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American Jewish Opinion Regarding Anti-Semitism

(2021)

Note: We are presenting raw data. When available, we provide some or all of the crosstabs (i.e., breakdowns by various categories such as party ID). To analyze the data, we encourage users to read the entire study and the methodology used. Results and reliability can be affected by such things as sample size, question wording, and question order. Responses may also be influenced by context and timing; for example, if the survey is conducted during a war.


See also 

Over the past five years, do you think antisemitism in the United States has… (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021, Pew, Nov. 19, 2019-June 3, 2020)

 
2019

2020

2020
(Pew)
2021

Increased/More

84%

82%

75%

82%

Stayed the same

12%

14%

19%

14%

Decreased
4%
3%
5%
3%

How much of a problem, if at all, do you think antisemitism is in the United States today? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 
2019
2020
2021

A problem

88%
88%
90%

Not a problem

12%
11%
10%

Compared to a year ago, is the status of Jews in the United States more secure or less secure? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 
2019

2020

2021

More

2%

4%

11%

Less

42%

43%

31%

About the same
55%
52%
57%

Do you view the statement, “Israel has no right to exist,” as antisemitic or not? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 
2019

2020

2021

Antisemitic

84%

85%

81%

Not antisemitic

15%

14%

19%

Do you view the statement, “The Holocaust has been exaggerated,” as antisemitic or not? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Antisemitic

94%

Not antisemitic

6%

Do you view the statement, “American Jews are more loyal to Israel than to America,” as antisemitic or not? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 
2019

2020

2021

Antisemitic

73%

76%

85%

Not antisemitic

26%

22%

14%

In your opinion, is antisemitism taken more seriously, less seriously, or is it considered to be the same as other forms of hate and bigotry? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

More seriously

16%

Less seriously

46%

Considered to be the same
37%
Don’t know/ refused
1%

Over the past 12 months, have you, yourself, been the target of an antisemitic remark or post online or through social media? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes, one time

5%

Yes, more than one time

7%

No
88%

On which platform were you the target of an antisemitic remark or post in the past 12 months? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Facebook

55%

Facebook

11%

Instagram
10%
Twitter
35%
Tiktok
4%
Clubhouse
5%
Other
11%

If you were the target of an antisemitic remark or post in the past 12 months did you report it? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Reported incident

42%

Did not report incident

58%

Did the social media platform remove any of the content you reported? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Content was removed

36%

Content was not removed

64%

Did your experience with antisemitism online make you feel physically threatened? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes

18%

No

82%

Over the past 12 months, have you, yourself, been the target of an antisemitic physical attack? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes

3%

No

97%

Over the past 12 months, have you, yourself, been the target of an antisemitic remark in person? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes

17%

No

83%

Over the past 12 months, have you, yourself, been the target of an antisemitic remark or post online or through social media? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes

12%

No

88%

Over the past 12 months, if you, yourself, were the target of an antisemitic remark online or on social media, did you report this incident or any of these incidents? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes, to the police

5%

Yes, to a Jewish organization

17%

Yes, through social media
45%
No, I did not report it
46%

Over the past 12 months, if you, yourself, were the target of an antisemitic remark in person, did you report this incident or any of these incidents? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes, to the police

4%

Yes, to a Jewish organization

19%

No, I did not report it
79%

In the past 12 months, have you avoided publicly wearing, carrying, or displaying things that might help people identify you as a Jew out of fear of antisemitism? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes

22%

No

78%

In the past 12 months, have you avoided certain places, events, or situations out of concern for your safety or comfort as a Jew out of fear of antisemitism? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes

17%

No

83%

In the past 12 months, have you avoided posting content online that would identify you as a Jew or reveal your views on Jewish issues out of fear of antisemitism? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Yes

25%

No

74%

How much, if anything, have you heard about Jews being attacked in the United States and around the world in May 2021 during the conflict between Israel and Hamas? (AJC, September 1-Octoberf 3, 2021))

 

