Peace Treaty Between Israel & Egypt
(March 26, 1979)
Sixteen months after Anwar Sadat's
historic visit to Israel
, the Israel-Egypt peace treaty
was signed by Sadat
, Israeli PM Menachem Begin
and U.S. President Jimmy Carter
in Washington. The treaty contained nine articles, a military annex, an annex on bilateral relation, agreed minutes interpreting the main articles, the withdrawal schedule and agreements on exchange of ambassadors, security arrangements and autonomy talks.
In a separate U.S.-Israel Memorandum of Agreement
concluded on the same day, the U.S. spelled out its commitments to Israel in case the treaty would be violated, the role of the U.N. in enforcing peace and the future supply of military and economic aid to Israel.
The Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and
the Government of the State of Israel;
Convinced of the urgent necessity
of the establishment of a just, comprehensive and lasting peace in
the Middle East in accordance with Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338;
Reaffirming their adherence to
the "Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp
David," dated September 17, 1978;
Noting that the aforementioned
Framework as appropriate is intended to constitute a basis for peace
not only between Egypt and Israel but also between Israel and each of
its other Arab neighbors which is prepared to negotiate peace with it
on this basis;
Desiring to bring to an end the
state of war between them and to establish a peace in which every
state in the area can live in security;
Convinced that the conclusion of
a Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel is an important step in
the search for comprehensive peace in the area and for the attainment
of settlement of the Arab- Israeli conflict in all its aspects;
Inviting the other Arab parties
to this dispute to join the peace process with Israel guided by and
based on the principles of the aforementioned Framework;
Desiring as well to develop
friendly relations and cooperation between themselves in accordance
with the United Nations Charter and the principles of international
law governing international relations in times of peace;
Agree to the following provisions
in the free exercise of their sovereignty, in order to implement the
"Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty Between Egypt
1) The state of war between the Parties will be
terminated and peace will be established between them upon the
exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
2) Israel will withdraw all its armed forces and
civilians from the Sinai behind the international boundary
between Egypt and mandated Palestine, as provided in the annexed
protocol (Annex I ), and Egypt will resume the exercise of its
full sovereignty over the Sinai.
2) Upon completion of the interim withdrawal
provided for in Annex I, the parties will establish normal and
friendly relations, in accordance with Article III (3).
The permanent boundary between Egypt and Israel is
the recognized international boundary between Egypt and the former mandated
territory of Palestine, as shown on the map at Annex II, without prejudice
to the issue of the status of the Gaza Strip. The Parties recognize
this boundary as inviolable. Each will respect the territorial integrity
of the other, including their territorial waters and airspace.
1) The Parties will apply between them the
provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the
principles of international law governing relations among states
in times of peace. In particular:
- They recognize and will respect each
other's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political
- They recognize and will respect each
other's right to live in peace within their secure and
- They will refrain from the threat or use
of force, directly or indirectly, against each other and will
settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.
2) Each Party undertakes to ensure that acts or
threats of belligerency, hostility, or violence do not originate
from and are not committed from within its territory, or by any
forces subject to its control or by any other forces stationed on
its territory , against the population, citizens or property of
the other Party. Each Party also undertakes to refrain from
organizing, instigating, inciting, assisting or participating in
acts or threats of belligerency, hostility, subversion or
violence against the other Party, anywhere, and undertakes to
ensure that perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice.
3) The Parties agree that the normal relationship
established between them will include full recognition,
diplomatic, economic and cultural relations, termination of
economic boycotts and discriminatory barriers to the free
movement of people and goods, and will guarantee the mutual
enjoyment by citizens of the due process of law. The process by
which they undertake to achieve such a relationship parallel to
the implementation of other provisions of this Treaty is set out
in the annexed protocol (Annex III).
1) In order to provide maximum security for both
Parties on the basis of reciprocity, agreed security arrangements
will be established including limited force zones in Egyptian and
Israeli territory, and United Nations forces and observers,
described in detail as to nature and timing in Annex I, and other
security arrangements the Parties may agree upon.
