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Hungary

HUNGARY, state in S.E. Central Europe.

Middle Ages to the Ottoman Conquest

Archaeological evidence indicates the existence of Jews in Pannonia and Dacia, who came there in the wake of the Roman legions. Jewish historical tradition, however, only mentions the Jews in Hungary from the second half of the 11th century, when Jews from Germany, Bohemia, and Moravia settled there. In 1092, at the council of Szabolcs, the Church prohibited marriages between Jews and Christians, work on Christian festivals, and the purchase of slaves. King Koloman protected the Jews in his territory at the end of the 11th century, when the remnants of the crusader armies attempted to attack them (see *Crusades). Jews resided only in towns ruled by the bishops where important communities developed: in Buda (see *Budapest; 12th century), Pressburg (*Bratislava, Hung. Pozsony; first mentioned in 1251), Tyrnau (*Trnava, Hung. Nagyszombat), and *Esztergom (by the middle of the 11th century). During the 12th century the Jews of Hungary occupied important positions in economic life. The nobles felt it necessary to curb this development, and in the "Golden Bull" (1222) an article was included which prohibited the Jews from holding certain offices and from receiving titles of nobility. The legal status of the Jews was settled by King Béla IV in a privilege of 1251, which follows the pattern of similar documents in neighboring countries. As a result of the Church Council of Buda in 1279, Jews were forbidden to lease land and compelled to wear the *Jewish badge. In practice, these decrees were not applied strictly because of the king's objection.

During the reign of Louis the Great (1342–82), the hostile influence of the Church in Jewish affairs again predominated. The *Black Death led to the first expulsion of the Jews from Hungary in 1349. A general expulsion was decreed in 1360, but in about 1364 their return was authorized though they were subjected to restrictions. In 1365 the king instituted the office of "judge of the Jews," chosen from among the magnates, who was in charge of affairs concerning Jewish property, the imposition and collection of taxes, representation of the Jews before the government, and the protection of their rights. The reign of Matthias Corvinus (1458–90) marked a change in favor of the status of the Jews, despite his support of the towns, whose inhabitants, the overwhelming majority of whom were Germans, were inimical to the Jews as dangerous rivals.

In 1494 there was a *blood libel in Tyrnau and 16 Jews were burned at the stake. In its wake, anti-Jewish riots broke out in the town; these were repeated at the beginning of the 16th century in Pressburg, Buda, and other towns. The economic situation of the Jews was also aggravated: King Ladislas VI (1490–1516) canceled all debts owing to the Jews. In 1515, however, the Jews were placed under the direct protection of Emperor Maximilian I (the pretender to the crown of Hungary). During this period, a degrading form of Jewish *oath before the tribunals was introduced; it remained in force until the middle of the 19th century. During the reign of Louis II (1516–26) hatred of the Jews intensified as a result of the activities of Isaac of Kaschau, the director of the royal mint, and the apostate Imre (Emerich) Szerencsés (Latin: Fortunatus), the royal treasurer who devalued the currency and raised the taxes in order to provide funds for the war against the Turks.

During the middle of the 14th century the most important Hungarian community was that of *Szekesfehervar (Ger. Stuhlweissenburg), whose parnasim also directed the general affairs of the Jews of the country. During the 15th century the community of Buda gained in importance as Jews expelled from other countries also settled there. Little information is available on the spiritual life of Hungarian Jewry during the Middle Ages. Apparently it was poor in comparison to that in neighboring countries because of the dispersion of the communities and the small number of their members. The first rabbi whose reputation spread beyond Hungary was Isaac *Tyrnau (late 14th–early 15th century); in the introduction to his Sefer ha-Minhagim ("Book of Customs") he describes the poor condition of Torah study in Hungary.

Period of the Ottoman Conquest

The first, temporary Ottoman conquest of Buda in 1526 caused many of the Jewish inhabitants to join the retreating Turks. As a result of this movement, congregations of Hungarian Jews formed within the important communities of the Balkans. After central Hungary was incorporated within the Ottoman Empire in 1541, the Jewish status was relatively satisfactory. Jewish settlement in Buda was renewed, and Sephardim of Asia Minor and Balkan origin also settled there. During the 17th century Buda was one of the most important communities of the *Ottoman Empire. This was largely due to the authority of its rabbi, *Ephraim b. Jacob ha-Kohen, author of Sha'ar Efrayim (1688).