2021

A lot

28%

Some

43%

Not much
21%
Nothing at all
7%
Don't know/ refused
1%

To what extent, if at all, has hearing about these attacks on Jews made you feel less safe as a Jewish person in the United States? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Feel less safe

72%

Do not feel less safe

27%

Have any Jewish institutions with which you are affiliated been targets of antisemitism? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021**)

 
2019

2020

2021

Antisemitic graffiti

22%

17%

17%

Antisemitic attacks

8%

8%

9%

Antisemitic threats
17%
16%
12%
None of these
54%
59%
40%
Not affiliated with any Jewish institutions
11
10%
24%
DK
2%
3%
12%

**Over the past five years, have any Jewish institutions with which you are affiliated been targets of antisemitism?

How effective do you think law enforcement is in responding to the security needs of Jews? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021 )

 
2019

2020

2021

Effective

81%

78%

66%

Not effective

15%

19%

31%

Don't know/refused
4%
3%
3%

Do you approve or disapprove of the way President Biden is responding to antisemitism in the United States? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Approve

53%

Disapprove

28%

No opinion
16%
Don't know/refused
3%

Do you approve or disapprove of the way Congress is responding to antisemitism in the United States? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Approve

28%

Disapprove

50%

No opinion
18%
Don't know/refused
3%

Do you approve or disapprove of the way the Democratic Party is responding to antisemitism in the United States? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Approve

45%

Disapprove

40%

No opinion
13%
Don't know/refused
4%

Do you approve or disapprove of the way the Republican Party is responding to antisemitism in the United States? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Approve

20%

Disapprove

65%

No opinion
12%
Don't know/refused
3%

Do you approve or disapprove of the way state and local governments are responding to antisemitism in the United States? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Approve

42%

Disapprove

36%

No opinion
17%
Don't know/refused
6%

In your view, how much of an antisemitic threat does the extreme political right represent in the United States today? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 
2019

2020

2021

Very serious threat

49%

49%

45%

Moderately serious threat

29%

26%

28%

Slight threat
11%
14%
18%
No threat at all
9%
8%
7%
Don't know/refused
2%
3%
2%

In your view, how much of an antisemitic threat does the extreme political left represent in the United States today? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 
2019

2020

2021

Very serious threat

15%

16%

19%

Moderately serious threat

21%

16%

19%

Slight threat
28%
29%
33%
No threat at all
34%
36%
27%
Don't know/refused
2%
3%
1%

In your view, how much of an antisemitic threat does extremism in the name of Islam represent in the United States today? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 
2019

2020

2021

Very serious threat

27%

27%

24%

Moderately serious threat

27%

26%

28%

Slight threat
31%
32%
34%
No threat at all
14%
13%
13%
Don't know/refused
1%
2%
1%

In your view, how much of an antisemitic threat do individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups represent in the United States today? (AJC, September 1-October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Very serious threat

10%

Moderately serious threat

22%

Slight threat
40%
No threat at all
27%
Don't know/refused
2%

How familiar are you with the BDS movement? (American Jewish Committee, Jews September 9-October 4, general public September 15-20, 2020; September 1 – October 3, 2021)

 
2019
2020
2021
Very familiar

26%

25%

23%

Somewhat familiar

36%

36%

36%

Not too familiar
14%
18%
15%
Not at all familiar
24%
21%
26%

Do you view the BDS movement as antisemitic? (American Jewish Committee, Jews September 9-October 4, general public September 15-20, 2020; September 1 – October 3, 2021)

 
2019
2020
2021
Mostly antisemitic

35%

37%

40%
Some antisemitic supporters

47%

43%

42%
Not antisemitic
14%
15%
15%
Don't know/refused
4%
5%
3%

Over the past five years, do you think antisemitism on college campuses has... (AJC, September 1 – October 3, 2021)

 

2021

Increased

50%

Stayed the same

23%

Decreased
3%
Not sure
23%

How much of a problem, if at all, do you think antisemitism from the far right is for Jewish college students in the United States today? (AJC, September 1 – October 3, 2021)

 