2) The Parties agree to the stationing of United
Nations personnel in areas described in Annex I. The Parties
agree not to request withdrawal of the United Nations personnel
and that these personnel will not be removed unless such removal
is approved by the Security Council of the United Nations, with
the affirmative vote of the five Permanent Members, unless the
Parties otherwise agree.
3) A Joint Commission will be established to
facilitate the implementation of the Treaty, as provided for in
4) The security arrangements provided for in
paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article may at the request of either
party be reviewed and amended by mutual agreement of the Parties.
1) Ships of Israel, and cargoes destined for or
coming from Israel, shall enjoy the right of free passage through
the Suez Canal and its approaches through the Gulf of Suez and
the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of the Constantinople
Convention of 1888, applying to all nations, Israeli nationals,
vessels and cargoes, as well as persons, vessels and cargoes
destined for or coming from Israel, shall be accorded non-
discriminatory treatment in all matters connected with usage of
2) The Parties consider the Strait of Tiran and
the Gulf of Aqaba to be international waterways open to all
nations for unimpeded and non-suspendable freedom of navigation
and overflight. The parties will respect each other's right to
navigation and overflight for access to either country through
the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.
1) This Treaty does not affect and shall not be
interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of
the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations.
2) The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith
their obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action or
inaction of any other party and independently of any instrument
external to this Treaty.
3) They further undertake to take all the
necessary measures for the application in their relations of the
provisions of the multilateral conventions to which they are
parties, including the submission of appropriate notification to
the Secretary General of the United Nations and other
depositaries of such conventions.
4) The Parties undertake not to enter into any
obligation in conflict with this Treaty.
5) Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations
Charter in the event of a conflict between the obligation of the
Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other
obligations, the obligations under this Treaty will be binding
1) Disputes arising out of the application or
interpretation of this Treaty shall be resolved by negotiations.
2) Any such disputes which cannot be settled by
negotiations shall be resolved by conciliation or submitted to
The Parties agree to establish a claims commission
for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.
1) This Treaty shall enter into force upon
exchange of instruments of ratification.
2) This Treaty supersedes the Agreement between
Egypt and Israel of September, 1975.
3) All protocols, annexes, and maps attached to
this Treaty shall be regarded as an integral part hereof.
4) The Treaty shall be communicated to the
Secretary General of the United Nations for registration in
accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of
the United Nations.
Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security Agreements
Concept of Withdrawal
1) Israel will complete withdrawal of all its
armed forces and civilians from the Sinai not later than three
years from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of
2) To ensure the mutual security of the Parties,
the implementation of phased withdrawal will be accompanied by
the military measures and establishment of zones set out in this
Annex and in Map 1, hereinafter
referred to as "the Zones."
3) The withdrawal from the Sinai will be
accomplished in two phases:
- The interim withdrawal behind the line
from east of El-Arish to Ras Mohammed as delineated on Map 2
within nine months from the date of exchange of instruments
of ratification of this Treaty.
The final withdrawal from the Sinai behind
the international boundary not later than three years from
the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this
4) A Joint Commission will be formed immediately
after the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty
in order to supervise and coordinate movements and schedules
during the withdrawal, and to adjust plans and timetables as
necessary within the limits established by paragraph 3, above.
Details relating to the Joint Commission are set out in Article
IV of the attached Appendix. The Joint Commission will be
dissolved upon completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the
Determination of Final Lines and Zones
1) In order to provide maximum security for both
Parties after the final withdrawal, the lines and the Zones
delineated on Map 1 are to be established and organized as
A) Zone A
1) Zone A is bounded on the east by line
A (red line) and on the west by the Suez Canal and the
east coast of the Gulf of Suez, as shown on Map 1.
An Egyptian armed force of one
mechanized infantry division and its military
installations, and field fortifications, will be in this
The main elements of that Division
will consist of:
a) Three mechanized infantry
One armed brigade.
Seven field artillery battalions
including up to 126 artillery pieces.
Seven anti-aircraft artillery
battalions including individual surface-to-air
missiles and up to 126 anti-aircraft guns of 37 mm
Up to 230 tanks.
