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TRACHONITIS, a province of the area of *Bashan E. of the River Jordan and N. of the River Yarmuk. It was one of the three provinces into which the area was divided by the Ptolemies, the other two being Gaulonitis and Batanaea. As a result the Targum renders the name Argob as a region of Bashan and as "the province of Trachonitis" (pelakh Terakhona, cf. Deut. 3:4). The emperor Augustus awarded it to Herod, and it remained with his heirs until Agrippa (II; c. 100). In 106 C.E., together with all Bashan, it was annexed to the province of Arabia, the capital of which was Boẓrah and it is therefore called "Trachonitis of Boẓrah" in the Tosefta (see below). During Herod's stay in Rome, the inhabitants of Trachonitis rebelled against him, and his commander *Zamaris cleared it of marauders; it is therefore also referred to as "Trachonitis of Zamaris" (Terakhona de-Zimra). For halakhic purposes Trachonitis was regarded as part of the territory of Ereẓ Israel, and therefore, the laws appertaining to the Sabbatical Year applied to it (Tosef., Shev. 4:11).

Sources: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2007 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.