are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus.
Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
||Rabbi Akiva active
in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
||Bar Kokhba rebellion
(Second Jewish Revolt).
Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985
villages and 50 fortresses.
||Hadrian renames Jerusalem
Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of
the Second Temple.
He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion
of what is now called the West
Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish
identification with the land of Israel.
||Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's sucessor, repeals many of the previously
instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
||Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively
well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt
from formalities contrary to Judaism.
However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
(Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah
||Origen (Christian scholar, biblical interpreter).
||Because of his health,
Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth
Shearim to Sepphoris.
||Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to
become full Roman citizens.
||Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.
Amoraim, or Mishna
scholars, flourish. The Amoraim's commentary, along with the Mishna,
comprises the Talmud.
Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights,
including permission to visit Jerusalem.
||Rise of Mani/Manichaean World Religion synthesis.
flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I
||Early development of Christian monasticism in Egypt.
||Eusebius (Christian author, historian)
||Violent persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian.
||Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome.
||One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids
intermarriage and social interaction with Jews
||Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity, announces Edict of
||Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine's
first anti-Jewish act.