Up to 480 armored personnel
vehicles of all types.
Up to a total of twenty-two
B) Zone B
1) Zone B is bounded by line B (green
line) on the east and by line A (red line) on the west,
as shown on Map 1.
Egyptian border units of four
battalions equipped with light weapons and wheeled
vehicles will provide security and supplement the civil
police in maintaining order in Zone B. The main elements
in the four Border Battalions will consist of up to a
total of four thousand personnel.
Land based, short range, low power,
coastal warning points of the border patrol units may be
established on the coast of this Zone.
There will be in Zone B field
fortifications and military installations for the four
C) Zone C
1) Zone C is bounded by line B (green
line) on the west and the International Boundary and the
Gulf of Aqaba on the east, as shown on Map 1.
Only United Nations forces and
Egyptian civil police will be stationed in Zone C.
The Egyptian civil police armed with
light weapons will perform normal police functions within
The United Nations Force will be
deployed within Zone C and perform its functions as
defined in Article VI of this annex.
The United Nations Force will be
stationed mainly in camps located within the following
stationing areas shown on Map 1, and will establish its
precise locations after consultations with Egypt:
a) In that part of the area in the
Sinai lying within about 20 Km. of the Mediterranean
Sea and adjacent to the International Boundary.
In the Sharm el Sheikh area
D) Zone D
1) Zone D is bounded by line D (blue
line) on the east and the international boundary on the
west, as shown on Map 1.
In this Zone there will be an Israeli
limited force of four infantry battalions, their military
installations, and field fortifications, and United
3) The Israeli forces in Zone D will not
include tanks, artillery and anti-aircraft missiles
except individual surface-to-air missiles.
4)The main elements of the four Israeli
infantry battalions will consist of up to 180 armored
personnel vehicles of all types and up to a total of four
2) Access across the international boundary shall
only be permitted through entry check points designated by each
Party and under its control. Such access shall be in accordance
with laws and regulations of each country.
3) Only those field fortifications, military
installations, forces, and weapons specifically permitted by this
Annex shall be in the Zones.
Aerial Military Regime
1) Flights of combat aircraft and reconnaissance
flights of Egypt and Israel shall take place only over Zones A
and D, respectively.
2) Only unarmed, non-combat aircraft of Egypt and
Israel will be stationed in Zones A and D, respectively.
3) Only Egyptian unarmed transport aircraft will
take off and land in Zone B and up to eight such aircraft may be
maintained in Zone B. The Egyptian border unit.,., may be
equipped with unarmed helicopters to perform their functions in
4) The Egyptian civil police may be equipped with
unarmed police helicopters to perform normal police functions in
5) Only civilian airfields maybe built in the
6) Without prejudice to the provisions of this
Treaty, only those military aerial activities specifically
permitted by this Annex shall be allowed in the Zones and the
airspace above their territorial waters.
1) Egypt and Israel may base and operate naval
vessels along the coasts of Zones A and D, respectively.
2) Egyptian coast guard boats, lightly armed, may
be stationed and operate in the territorial waters of Zone B to
assist the border units in performing their functions in this
3) Egyptian civil police equipped with light
boats, lightly armed, shall perform normal police functions
within the territorial waters of Zone C.
4) Nothing in this Annex shall be considered as
derogating from the right of innocent passage of the naval
vessels of either party.
5) Only civilian maritime ports and installations
may be built in the Zones.
6) Without prejudice to the provisions of this
Treaty, only those naval activities specifically permitted by
this Annex shall be allowed in the Zones and in their territorial
Early Warning Systems
Egypt and Israel may establish and operate early
warning systems only in Zones A and D respectively.
United Nations Operations
1) The Parties will request the United Nations to
provide forces and observers to supervise the implementation of
this Annex and employ their best efforts to prevent any violation
of its terms.
2) With respect to these United Nations forces
and observers, as appropriate, the Parties agree to request the
a) Operation of check points, reconnaissance
patrols, and observation posts along the international
boundary and line B, and within Zone C.
Periodic verification of the
implementation of the provisions of this Annex will be
carried out not less than twice a month unless otherwise
agreed by the Parties.