In the Hapsburg dominions of Hungary in this period hatred toward the Jews increased. In 1529, following a blood libel in Bazin, 30 Jews were burned at the stake and the others were expelled from the town. The Jews were also expelled from Pressburg, Oedenburg (*Sopron), and Tyrnau. However, the magnates of western Hungary accorded their protection to the Jews expelled from the towns. The Jews expelled from Vienna found refuge on the estate of Count Esterhazy in *Eisenstadt and six small neighboring towns in 1670. It was the oldest of the "Seven Communities" of *Burgenland, granted autonomy in a privilege issued in 1690. In *Transylvania, under the rule of Gabriel Bethlen (1613–29), the status of the Jews was stabilized by a privilege granted in 1623. The favorable attitude toward the Jews there stemmed from *Reformation influences in Transylvania (see also Simon *Péchi).

18th to 19th Centuries (Until 1867)

By the beginning of the 18th century, when most of Hungary came under Hapsburg rule, only a few remnants of the ancient Jewish settlement were to be found there. At this time, however, a movement of Jewish migration began, marking the formation of Hungarian Jewry of the modern era. The census of 1735 enumerated 11,600 Jews (in reality, their numbers were far greater) of whom only a few were born in Hungary, while the majority had come from Moravia and the minority from Poland. Most of the Jews were peddlers and small tradesmen. Because of the hostility of the townsmen, most of them lived in the villages. During the reign of *Maria Theresa (1740–80) the situation of the Jews deteriorated. In 1744 an annual "tolerance tax" of 20,000 guilders was levied on them. It was gradually increased, until it amounted to an annual sum of 160,000 guilders at the beginning of the 19th century. The reign of *Joseph II brought some improvements. In 1783 Jews were authorized to settle in the royal cities. There were 81,000 Jews in Hungary in 1787.

During the "period of reform" in Hungary in the 1830s and 1840s, the Jewish question was discussed in the legislative institutions, in literature, and in the periodicals and press. In general there was a marked tendency in favor of granting civic rights to the Jews, but on the whole society took a critical view of the Jews and assumed an attitude of reservation toward them, demanding religious and social reforms (see *Emancipation). The suppression of the revolution of 1848–49 also affected the status of the Jews. Because many of them were active in the revolution, the Austrian military government imposed a collective fine of 2,300,000 guilders on the communities; it was later reduced to 1,000,000 (in 1856, the sum was reimbursed in the form of a fund for educational and relief institutions). During the 1850s, the Jews were still subjected to judicial and economic restrictions (the Jewish oath; the need for a marriage permit; the prohibition on acquiring real estate; and others). Most of the restrictions were abolished in 1859–60; the Jews were authorized to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. The first political leaders of the new Hungary, including Count Gyula Andrássy, Ferencz *Deák, and Kálmán Tisza, expressed their approval in the granting of civic and political equality to the Jews, and after the Compromise with Austria, the bill on Jewish emancipation was passed in Parliament without considerable opposition (Dec. 20, 1867). During the same period there was a rapid growth of the Jewish population of Hungary, due both to natural increase and immigration from neighboring regions, especially Galicia. The number of Jews had risen to 340,000 by 1850, and in the first population census held in modern Hungary (1869), 542,000 Jews were enumerated.

The Emancipation Period, 1867–1914

During this period Hungarian Jewry consolidated from the political, economic, and cultural aspects and succeeded in establishing a strong position in the life of the country. Jews played a considerable role in the development of the capitalistic economy of Hungary, and from the 1880s large numbers entered the liberal professions, and also contributed to literary life, in particular in journalism. In economic activity Jews in Hungary were especially prominent from the mid-19th century in the marketing and the export of agricultural produce. Emancipation offered a wide scope for Jewish economic initiative in the establishment of banks and other financial enterprises. Jewish capital contributed significantly to the financing of heavy industry at the close of the 19th century. The role of the Jews in agriculture was also considerable, as owners of estates and in particular as contractors in agricultural management and marketing. Before World War I, 55–60% of the total number of merchants were Jews, approximately 13% of the independent craftsmen, 13% of owners of large and medium-sized estates, and 45% of the contractors. Of those professionally engaged in literature and the arts, 26% were Jews (of the journalists, 42%), in law, 45%, and in medicine, 49%. On the other hand, only a small number of Jews were employed in public administration. The Jewish population numbered 910,000 in 1910. The identification of the Jews with the Magyar element in the Hungarian kingdom was an important factor in determining the general political attitude toward them. In 1895 the Jewish religion was officially recognized as one of the religions accepted in the state, and accorded rights enjoyed by the Catholic and Protestant religions. The law was enacted despite vigorous objection from the Catholic Church and its allies the magnates, who succeeded in delaying its ratification on three occasions.

