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Water in Israel: Overview of Israel-Palestinian Water Issue

Main Points of the Water Agreement
Implementation of the Agreement
December 2013 Agreement
Renewal of Cooperation

The Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement of September 28, 1995, signed in Washington, including the Water Agreement (Annex 3, Appendix 1, Article 40), clearly stipulates the manner in which the parties must act in the field of water in the West Bank.  This agreement established the Joint Water Committee, which was originally meant only to function for 5 years but still exists as of 2017.  

This is an international agreement which was not only signed by Israel and the Palestinians but also witnessed by the United States, Russia, the European Union, Norway, Jordan and Egypt.

Both parties are bound by the principles set forth in this agreement.

Following a meeting of the Israeli-Palestinian Joint Water Committee on March 4, 2015, Israel announced the doubling of water delivery to Gaza begining in mid 2015. Israeli authorities decided to up the amount of water sent to Palestinian territories from 5 million cubic meters per year to 10 million in an effort to combat the water crisis in the region. The Palestinian Authority pays Israel an estimated $3 million per year for their water, which constitutes less than 10% of the water consumed in the Palestinian territories. 

On January 15, 2017, Israel's Coordinator of Government Activity in the Territories (COGAT) Maj. Gen. Yoav Mordechai and the Palestinian Authority's Minister of Civil Affairs Hussein al-Sheikh signed an agreement to renew the activities of the Joint Water Committee under the framework of the 1995 Interim Agreement.  Privy to the agreement, the Joint Water Committee made plans to reconvene after a 6-year hiatus to discuss increased water supplies to the Palestinian territories, as well as the installation of new pipes for drinking water and sewage.  

A forum convened by E.U. countries and various aid organizations committed 456 million euro ($559 million) to projects aimed at improving Gaza's water situation during late March 2018.  A large desalination facility is to be built with the funds, and Gaza's pipelines and water storage facilities will be updated as well.  

Main points of the Water Agreement

  • Palestinian Water Rights in the West Bank are recognized and shall be negotiated in the permanent status agreement.
  • Both sides recognize the necessity to develop additional water sources for various uses.
  • Maintaining the existing quantities of water utilization, while taking into consideration the quantities of additional water for the Palestinians from the Eastern Aquifer.
  • Future additional needs of the Palestinians in the West Bank are estimated to be between 70-80 MCM/year. Within this framework, both sides recognize the necessity to make available to the Palestinian (WB) during the interim period, a total quantity of 23.6 MCM/year (out of which 5 MCM for the Gaza Strip).
  • Each side shall take all necessary measures to prevent any harm, pollution, or deterioration of water quality of all water resources.
  • Both sides shall establish Joint Supervision and Enforcement Teams which shall operate, in the field, to monitor, supervise, and enforce the implementation of Article 40.
  • In order to implement their undertakings, the two sides will establish a permanent Joint Water Committee (JWC).

Implementation of the Agreement

Israel fulfills its obligations according to the Water Agreement and beyond, as shown in the following:

  • During the interim period of the Oslo talks, Israel made available approximately 70 MCM/year of water to the Palestinians in the West Bank even though the Water Agreement allocates a much smaller quantity of only 23.6 MCM/year.
  • The Palestinian Authority consumes approximately 200 MCM of water every year. Israel supplies the Palestinians with 50 MCM of water, which is far beyond its obligation in the Water Agreement (31 MCM).
  • Though Israel is often accused of “stealing” water or otherwise misallocating supplies to the disadvantage of the Palestinians, a study by Professor Haim Gvirtzman found “there is almost no difference in per capita consumption of natural water between Israelis and Palestinians.”
  • Palestinians consume significantly more water than the minimum human needs defined by the World Health Organization.
  • Palestinian farmers overwater their crops using outdated methods and much of the water is wasted due to leakage and mismanagement.
  • The Palestinians constantly breach the agreement by drilling more than 300 unauthorized wells in the West Bank.
  • The Palestinians have illegally connected to Israeli water lines, which Gvirtzman says is “stealing Israel's water.”
  • The Palestinians do not treat 95 percent of their sewage, which flows freely in the streams and into Israel, contaminating the environment and the aquifer en route. Only one sewage plant has been built in the last 15 years in the West Bank.
  • The Palestinians are not developing any new water sources, either through sewage treatment, or desalination.
  • Israel makes extensive use of recycled waste water in agriculture; the Palestinians do not recycle