Additional verifications within 48 hours
after the receipt of a request from either Party.
Ensuring the freedom of navigation through
the Strait of Tiran in accordance with Article V of the
Treaty of Peace.
3) The arrangements described in this article for
each zone will be implemented in ones A, B, and C by the United
Nations Force and in Zone D by the United Nations Observers.
4) United Nations verification teams shall be
accompanied by liaison officers of the respective Party.
5) The United Nations Force and observers will
report their findings to both Parties.
6) The United Nations Force and Observers
operating in the Zones will enjoy freedom of movement and other
facilities necessary for the performance of their tasks.
7) The United Nations Force and Observers are not
empowered to authorize the crossing of the international
8) The Parties shall agree on the nations from
which the United Nations Force and Observers will be drawn. They
"ill be drawn from nations other than those which are
permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
9) The Parties agree that the United Nations
should make those command arrangements that will best assure the
effective implementation of its responsibilities.
Upon dissolution of the Joint Commission, a
liaison system between the Parties will be established. This
liaison system is intended to provide an effective method to
assess progress in the implementation of obligations under the
present Annex and to resolve any problem that may arise in the
course of implementation, and refer other unresolved matters to
the higher military authorities of the two countries respectively
for consideration. It is also intended to prevent situations
resulting from errors or misinterpretation on the part of either
An Egyptian liaison office will be established
in the city of El-Arish and an Israeli liaison office will be
established in the city of Beer-Sheba. Each office will be headed
by an officer of the respective country, and assisted by a number
A direct telephone link between the two
offices will be set up and also direct telephone lines with the
United Nations command will be maintained by both offices.
Respect for War Memorials
Each Party undertakes to preserve in good
condition the War Memorials erected in the memory of soldiers of the
other Party, namely those erected by Egypt in Israel, and shall
permit access to such monuments.
The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and
civilians behind the interim withdrawal line, and the conduct of the
forces of the Parties and the United Nations prior to the final
withdrawal, will be governed by the attached Appendix and Map 2.
Appendix to Annex I
Organization of Movements in the Sinai
Principles of Withdrawal
The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and
civilians from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases as
described in Article I of Annex I. The description and timing of
the withdrawal are included in this Appendix. The Joint
Commission will develop and present to the Chief Coordinator of
the United Nations forces in the Middle East the details of these
phases not later than one month before the initiation of each
phase of withdrawal.
Both parties agree on the following principles
for the sequences of military movements.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Article
IX, paragraph 2, of this Treaty, until Israeli armed forces
complete withdrawal from the current J and M Lines
established by the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement of September
1975, hereinafter referred to as the 1975 Agreement, up to
the interim withdrawal line, all military arrangements
existing under that Agreement will remain in effect, except
those military arrangements otherwise provided for in this
As Israeli armed forces withdraw, United
Nations forces will immediately enter the evacuated areas to
establish interim and temporary buffer zones as shown on Maps
2 and 3, respectively, for the purpose of maintaining a
separation of forces. United Nations forces' deployment will
precede the movement of any other personnel into these areas.
Within a period of seven days after
Israeli armed forces have evacuated any area located in Zone
A, units of Egyptian armed forces shall deploy in accordance
with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix.
Within a period of seven days after
Israeli armed forces have evacuated any area located in Zones
A or B, Egyptian border units shall deploy in accordance with
the provisions of Article II of this Appendix, and will
function in accordance with the provisions of Article II of
Egyptian civil police will enter evacuated
areas immediately after the United Nations forces to perform
normal police functions.
Egyptian naval units shall deploy in the
Gulf of Suez in accordance with the provisions of Article II
of this Appendix.
Except those movements mentioned above,
deployments of Egyptian armed forces and the activities
covered in Annex I will be offered in the evacuated areas
when Israeli armed forces have completed their withdrawal
behind the interim withdrawal line.