From the mid-1870s political antisemitism emerged as an ideological trend, subsequently to become a political force, led by a member of Parliament, Gyözö Istóczy. The driving forces behind it were the resentment felt by those classes which were dispossessed by the capitalistic economy and the effects of recent social changes. Thus the main bearers of antisemitism were the gentry. German examples also played some part in Hungarian antisemitism. At the beginning of the 1880s anti-Jewish propaganda intensified and reached a climax with the blood libel of *Tiszaeszlar in 1882, which aroused much emotion and was the cause of severe anti-Jewish disturbances in several towns. The acquittal of the accused and the condemnation of the libel by many gentile leaders did not calm feelings. In 1884 an antisemitic faction of 17 members of parliament was organized but it did not wield much influence there, owing to internal dissension. Jewish defense against antisemitism took the form of apologetic and polemic literature. In face of the emphatic attitude of the government and the main political parties against antisemitism, it was deemed unnecessary to initiate any organized action. At the turn of the century the Catholic People's Party became the main bearer of antisemitism. It regarded it as its main task to combat alleged anti-Christian and destructive ideas, especially Liberalism and Socialism, which according to clerical presentation was closely associated with the Jews. Jewish intellectuals and their allegedly harmful influence were a particular target for unrestricted attack. Jewish reaction to clerical antisemitism was stronger, more pronounced and more courageous than to the antisemitism in the 1880s, which seemed to be less menacing. Many of the tenets of antisemitism in this era became cornerstones of the anti-Jewish ideology in the inter-war period. Antisemitism was also widespread among the national minorities, especially the Slovaks, principally kindled because the Jews tended to identify themselves with the nationalist policy of the Magyars.

During World War I the Jews suffered losses in life (about 10,000 Jews fell on the battlefield) and property. At the same time, anti-Jewish feeling was strong having increased because of the presence of numerous Jewish refugees from Galicia, which had been occupied by the Russians, and through the activities of Jews in the war economy.

Internal Life during the 19th Century

In origin, spoken language, and cultural tradition and customs, Hungarian Jewry was divided into three sections: the Jews of the northwestern districts (Oberland) of Austrian and Moravian origin, who spoke German or a western dialect of Yiddish; the Jews of the northeastern districts (Unterland) mostly of Galician origin, who spoke an eastern dialect of Yiddish; and the Jews of central Hungary, the overwhelming majority of whom spoke Hungarian. In the classification of the inhabitants according to nationality, the overwhelming majority of the Jews in Hungary declared themselves members of the Hungarian nation; Jewish nationality was not officially recognized and the Jews thus became a party in the struggle between the ruling Magyar nation and the national minorities of Hungary. The internal life of the Jews of Hungary during the 19th century was marked by polemics between the Orthodox on the one hand and those advocating modern culture, integration, and *assimilation on the other. At the beginning of the century, a strict Orthodox trend was established in Hungary under the leadership of Moses *Sofer of Pressburg. This town became a spiritual center for the Orthodox Jews of Hungary, and its yeshivah the most important in central Europe; it exerted much influence over the Hungarian communities and even beyond them.

From the 1830s, Haskalah made its appearance in Hungary, and the movement of religious *Reform, whose leading spokesmen there were Aaron *Chorin and Leopold *Loew, spread to several communities. Extreme Reform did not strike roots in Hungary, but the wish to introduce reforms in education and religious life made progress and aroused violent opposition from the Orthodox. The polemics between the Orthodox and the reformers (who in Hungary were referred to as *Neologists gained in intensity to become a central issue at the General Jewish Congress convened by the government in 1868.