2021

A Problem

61%

Not a Problem

20%

Not sure
18%

How much of a problem, if at all, do you think antisemitism from the far left is for Jewish college students in the United States today? (AJC, September 1 – October 3, 2021)

 

2021

A Problem

45%

Not a Problem

37%

Not sure
19%

How much of a problem, if at all, do you think anti-Israel campaigns, such as the BDS movement, is for Jewish college students in the United States today? (AJC, September 1 – October 3, 2021)

 

2021

A Problem

54%

Not a Problem

24%

Don't know/refused
1%

Over the past five years, have you or has anyone you know experienced antisemitism in a college setting? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

2021

Yes, you personally

1%

1%

2%

Yes, someone you know

16%

17%

15%

Yes, both myself and someone I know
3%
4%
3%
No
78%
76%
78%
Don’t know/refused
2%
2%
2%

**Earlier wording: Over the past five years, have you or anyone you know experienced antisemitism on a college campus?

How much have you heard about the boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) movement regarding Israel? (Pew, Nov. 19, 2019-June 3, 2020)

 

2020

A lot

24%

Some

31%

Not much
19%
Nothing at all
24%
No answer
1%

Generally speaking, do you support or oppose the boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) movement? [Asked of the 55% who heard a lot/some about BDS] (Pew, Nov. 19, 2019-June 3, 2020)

 

2020

Strongly Support

2%

Somewhat support

8%

Somewhat oppose
9%
Strongly oppose
34%
No answer
2%

Reason for more anti-Semitism... (Pew, Nov. 19, 2019-June 3, 2020)

  2020

Because more people hold anti-Semitic views

5%

Because people with anti-Semitic views feel more free to express them

35%
Because of both 33%

As a Jewish person in the United States, do you personally feel ____ compared with five years ago? (Pew, Nov. 19, 2019-June 3, 2020)

  Wear distinctively Jewish items Do not wear Jewish items Net Jewish

Less safe today

62% 51% 53%

More safe today

3% 3% 3%
Not much change 34% 44% 42%

Percentage of U.S. Jewish who say they have experienced each of the following in the past 12 months. (Pew, Nov. 19, 2019-June 3, 2020)

  2020

Seen anti-Jewish graffiti or vandalism

37%

Been made to feel unwelcome

19%
Been called offensive names 15%
Harassed online 8%
Physically threatened or attacked 5%

Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism (JCPA, 2020)

 

Do not agree at all

Agree a little bit

Moderately agree
Agree
Very much agree
DK/Not sure

People who are strongly anti-Israel or anti-Zionist are most likely anti-Semitic as well

12%

17%

22%
22%
24%
4%

People who are anti-Semitic are most likely anti-Israel or anti-Zionist as well

5%

12%

11%
21%
46%
4%

Bi-partisan political support for Israel is just as important as bi-partisan support against anti-Semitism. (JCPA, 2020)

Do not agree at all

16%
Agree somewhat
28%
Very much agree
53%

Not familiar with issue/DK

4%

When it comes to anti-Semitism in the United States, in general, would you say that it predominantly stems from individuals identified with the political Right, with the political Left, equally from both, or would you say it is related to social/cultural/ethnic factors and not political ideology at all? (JCPA, 2020)

Almost exclusively from the right

21%
Mostly from the right
31%
Almost exclusively from the left
0%

Mostly from the left

1%
About the same for both left and right
12%
Related to social/cultural/ethnic factors and not political ideology at all
30%
Other
5%*

Over the past five years, have you, yourself, been the target of an antisemitic physical attack? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

Yes, one time

2%

3%

No

98%

97%

Over the past five years, have you been the target of an antisemitic physical attack, an antisemitic remark in person, by mail, or by phone, or an antisemitic remark online or through social media? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020)

 
2020

Yes

37%

Not a target/DK

63%

Over the past five years, have you, yourself, been the target of an antisemitic remark online or through social media? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

Yes, one time

6%

6%

Yes, more than one time

15%

16%

No
80%
77%

Over the past five years, have you been the target of an antisemitic remark in person, by mail, or by phone? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