Subphases of the Withdrawal to the Interim
The withdrawal to the interim withdrawal line
will be accomplished in subphases as described in this Article
and as shown on Map 3. Each subphase will be completed within the
indicated number of months from the date of the exchange of
instruments of ratification of this Treaty:
First subphase: within two months, Israeli
armed forces will withdraw from the area of El Arish,
including the town of El Arish and its airfield, shown as
Area I on Map 3.
Second subphase: within three months,
Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area between line
M of the 1975 Agreement and line A, shown as Area II on Map
Third subphase: within five months,
Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area east and
south of Area II, shown as Area III on Map 3.
Fourth subphase: within seven months,
Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area of El Tor-
Ras El Kenisa, shown as Area IV on Map 3.
Fifth subphase: Within nine months,
Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the remaining areas
west of the interim withdrawal line, including the areas of
Santa Katrina and the areas east of the Giddi and Mitla
passes, shown as Area V on Map 3, thereby completing Israeli
withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
Egyptian forces will deploy in the areas
evacuated by Israeli armed forces as follows:
Up to one-third of the Egyptian armed
forces in the Sinai in accordance with the 1975 Agreement
will deploy in the portions of Zone A lying within Area I,
until the completion of interim withdrawal. Thereafter,
Egyptian armed forces as described Article II of Annex I will
be deployed in Zone A up to the limits of the interim zone.
The Egyptian naval activity in accordance
with Article IV of Annex I will commence along the coasts of
areas I, III and IV, upon completion of the second, third,
and fourth subphases, respectively.
Of the Egyptian border units described in
Article II of Annex I, upon completion of the first subphase
one battalion will be deployed in Area I. A second battalion
will deployed in Area II upon completion of the second
subphase. A third battalion will deployed in Area Ill upon
completion of the third subphase. The second and third
battalions mentioned above may also be deployed in any of the
subsequently evacuated areas of the southern Sinai.
United Nations forces in Buffer Zone I of the
1976 Agreement will redeploy enable the deployment of Egyptian
forces described above upon the completion of the subphase, but
will otherwise continue to function in accordance with the
provisions of that Agreement in the remainder of that zone until
the completion of interim withdrawal, as indicated in Article I
of this Appendix.
Israeli convoys may use the roads south and
east of the main road junction east of El Arish to evacuate
Israeli forces up to the completion of interim withdrawal. These
convoys will proceed in daylight upon four hours notice to the
Egyptian liaison group and United Nations forces, will be
escorted by United Nations forces, and will be in accordance with
schedules coordinated by the Joint Commission. An Egyptian
liaison officer will accompany convoys to assure uninterrupted
movement. The Joint Commission may approve other arrangements for
United Nations Forces
The Parties shall request that United Nations
forces be deployed as necessary to perform the functions
described in the Appendix up to the time of completion of final
Israeli withdrawal. For that purpose, the Parties agree to the
redeployment of the United Nations Emergency Force.
United Nations forces will supervise the
implementation of this Appendix and will employ their best
efforts to prevent any violation of its terms.
When United Nations forces deploy in
accordance with the provisions of Article and II of this
Appendix, they will perform the functions of verification in
limited force zones in accordance with Article VI of Annex I, and
will establish check points, reconnaissance patrols, and
observation posts in the temporary buffer zones described in
Article II above. Other functions of the United Nations forces
which concern the interim buffer zone are described in Article V
of this Appendix.
Joint Commission and Liaison
The Joint Commission referred to in Article IV
of this Treaty will function from the date of exchange of
instruments of ratification of this Treaty up to the date of
completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai.