The Congress was called in order to define the basis for autonomous organization of the Jewish community. It was attended by 220 delegates (126 Neologists, and 94 Orthodox). The conflict between the factions was aggravated when the majority refused to accept the demands of the Orthodox on the validity of the laws of the Shulḥan Arukh in the regulations of the communities. A section of the Orthodox opposition left the Congress, which continued with its task and established regulations for the organization of the communities and Jewish education. The organizational structure was to be based on the existence of local communities, on regional unions of communities, and on a central office which was to be responsible for relations between the authorities and the communities. The Orthodox did not accept these regulations, and particularly opposed those concerning the existence of a single community in every place. They appealed to Parliament to exempt them from the authority of these regulations. Parliament consented to their demands (1870) and the Orthodox began to organize themselves within separate communities. There were also communities which did not join any side and retained their pre-Congress status (the *status quo communities). The threefold split left its imprint on the internal organization and life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust.

Moses Sofer and his school decisively influenced the development of Orthodox Jewry in western and central Hungary. Torah study became widespread among large sections of Orthodox Jewry, and yeshivot were established in every large community. The most renowned of these, besides that of Pressburg, were those of *Galanta, Eisenstadt, *Papa, Huszt (*Khust), and Szatmar (*Satu-Mare). During the 19th century the Hungarian rabbinate was of a high standard and produced halakhists, authors of religious works, and community leaders, such as Sofer's son Abraham Samuel Benjamin *Sofer and grandson Simḥah Bunem *Sofer, Moses Schick, and Judah Aszód (1794–1866) in Szerdahely (Mercurea), Aaron David Deutsch (1812–78) in Balassagyarmat, Solomon *Ganzfried, and others. Torah literature underwent a considerable development, and a place of importance was held by learned periodicals in this sphere.

*Ḥasidism spread in the northeastern regions of Hungary, where it did not encounter violent opposition from the rabbis. Isaac Taub is regarded as having introduced Ḥasidism into Hungary; after his death the Ḥasidim there gathered around Moses *Teitelbaum in Satoraljaujhely. He founded a ḥasidic-rabbinical dynasty which was active in Maramarossziget (Sighet) and its surroundings. Another center of Ḥasidim was Munkacs (*Mukachevo), in Carpathian Russia, where Isaac Elimelech Shapira settled. In addition, the dynasties of the ẓaddikim of *Belz, Zanz, and *Vizhnitz had considerable influence in Hungary. Ḥasidism left its imprint on the Jews of the northeastern regions, and differences in customs and way of life arose between the Ḥasidim in Hungary and the section influenced by Pressburg and its school.

Jewish communities in Hungary, 1910 and 1946. Based on R. L. Braham (ed.), Hungarian Jewish Studies, New York, 1966. Jewish communities in Hungary, 1910 and 1946. Based on R. L. Braham (ed.), Hungarian Jewish Studies, New York, 1966.

From the close of the 19th century, assimilation became widespread within Hungarian Jewry and there was an increase in apostasy especially among the upper classes. Mixed marriage became a common occurrence, particularly in the capital.

Attachment to Ereẓ Israel was already ingrained within Hungarian Jewry from the period of Sofer, upon whose recommendation some of his distinguished disciples had emigrated to Ereẓ Israel where they ranked among the leaders of the Ashkenazi yishuv during the middle of the 19th century. During the *Ḥibbat Zion period, Josef *Natonek was active in Hungary, and some believe that this activity influenced Theodor *Herzl, who was born in Budapest and spent his childhood and youth in Hungary. The nationalist ideal and political Zionism, however, only seriously attracted a limited circle of the academic youth, the intellectuals, and a minority of Orthodox Jewry, while assimilationist circles and the overwhelming majority of the Orthodox were sharply and firmly opposed to them. The Kolel Ungarn (Hungarian Community) in Jerusalem (see *Ḥalukkah) was a center of extremist opposition to Zionism in Ereẓ Israel, and the *Neturei Karta faction later developed from it.

1919 to 1939

The Communist regime which came to power in Hungary after its defeat in World War I included a considerable number of Jews in the upper ranks of the government led by Béla *Kun. After the Communist revolution had been suppressed, the establishment of the new regime was accompanied by riots and acts of violence against the Jews – "The White Terror" – the number of whose victims has been estimated at 3,000 dead.

