Modern Israel & the
(1970 - 1979)
- 1970 - 1975
- 1971 - 1976
- 1972 - 1977
- 1973 - 1978
- 1974 - 1979
||Israel participates in the Soccer World
||Heavy fighting on Golan
terrorists blow up Swissair jet
in mid air
||USSR steps up missile shipment
Soviet pilots are flying operational
missions for Egyptian airforce
||Israel warns against installation
of Soviet missiles close to Suez Canal
||Terrorists attack schoolbus,
killing 12 (9 of whom were children),
and wounding 24 in Avivim, Israel.
| June 25
||Secretary Rogers discloses
U.S. initiative to end war
of attrition along Suez Canal for
90 days and resumption of stalled Jarring
after Nasser visit
to Moscow, accepts U.S. initiative
U.S. initiative, is assured of continued military
and economic aid from the U.S.
||Cease-fire goes into effect
on Suez Canal
cease-fire by moving missiles into “stand-still” zone.
Israel protests to U.S.
of Attrition with Egypt
||Refusenicks are sentenced
to death in the USSR for hijacking an
||Heavy fighting between
Jordanian army and Palestinian terrorists.
Syria invades Jordan. U.S. moves Sixth
Fleet to Eastern Mediterranean
September: clashes between Jordanian
forces and the PLO, in an attempt by
the PLO to take control of the country,
end in Jordanian victory; the PLO regroups
||Three airliners holding
over 400 passengers were hijacked, and
taken to the Jordanian airport by the
PFLP. The hostages were released in exchange
for terrorists held in Germany, Switzerland,
martial law in Jordan and installs military
governments to fight terrorists
||Prime Minister Meir meets
President Nixon. Israel refuses to return
to Jarring talks until Egyptian missiles
||Arab heads of state agree
on formula to end hostitilies in Jordan
||President Nasser dies,
succeeded by Anwar
|| UN General Assembly calls
for 90 day extension of cease-fire and
resumption of Jarring talks
||The Black Panthers movement
becomes active in Israel among North
African Jews, and begins protesting against
social conditions; violent demonstrations
erupt in Jerusalem.
||The three millionth citizen arrives
||Demands of Soviet Jews to immigrate
to Israel continue to intensify.
informs Jarring Egypt willing
to envisage peace arrangement with Israel
- on his conditions.
||Israel informs Jarring it
is keen to negotiate peace arrangements
with Arab states but cannot give prior
committments on borders and other items
to be negotiated. Jarring mission deadlocked
||Fighting erupts again in Jordan between
the King's forces and Palestinian terrorists
Syria and Libya sign agreement to form
Federation of Arab Republics
USSR sign 15-year treaty of friendship
| July 23
granted full powers by Arab Socialist
Union to take action to recover Arab
lands from Israel.
off diplomatic ties with Jordan following
||Jordanian Premier Wasfi
Tal assassinated in Cairo by Palestinian
Minister Golda Meir meets President
Nixon in Washington
||Ordination of first (Reform) Jewish woman
rabbi in U.S.
||Hussein announces plan
to make Jordan federal
state. Israel, Egypt, Jordan,
Libya reject the plan
off diplomatic relations with Jordan because
of Hussein's federal plan.
||Special paratrooper unit
of the IDF,
dressed as Arabs, free hostages on a
hijacked Sabena plane in Lod.
terrorists murder 27 people (including
21 Christian pilgrims from Puerto Rico)
at Lod Airport.
||Sadat terminates services
of Soviet military advisers
||Stepped up Soviet military
shipments to Jordan,
including misiles for the defense of
||Eleven Israeli athletes
are murdered at the Munich
Olympic Games by Black September,
a terrorist group affiliated with Fatah.
(The same group also hijacks a plane
en route to Tel Aviv and holds the passengers
and crew hostage for 23 hours. The hostages
are rescued by IDF counterrorism commandos.)
||Israel strikes at terrorist
bases in Jordan and
||West Germany releases Munich
killers after German airliner is hijacked
||USSR agrees to restore
missiles to Egypt's
air defence system
Committee on Jewish Laws and Standards
(CJLS) of the Rabbinical Assembly approves
minority opinion allowing women to count
in a minyan; by 1996, fully 83% of Conservative
synagogues counted women in their minyan.
||Saudi government buys 25%
participation interest in Aramco.
||Prime Minister Meir meets
President Nixon in Washington
| March 1
kill U.S. Ambassador, his deputy head
of mission, and Belgian diplomat in Khartum
himself military governor of Egypt,
and declares martial law
Kazir becomes Israel's fourth president.