December 2013 Agreement

Senior Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian representatives signed a water sharing agreement in the form of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on December 9, 2013, that was heralded as a milestone of cooperation between all parties involved.  The agreement was made official at The World Bank Headquarters and was signed by H.E. Minister Silvan Shalom for Israel, H.E. Minister Hazim El-Naser for Jordan and H.E. Minister Shaddad Attilifor the Palestinian Authority. Within the MoU are three major regional water sharing initiatives that will support the management of scarce water resources in the region and contribute to the development and discovery of new water resources. The agreement includes plans for the construction of an 80 million cubic meter sea water desalination plant in Aqaba on the Red Sea to provide water that will be shared between the three represented entities, and also provides for increased sales of water to Jordan from Israel's lake Tiberias. The Red Sea–Dead Sea Conduit, also known as the Two Seas Canal, will carry water north from the Red Sea, hopefully slowing down the Dead Sea's desiccation. 

According to the agreement, some 200 million cubic meters of water will be pumped annually out of th Red Sea - 80 million will be desalinated at a special facility in Aqaba, Jordan; 30-50 million will be allocated to Israel for use in the Arava and Eilat; 30 million will go to Jordan for their southern region; and, approximately 32 million will be sold to the Palestinian Authority.  Israeli Energy Minister Silvan Shalom, who represented Israel at the signing ceremony in Washington, called the arrangement "a historic agreement," adding it was a "dream come true."

In December 2016 Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu announced to his Cabinet that the US, the EU and Japan are financing this joint Israel-Jordan-Palestinian Authority project. According to the plan, said Netanyahu, the pipeline project will begin providing fresh water to communities in 2020. 

Renewal of Cooperation

Maj. Gen. Yoav Mordechai, head of the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT) office, and the Palestinian Authority’s Civil Affairs Minister Hussein al-Sheikh signed an agreement to restart the Israeli–Palestinian Joint Water Committee on January 15, 2017. The committee was originally created in 1995 as part of the Oslo II interim peace deal, but has been dormant for the last six years. Now the plan is to provide better water access to Palestinian towns and villages and develop and modernize the water infrastructure in the West Bank. The two sides also agreed to explore new infrastructure projects to meet the expected demand as the Palestinian population grows between now and 2040.

In July 2017, the Israel Water Authority deployed a wastewater pipeline to Gaza. The 40 million NIS project allows sewage to flow from the Northern Gaza neighborhoods of Beit Lahiya and Beit Hanoun to the sewage treatment plant in Sderot.  

Israel’s national water company Mekorot is constructing a new pipeline, the largest yet, which will increase the flow of drinkable water into Gaza. There are already three pipelines at three sites along the border. Israel has committed to transferring 2.6 billion gallons of water each year to Gaza, but has routinely provide even more -- 3 billion gallons.

Sources: Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
Haim Gvirtzman, “The Israeli-Palestinian Water Conflict: An Israeli Perspective,” The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, (2014);
Israel, Jordan, Close to Issuing Bid for Red Sea–Dead Sea Canal, Jewish Press, (November 5, 2015);
David Israel.  Netanyahu to Cabinet: ‘Working Overtime’ in Search of Amona Solution, Jewish Press, (December 4, 2016);
Elior Levy,  "Water deal reached between Israel and Palestinians," YNet News (January 15, 2017);
Israelis, Palestinians sign deal to jointly improve West Bank water supply, Times of Israel, ( January 15, 2017);
David Israel.  Fake News: Greenblatt Announces Israel Will Include PA in Water Project It Is Already On, Jewish Press, (July 12, 2017);
Matan Tzuri.  Israel builds pipeline to absorb sewage from Gaza, YNet News, (July 28, 2017);
 “Israel lays fourth water pipeline to Gaza, the largest yet,” Times of Israel, (June 17, 2019),