With the stabilization of the political situation, the acts of violence abated, but the declared policy of the government remained antisemitic. In 1920, a *numerus clausus bill was passed, restricting the number of Jews in the higher institutions of learning to 5%. The situation improved while Stephen Bethlen was prime minister (1921–31), and the negative reactions aroused by the anti-Jewish policy weakened this tendency, even though widespread antisemitic activity was uninterruptedly carried on. In 1928 an amendment was introduced to the numerus clausus act, but the restrictions were not entirely abolished.

Another act of the same year granted the Jews the same right of representation in the Upper House of Parliament as the other religious communities. Rabbis Immanuel *Loew for the Neologists and Koppel *Reich for the Orthodox were elected to sit there. During the first few years after World War I, Zionist activity was brought to a halt by the government, but in 1927 the regulations of the Zionist Organization were again ratified and it was authorized to renew its organizational and propaganda activities.

The relative tranquilization in the situation of the Jews in Hungary also continued after the resignation of Bethlen and the rise to power of the Right. A sharp anti-Jewish turn took place during the late 1930s as a result of the strengthening of the Rightist circles and growing German-Nazi influence. In 1938 the "First Jewish Law" was presented to Parliament; it restricted the number of Jews in the liberal professions, in the administration, and in commercial and industrial enterprises to 20%. The term "Jew" included not only members of the Jewish religion, but also those who became apostates after 1919 or who had been born of Jewish parents after that date. The bill aroused objections from the opposition parties, but it was ratified by both Houses of Parliament. In 1939 the "Second Jewish Law" was passed; it extended the application of the term "Jew" on a racial basis and came to include some 100,000 Christians (apostates or their children) and also reduced the number of Jews in economic activity, fixing it at 5%; the political rights of the Jews were also restricted. As a result of these laws, the sources of livelihood of 250,000 Hungarian Jews were closed for them.

One reaction of the Jews to the anti-Jewish legislation was expressed by their emphasis on their patriotic attachment to Hungary, voiced by their official representatives; the Jews generally believed that the anti-Jewish current was only a fleeting phenomenon. Jewish communal organizations, led by the community of Budapest, began to develop ramified social aid activities to assist those ousted from economic life. Within certain sections of the community conversions increased; there were up to 5,000 apostates after the enactment of the First Jewish Law. However, wide circles of the Jewish public reacted by a return to Judaism, through fostering Jewish values, literature, and religious education. Zionism was strengthened and aliyah from Hungary to Ereẓ Israel increased.

Hungarian Jewry in the interwar period underwent great changes. Following the dismemberment of the country after World War I, the number of Jews was reduced by about a half (473,000 in 1920). Their number further declined during the 1920s and 1930s. The demographic decline of Hungarian Jewry in this period is evident by the sharp decline in the younger age groups (0–20) and increase in the older age groups. There was a marked tendency in the interwar years to concentrate in towns, especially in the capital. Over half of Hungary's Jewish population lived in Greater Budapest. The Neolog communities had 65% of the Jews, as against 29% Orthodox, and 5% status quo. This distribution was due to the fact that the great Orthodox centers of prewar times were ceded to the successor states.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