Yes, one time

10%

7%

Yes, more than one time
13%
18%

Not a target/DK

77%

75%

Over the past five years, if you, yourself, were the target of an antisemitic attack or remark, did you report this incident or any of these incidents? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

Yes, to the police

3%

4%

Yes, to a Jewish organization

6%

5%

Yes, through social media
17%
19%
No, I did not report it
75%
76%

On which social media platform(s) were you the target of an antisemitic attack or remark? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020)

 

2020

Facebook

62%

Twitter

33%

Youtube
10%
Instagram
12%
Snapchat
5%
TikTok
2%
Some other platform
10%
Don't know/refused
4%

Did the social media or online service you reported the incident to take any steps to respond to your report? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020)

Yes

53%

No
46%

Over the past five years, have you or anyone you know experienced antisemitism on a college campus? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

Yes, you personally

1%

1%

Yes, someone you know

16%

17%

Yes, both myself and someone I know
3%
4%
No
78%
76%
Don’t know/refused
2%
2%

Compared to a year ago, is the climate on college campuses toward pro-Israel students less hostile, more hostile, or about the same as a year ago? (AJC, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

More hostile than a year ago

36%

Less hostile than a year ago

2%

About the same as a year ago
41%
DK
20%

Do you ever avoid certain places, events, or situations out of concern for your safety or comfort as a Jew? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

Yes, always

2%

4%

Yes, frequently

4%

3%

Yes, sometimes
19%
24%
No, never
74%
68%

Have you avoided visiting Jewish institutions or participating in Jewish events because you would not feel safe there? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020)

 
2019

2020

Yes

5%

10%

No

95%

90%

Over the past two years, have you avoided publicly wearing, carrying, or displaying things that might help people identify you as a Jew? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019*)

 
2019

2020

Yes

31%

24%

No

68%

76%

*2019 - Did not ask over past two years.

Have you avoided posting content online that would identify you as a Jew or reveal your views on Jewish issues? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020)

 

2020

Yes

24%

No

75%

Have any Jewish institutions with which you are affiliated been targets of antisemitism? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

Antisemitic graffiti

22%

17%

Antisemitic attacks

8%

8%

Antisemitic threats
17%
16%
None of these
54%
59%
Not affiliated with any Jewish institutions
11
10%
DK
2%
3%

In response to the Tree of Life synagogue shooting, have any of the Jewish institutions you are affiliated with increased security measures or is security about the same? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020)

 

2020

Increased

56%

About the same

32%

Not affiliated
5%
DK / Refused
6%

Have any Jewish institutions with which you are affiliated hired security guards? (AJC, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 

2019

Yes

57%

No

32%

I don't visit or participate
1%
Not affiliated
6%
DK / Refused
4%

Have any Jewish institutions with which you are affiliated had police posted on site or outside? (AJC, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 

2019

Yes

52%

No

38%

I don't visit or participate
1%
Not affiliated
7%
DK / Refused
2%

Have any Jewish institutions with which you are affiliated trained or informed members on how to respond to an attack? (AJC, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 

2019

Yes

39%

No

45%

I don't visit or participate
1%
Not affiliated
7%
DK / Refused
8%

To what extent, if at all, do you think the Democratic Party holds antisemitic views? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020)

 

2020

A lot/Some

37%

Not much/at all

61%

Don't know/refused
2%

To what extent, if at all, do you think the Republican Party holds antisemitic views? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020)

 

2020

A lot/Some

69%

Not much/at all

28%

Don't know/refused
3%

Do you view the statement, “The U.S. government only supports Israel because of Jewish money,” as antisemitic or not? (AJC, Jews September 9-October 4, 2020, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 
2019

2020

Antisemitic

80%

84%

Not antisemitic

20%

15%

Do you approve or disapprove of the way President Trump is handling the threat of antisemitism in the United States? (AJC, September 11 - October 6, 2019)

 

2019

Approve

24%

Disapprove

73%