MIG-21 planes downed in aerial battle
off Syrian coast.
Yom Kippur War begins with Egyptian
and Syrian forces attacking across
1967 ceasefire lines (Egypt crosses
Suez Canal, Syrian forces attack Golan
battle in history fought with only missiles
between Israel and Jordan.
All Syrian ships sunk; no Israeli losses.
in Sinai fails
driven back in Golan. Israel stablizes
new line in Sinai
to within 28 miles from Damascus
Jordanian and Iraqi forces fighting with
Syrians in the Golan Heights
||First IDF forces
cross Suez Cana
massive sea and air lift of Soviet arms
to Egypt and Jordan,
U.S. starts air lift to Israel
attache in Washington is killed by terrorists.
||Arab Oil Embargo
announced. Arab oil producing states
announce 10 percent reduction in oil
production and impose total embargo on
U.S. and Netherlands.
| October 17
asks Congress to appropriate $2.2 billion
for emergency aid to Israel
its bridgehead on West Bank of Suez Canal,
besieging Third Egyptian Army
Resolution 338 is passed. First
cease-fire declared on southern front.
declared on southern front; cease-fire
on northern front.
orders world-wide alert as fear of Soviet
military intervention on Egypt's behalf
establishes UNEF to supervise cease fire.
arrives in Washington for talks with
President Nixon and Secretary Kissinger
(6 point agreement for the stabilisation
of the cease-fire) signed with Egypt at "Kilometer
POWs with Egypt.
decides to set up state commission of
inquiry (Agranat Commission) into the
beginnning of the war.
Ben-Gurion dies and is buried at
his home in Kibbutz Sde Boker in the
Peace conference on Middle East
||Shuttle diplomacy by Dr.
Kissinger to bring about Israel-Egypt
separation of forces agreement
of forces agreement is signed in kilometer
101 on the Cairo-Suez road
Disengagement Agreement signed
between Israel and Egypt.
||Continued war of attrition
along the Israel-Syria cease-fire line
||Israeli army deployed along
new lines in Sinai in accordance with
| March 18
||Arab states lift oil embargo
on the U.S.
||Saudi government incesases
its participation interest in Aramco
||In Kiryat Shemona, Israel,
18 are killed, 8 of whom were children,
by PFLP terrorists who detonated their
explosives during a failed rescue attempt
by Israeli authorities.
Meirs government resigns,
including Defense Minister Moshe Dayan
and Foreign Minister Abba Eban, after
the criticism of the government's handling
of the Yom Kippur War.
||Terrorists murder 26 people
(22 of them children) at a school in
Heights Disengagement Agreement signed
between Jordan and
Rabin becomes Prime Minister.
||U.S. President Nixon visits
Israel. First visit from U.S. president.
||IDF completes its withdrawal
from the “Syrian bulge” in
the framework of the Israel-Syria Disengagement
of Forces agreement
there is no room for another state between
Israel and Jordan
Science Foundation is founded.
||Ordination of first Reconstructionist Jewish woman
rabbi, Sandy Eisenberg Sasso. She
serves a joint Conservative-Reconstructionist-affiliated
congregation, making her the first
woman rabbi to serve a Conservative
||President Ford assures
Israel the U.S. will honor its committments
||Prime Minister Rabin pays
an official visit to Washington, holds
talks with President Ford and senior
|| The General
Assembly votes 105 against 4 to invite
the PLO to participate in the debate
on the “Palestine question.”
||Arab summit conference
in Rabat determines that the PLO is the
sole representative of the Palestinian
Arabs and removes Jordan from
a future role in the West Bank
||Reacting to the Rabat decisions,
Israel announces there will be no talks
with the PLO
the General Assembly calls for the liquidation
of Israel and the establishment of a “secular
||An IAF helicopter crashes
in Haifa bay. The crew survives.
||UNESCO condemns Israel
for its archaeological digs in Jerusalem.