N. Katzburg, in: Sinai, 31 (1952), 339–52, incl. bibl.; J. Bergel, Geschichte der ungarischen Juden (1879); Magyar Zsidó Szemle, (1884) 1–65 (1948); IMIT; MHJ; Zs. Groszman, A magyar zsidók a xix. század közepén, 18491870 (1917); L. Venetianer, A magyar zsidóság története a honfoglalástól a világháború kitöréséig (1922), incl. bibl.; J. Eisner (comp.), Az Izraelita hitfelekezet és hitközségeket érintö tȯrvények és rendeletek gyujteménye (1925); S. Stern, Die politischen und kulturellen Kaempfe der Juden in Ungarn vom Jahre 18481871 (thesis, Vienna, 1932), incl. bibl.; N. László, Die geistige und soziale Entwicklung der Juden in Ungarn in der ersten Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts (thesis, Berlin, 1934); J. Zsoldos (ed.), 18481849 a magyar zsidóság életében (1948); S. Roth, Juden im ungarischen Kulturleben in der zweiten Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts (1934), incl. bibl.; N. Katzburg, Antishemiyyut be-Hungaryah (1969), incl. bibl.; R.A. Kann, in: JSOS, 7 (1945), 357–86. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS: M. Kolosváry-Borcsa, A zsidókérdés magyarországi irodalma (c. 1943); N. Katzburg, in: Sinai, 40 (1957), 113–26; 164–76; 248–55; 303–20; MHJ, 1–12 (1903–69); B. Wachstein, Die Grabschriften des alten Judenfriedhofes in Eisenstadt (1922); idem, Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der Juden in Eisenstadt und den Siebengemeinden (1926). LEGAL STATUS: R. Hajnóczi (comp.), A magyar zsidók közjoga… törvények és rendeletek gyüjteménye (1925); Stein, A zsidók (1909); J. Eisner (comp.), Az israelita hitfelekezet és hitközégeket erintö törvények és rendeletek gyüjteménye (1925); Stein, A zsidók köz és magánjoga Magyarországon (n.d.). GENERAL WORKS: J. Bergl, Geschichte der ungarischen Juden (1879); L. Venetianer, A magyar zsidóság története (1922; incl. bibl.); J.J. (L.) Greenwald (Grunwald), Toysnt Yor Yidish Lebn in Ungarn (1945). ROMAN PERIOD AND MIDDLE AGES: A. Scheiber, Corpus Inscriptionum Hungariae Judaicarum (1960); idem, Hebraeische Kodexueberreste in ungarlaendischen Einbandstafeln (1969); idem, in: HJ, 14 (1952), 145–58; F. Fülep, in: Acta Archaelogica, 18 (1966), 93–98; S. Kóhn, A zsidók története Magyarországon (1884); L. Zolnay, in: New Hungarian Quarterly, 7 (1966); A. Büchler, in: Bernard Heller Jubilee Volume (1941). TURKISH PERIOD: F. Grünwald, in: Bernard Heller Jubilee Volume (1941); N. Katzburg, in: Sinai, 31 (1952), 339–52; A. Scheiber, in: Acta Orientalia, 12 (1961), 107–38 (Ger.). MODERN TIMES: B. Bernstein, in: David Kaufmann Memorial Volume (1900); A. Sas, in: Juedisches Archiv, 1 (1928), 1–6, 33–39; 2 (1929), 34–44; Zs. Groszman, A magyar zsidók V. Ferdinánd alatt (1916); idem, Amagyar zsidok a XIX. század közepén (1917); J. Zsoldos (ed.), 184849 a magyar zsidóság éléteben (1948); J. Eötvös, "A zsidók emancipatiója," in: Budapesti Szemle (1840), and other editions; S. Stern, Die politischen und kulturellen Kaempfe der Juden in Ungarn vom Jahre 18481871 (thesis, Vienna, 1932), incl. bibl.; R. Kann, in: JSOS, 7 (1945), 357–86; N. Katzburg, Antishemiyuth b'Hungaria 18671914 (1969), incl. bibl.; idem, in: Zion, 22 (1957), 119–48; idem, in: Bar-Ilan… Sefer ha-Shanah, 3 (1965), 225–51; 4–5 (1967), 270–88; 7–8 (1970), 303–43; B. Klein, in: JSOS, 28 (1966), 79–98; J. Halmi, Das schwarze Buch ueber Kecskemét (1921); Joint Foreign Committee, The Jewish Minority in Hungary (1926). TRANSYLVANIA: Transylvania, Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia: Z.Y. Abraham, Le-Korot ha-Yehudim be-Transylvania (1951); M. Weinberger, in: Jewish Studies in Memory of Michael Guttmann (1946); EG, 7 (1959), vol. on Karpatorus. INTERNAL LIFE: Y. Ben-David, in: Zion, 17 (1952), 101–28; N. Katzburg, in: Bar-Ilan… Sefer ha-Shanah, 2 (1964), 163–77; M. Eliav, in: Sinai, 51 (1962), 127–42; idem, in: Zion, 27 (1962), 59–86; M.Z. Kaddari, in: Sinai, 59 (1966), 185–90; J.J. (L.) Greenwald (Grunwald), Toledot Mishpaḥat Rosenthal (1921); idem, Le-Toledot ha-Reformazyon ha-Datit be-Germanyah u-ve-Ungaryah (1948); N. László, Die geistige und soziale Entwicklung der Juden in Ungarn in der ersten Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts (thesis, Berlin, 1934); S. Roth, Juden im ungarischen Kulturleben in der zweiten Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts (1934), incl. bibl.; M. Grünwald, Zsidó Biedermeyer (1937); M. Pelli, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 63–79 (Heb.); A. Hochmuth, Leopold Löew als Theologe, Historiker und Publizist (1871); W.N. Löw, Leopold Löew. A Biography (1912); M.J. Burak, The Ḥatam Sofer (1967), incl. bibl; J. Katz, in: Studies… in Honour of Gershom Sholem (1968); L. Löew, Der juedische Kongress in Ungarn (1871); N. Katzburg, in: Aresheth, 4 (1966), 322–67, incl. bibl.; idem, in: Divrei ha-Congress ha-Olami ha-Revi'i le-Madda'ei ha-Yahadut, 2 (1968), 173–5 (Heb. sect.; Eng. summary, 191–2). EDUCATION: J. Barna and F. Csukási (eds.), A magyar zsidó felekezet… iskoláinak monográfiája, 1–2 (1896); B. Mandl, Das juedische Schulwesen in Ungarn unter Josef II (17801790) (1903); A. Moskovits, Jewish Education in Hungary (18481948) (1964). SPIRITUAL TRENDS: L. Löw, in: Gesammelte Schriften, 4 (1898); J.J.(L.) Greenwald (Grunwald), in: Ha-Ẓofeh me-Ereẓ Hagar, 2 (1912); idem, in: Ha-Ẓofeh le-Ḥokhmat Yisrael 5 (1921); S. Kohn, Die Sabbatharier in Siebenbüergen (1894); Simon Péchi Szombatos imádságos könyve (1914); N. Ben-Menachem, in: Israel Elfenbein Jubilee Volume (1963); idem, Mi-Safrut Yisrael be-Hungaryah (1958). ZIONISM: S. Hakohen Weingarten, Ha-Ḥatam Sofer ve-Talmidav (1945); Y.Z. Zehav i, Me-ha-Ḥatam Sofer ve-ad Herzl (1967). PERIODICALS: Magyar Zsidó Szemle, 1 (1884)–65 (1948); Izraelita Magyar Irodalmi Társulat Evkönyve 1895–1918; 1929–1943; 1948; Ha-Ẓofeh me-Ereẓ Hagar, 1 (1911)–4 (1915); continued as Ha-Ẓofeh le-Ḥokhmat Yisrael, 5 (1921)–15 (1931); continued as Ha-Soker, 1 (1933)–5 (1938); Magyar Rabbik, 1905–08 HOLOCAUST PERIOD: R.L. Braham (ed.), The Hungarian Jewish Catastrophe: a Selected and Annotated Bibliography (1962); idem (ed.), Hungarian-Jewish Studies, 2 vols. (1966–69); idem, The Destruction of Hungarian Jewry: a Documentary Account, 2 vols. (1963); idem, Eichmann and the Destruction of Hungarian Jewry (1961); Institute of Jewish Affairs, New York, European Jewry Ten Years after the War (1956), 60–81; J. Lévai (comp.), Black Book of the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry (1948); idem (ed.), Eichmann in Hungary: Documents (1961); idem, in: Yad Vashem Studies, 5 (1963), 69–103; L. Rothkirchen, ibid., 7 (1968), 127–46; I. Benoschofsky and E. Karsai, Vádirat a nácizmus ellen, 3 vols. (1958–67), index; E. Landau (ed.), Der Kastner Bericht… (1961); M. Sandberg, My Longest Year (1968); Ha-Yo'eẓ ha-Mishpati la-Memshalah Neged Adolf Eichmann. Eduyyot, 2 (1963), 830–975. S. Rozman, Zikhron Kedoshim li-Yhudei Carpatoruss-Marmarosh (Yid., 1968), 214–327. CONTEMPORARY PERIOD: P. Meyer et al., Satellites (1953), 373–489; American Jewish Congress, Jewish Communities of Eastern Europe (1967), 30–37; Kovács, in: JSOS, 8 (1946), 147–60; Kutas, in: Journal of Central European Affairs, 8 (1949), 377–89; AJYB (1945– ); R.L. Braham and M.H. Hauer, Jews in the Communist World: a Bibliography (1963), 25–29; P. Lendvai, Anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe (1972), 301–25.