observer status at the UN.
||71 Senators condemn recent
UN resolutions against Israel
||Good Fence Policy instituted between Israel and Lebanon.
||Israel unveils its first locally manufactured
figher jet, the Kfir, on Independence
||The 100,000th immigrant from the USSR
||The West Bank city of Ma'ale Adumim
||Settlers establish the town of Elon
Moreh without the authorization of the
government, which evacuates them.
||Saudi, Kuwaiti, and Venezuelan concessions
come to an end.
||Terrorists murder 18 civilians
and three IDF soldiers
in an attack on a Tel
||Talks with Secretary Kissinger
are suspended. President Ford announces
a review of U.S. arms deliveries to Israel
||Sadat announces the opening
of the Suez Canal on June 5
||President Ford pledges
another effort for peace in the Middle
||The start of the 1975-76
civil war in Lebanon
the European Economic Community sign
an agreement giving Israel Associate
||Terorist bomb kills 15
people (including two children) at Zion
Square in Jerusalem.
||The Suez Canal is reopened
||Rabin holds talks in Washington
with President Ford
||Black Muslims in
America cultivate Sunni recognition.
||President Gerald Ford signs
legislation including the Jackson-Vanik
Amendment, which ties U.S. trade
benefits to the Soviet Union to freedom
of emigration for Jews.
||First residents move into Yamit
||Second Sinai agreement
signed with Egypt.
Israel-Egypt interim agreement is signed
in Jerusalem and Alexandria. An Israel-U.S.
protocol is also signed.
an associate member of the European Common
the military protocol after U.S. Congress
approves U.S. presence in Sinai. Abu
Rudeis oil field handed to Egypt
||Joint Israel-Egypt military
commission meets for the first time in
General Assembly passes a resolution
to be a form of racism.
||Terrorist bomb in Jerusalem kills
||The Security Council opens
Middle East debate. PLO invites, Israel
boycotts the sessions.
||The U.S. vetoes a draft
resolution in the Security Council. The
discussion ends with no resolution being
|| Prime Minister Rabin pays
an official visit to the U.S., addresses
a joint session of Congress
||IDF completes withdrawl
under the Interim Agreement
|| The U.S. vetoes an anti-Israel
draft resolution at the conclusion of
a Security Council discussion on the
situation in the West Bank
Day is marked by Israeli
Arabs for the first time.
||Elections are held in 24
municipal and local councils in the West
||Air France airliner enroute
from Tel Aviv to Paris is hijacked after
a stop over in Athens. It is flown to Entebbe.
||IDF troops mount dramatic
rescue of hostages taken to Entebbe,
Uganda. Three passengers and the commander
are killed during the operation.
||Israeli Rina Mor wins the Miss Universe
||Israel and the U.S. initial
an agreement for the supply to Israel
of two nuclear reactors.
||Terrorists attack El Al
passengers in Istanbul airport
||At its sixty-sixth session
held in Cairo, the Arab
League Council accepts Palestine,
as represented by the PLO, as a full
member of the Arab League equal to all
||The General Assembly adopts
a resolution for a nuclear free zone
in the Middle East
||Prime Minister Rabin submits
his government's resignation, after controversy
erupted when F-15 fighters landed after
the onset of Shabbat.
||U.S. Israel Binational
Agricultural Research and Development
Fund (BARD) and the Binational
(BIRD) Foundation are established.
||Prime Minister Rabin visits
Washington for talks with President Carter
||President Carter announces
new U.S. policy for the Middle East
Rabin announces his resignation
Party leader following allegations
of foreign currency violations.
Tel Aviv basketball team wins European
championship for the first time.
||A Yassur helicopter crashes
during exercise near Jericho and
54 paratroops are killed.
||The United States adopts anti-boycott
||Likud party wins elections
held for the Ninth
Knesset. This markes the first loss
of power for the Labor Party.
government after Knesset elections, end
of 30 years of Labor rule. Menachem
Begin becomes Prime Minister.
||The U.S. rejects Israeli
request to sell 24 Kfir fighter-bombers
||Sadat says he will end
the state of war with Israel only after
complete Israeli withdrawl and will consider
a peace treaty 5 years after last Israeli
soldier leaves the territories.
||Prime Minister Begin and
President Carter confer in Washington
and reach agreement on the need for Israel
to negotiate with the Arab states in
the framwork of a Geneva conference in
the fall of 1977.
||Carter says that if PLO
accepts Resolution 242 in its entirety,
the U.S. would then start discussions
with this organization.
||Israel rejects any idea
of PLO participation in the peace negotiations
even if it accepts Resolution 242.
|| U.S. and the Soviet Union
issue a joint communique on the Middle
East, which is welcomed by Arabs and
criticized by Israel.
||Israel government launches
new economic program, floats the pound
and makes it freely convertible, controls
on foreign currency abolished.
||Israeli jets attack PLO
base near Tyre. President Sadat announces
his readiness to come to Jerusalem to
address the Knesset.
||Begin broadcasts to the
Egyptian people and invites Sadat to
Jerusalem for peace talks.
||Begin sends written invitation
to Sadat to come to Jerusalem. Sadat
says his trip is a holy mission.
||Visit of Egyptian
President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.
||After praying at the al
Aksa mosque Egyptian President Sadat addresses
the Knesset calling for Israeli withdrawal
and the establishment of a Palestinain
||Sadat meets with Knesset
factions and in a press conference with
Begin calls on Israel to make drastic
decisions to reciprocate his visit. Begin-Sadat
agreed communique says “no more
wars.” Sadat leaves
diplomatic relations with Jordan,
Iraq, Libya, Algeria and South Yemen
in retaliation for their decision to
suspend relations with Egypt in
protest against Sadat's initiative. The “rejectionist” Arab
states conclude a 5-day summit meeting
||Cairo conference opens.
PM Begin arrives in U.S. for talks with
President Carter on the Israel peace
||Begin and Carter confer
in Washington. Sadat invites Begin for
talks with him in Egypt
Minister Menachem Begin confers
President Sadat in Ismailiya, Egypt.
||Ismaliya summit concluded
with a joint Begin-Sadat press conference.
Disagreement over the Palestinian issue
prevented a joint communique.
|| Carter praises Begin peace
plan, but prefers a Palestinian homeland
or entity linked to Jordan.
||Israel wins the Eurovision Song Contest.
||Karnei Shomron settled
||Carter and Sadat meet in
Aswan, issue the “Aswan proclamation” calling
for the recognition of the legitimate
rights of the Palestinian people and
their participation in the determination
of their future.
||Carter administration will
propose to Congress a package deal for
the sale of jet plans to Israel, Egypt and
threatens to withdraw Israel request
for jet planes if Congress blocks sale
to Saudi Arabia and Egypt.
||Coastal Road Massacre:
Arab terrorists hijack buses on the Haifa-Tel
Aviv road leaving 37 civilians dead and
scores injured. Begin postpones his U.S.
visit and Weizman returns home.
|| PLO forces flee Southern
Lebanon. Beirut calls on UN to ward off
an Israeli attack, U.S. declines to cite
PLO as responsible for the bus attack.
Defense Force crosses the Lebanese
border, seizes a strip of 7 miles along
the border. Begin says IDF will remain
in Lebanon until an agreeement reached
ensuring the area no longer serve as
Litani launched in southern Lebanon
over entire Southern Lebanon to the Litani
River as U.S. seeks Security Council
Resolution that will dispatch an international
force to replace the IDF. Security Council
adopts Resolution 425 calling for immediate
withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon
and the stationing of a UN force there.
||Begin and Carter hold two
days of talks in White House. U.S. and
Israel are in disagreement over a number
of issues. UN forces arrive in Southern
withdrawl from Lebanon
||Peace Now is founded.
Navon become Israel's fifth president.
||Yiddish writer Isaac
Bashevis Singer receives Nobel
||The Diaspora Museum opens
||Senate approves the sale
of warplanes to Israel, Egypt and
Saudi Arabia. Israel expresses its regret,
Arab leaders are pleased.
to Israel its Six Point Peace Plan based
on the return of Gaza to Egypt and
the West Bank to Jordan.
Israel rejects the plan.
David Accords include framework
for comprehensive peace in the Middle
East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.
||The Camp David conference
ends in the signing, at the White House,
of two agreements:
the first dealing with an Israel-Egypt
peace treaty and the restoration of Sinai
to the latter; the second, a framework
agreement establishing a format for negotions
on a five-year autonomy regime in the West
Bank and Gaza region.
Israel-Egypt peace talks to begin shortly
with the aim of signing the treaty no
later than 17 December.
||The Israeli Government
approves the Camp David agreements by
an 11-2 vote. Commerce and Industry Minister
||The Knesset approves the
Camp David agreement by a vote of 84
for, 19 against, 17 abstentations.
||Opening of the talks at
Blair House on the Israel-Egypt peace
treaty. Talks run into difficulties over
teh linkage between the treaty and developments
in teh West Bank and Gaza; oil supply
for Israel, a target date for teh establishment
of the autonomy and Egypt's demands for
early Israeli withdrawal.
||The Israel Government adopts
the text of the Peace Treaty, but Egypt introduces
new demands regarding teh stages of withdrawal
from Sinai and the oil rights Israel
is to have on wells it discovered and
developed in Sinai.
||American neo-Nazis receive
permission to march in Skokie. After
Supreme Court denies Skokie's request
to cancel the march, the Nazis hold a
rally in Marquette Park, Chicago instead.
Sharansky is convicted of espionage
and receives a 13 year sentence.
Minister Begin and Egyptian
President Sadat are awarded the Nobel
||The Hebrew University returns to its
rebuilt pre-1948 campus on Mount Scopus.
||JTS Faculty Senate tables
issue of ordaining women because of “provoking
unprecedented divisions . . . . The bitter
divergence of opinion threatens to inflict
||A revolution in Iran forces
the Shah to flee and an Islamic Republic
is created under Ayatollah Khomeini.
Americans are taken hostage and held
for 444 days in the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
||Begin-Carter talks in the
White House. After initial serious disagreement,
a last minute solution is reached on
some remaining issues.
||President Carter visits
Israel and wins additional concessions
||President Sadat accepts
the last minute changes brought from
Jerusalem by President Carter, thus paving
the way for teh signing of the peace
||The Israel Government approves
the text of the peace treaty.
||The Knesset approves the
Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty, by a vote
of 95 for, 18 against, 2 abstentations,
||Peacy treaty between Egypt
and Israel signed in Washington, D.C.
Peace Treaty signed and Arab relations
with Egypt are
||Prime Minister Begin pays
an official visit to Cairo, meets with
||The first Israeli vessel
flying the Israeli flag sails through
the Suez Canal. President Carter again
terms Israeli settlements in Judea and
Samaria an obstacle to peace and contrary
to international law.
||El Arish is handed over
to Egypt within
the implementation of the first phase
of Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Israeli
and Egyptian negotiators meet in Beersheva
for the first round of the autonomy talks
in the presence of Secretary of State
||In an air battle over Lebanon,
Israeli air force plans down six Syrian
||Newly appointed U.S. special
envoy for the autonomy talks, Robert
Strauss, meets with Prime Minister Begin
in Jerusalem and President Sadat in Alexandria.
||Prime Minister Begin and
President Sadat meet
for two days of talks in Alexandria.
||The U.S. and the USSR agree
to replace UNEF in Sinai by UNTSO. Three
days later Israel announces its objections
to the plan.
||The Security Council terminates
the mandate of UNEF. Members of this
force will be replaced by UNTSO. Israel
opposes the plan saying it is not an
acceptable alternative multi-national
force. Israel's objections are termed
by the U.S. as “misconceptions.”
||The IDF destroys
three terrorist bases in southern Lebanon.
|| Israel air force planes,
on a reconnaissance flight over Lebanon,
clash with and down four Syrian MIG 21's.
||Ambassador Sol Linowitz
succeeds Robert Strauss as the U.S. special
envoy for the autonomous talks.
||Mt. Sinai and the Saint
Catharine region are returned to Egypt two
months ahead of schedule.
||Israel returns the Alma
oil field in A-Tour to Egypt.
||Following a meeting between
President Carter and Defense Minister Weizman,
the U.S. announces the addition of $200
million to the $2.2 billion loan included
in the special aid to
Israel in teh wake of the Israel-Egypt
Hussein becomes Iraq's head
Timeline of Jewish History