The Joint Commission will be composed of
representatives of each Party headed by senior officers. This
Commission shall invite a representative of the United Nations
when discussing subjects concerning the United Nations, or when
either Party requests United Nations presence. Decisions of the
Joint Commission will be reached by agreement of Egypt and
The Joint Commission will supervise the
implementation of the arrangements described in Annex I and this
Appendix. To this end, and by agreement of both Parties, it will:
coordinate military movements described in
this Appendix and supervise their implementation;
address and seek to resolve any problem
arising out of the implementation of Annex I and this
Appendix, and discuss any violations reported by the United
Nations Force and Observers and refer to the Governments of
Egypt and Israel any unresolved problems;
assist the United Nations Force and
Observers in the execution of their mandates, and deal with
the timetables of the periodic verification when referred to
it by the Parties as provided for in Annex I and this
organize the demarcation of the
international boundary and all lines and zones described in
Annex I and this Appendix;
supervise the handing over of the main
installations in the Sinai from Israel to Egypt;
agree on necessary arrangements for
finding and returning missing bodies of Egyptian and Israeli
organize the setting up and operation of
entry check points along the El Arish-Ras Mohammed line in
accordance with the provisions of Article 4 of Annex III;
conduct its operations through the use of
joint liaison teams consisting of one Israeli representative
and one Egyptian representative, provided from a standing
Liaison Group, which will conduct activities as directed by
the Joint Commission;
provide liaison and coordination to the
United Nations command implementing provisions of the Treaty,
and, through the joint liaison teams, maintain local
coordination and cooperation with the United Nations Force
stationed in specific areas or United Nations Observers
monitoring specific areas for any assistance as needed;
discuss any other matters which the
Parties by agreement may place before it.
Meetings of the Joint Commission shall be held
at least once a month. In the event that either Party of the
Command of the United Nations Force requests a specific meeting,
it will be convened within 24 hours.
The Joint Committee will meet in the buffer
zone until the completion of the interim withdrawal and in El
Arish and Beer-Sheba alternately afterwards. The first meeting
will be held not later than two weeks after the entry into force
of this Treaty.
Definition of the Interim Buffer Zone and Its
An interim buffer zone, by which the United
Nations Force will effect a separation of Egyptian and Israeli
elements, will be established west of and adjacent to the interim
withdrawal line as shown on Map 2 after implementation of Israeli
withdrawal and deployment behind the interim withdrawal line.
Egyptian civil police equipped with light weapons will perform
normal police functions within this zone.
The United Nations Force will operate check
points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts within the
interim buffer zone in order to ensure compliance with the terms
of this Article.
In accordance with arrangements agreed upon by
both Parties and to be coordinated by the Joint Commission,
Israeli personnel will operate military technical installations
at four specific locations shown on Map 2 and designated as T1
(map central coordinate 57163940), T2 (map central coordinate
59351541), T3 (map central coordinate 5933-1527), and T4 (map
central coordinate 61130979) under the following principles:
The technical installations shall be
manned by technical and administrative personnel equipped
with small arms required for their protection (revolvers,
rifles, sub-machine guns, light machine guns, hand grenades,
and ammunition), as follows:
Israeli personnel will not carry weapons
outside the sites, except officers who may carry personal
Only a third party agreed to by Egypt and
Israel will enter and conduct inspections within the
perimeters of technical installations in the buffer zone. The
third party will conduct inspections in a random manner at
least once a month. The inspections will verify the nature of
the operation of the installations and the weapons and
personnel therein. The third party will immediately report to
the Parties any divergence from an installation's visual and
electronic surveillance or communications role.
Supply of the installations, visits for
technical and administrative purposes, and replacement of
personnel and equipment situated in the sites, may occur
uninterruptedly from the United Nations check points to the
perimeter of the technical installations, after checking and
being escorted by only the United Nations forces.
Israel will be permitted to introduce into
its technical installations items required for the proper
functioning of the installations and personnel.
As determined by the Joint Commission,
Israel will be permitted to:
Maintain in its installations
fire-fighting and general maintenance equipment as well
as wheeled administrative vehicles and mobile engineering
equipment necessary for the maintenance of the sites. All
vehicles shall be unarmed.
Within the sites and in the buffer
zone, maintain roads, water lines, and communications
cables which serve the site. At each of the three
installation locations (T1, T2 and T3, and T4), this
maintenance may be performed with up to two unarmed
wheeled vehicles and by up to twelve unarmed personnel
with only necessary equipment, including heavy
engineering equipment if needed. This maintenance may be
performed three times a week, except for special
problems, and only after giving the United Nations four
hours notice. The teams will be escorted by the United
Movement to and from the technical
installations will take place only during daylight hours.
Access to, and exit from, the technical installations shall
be as follows:
T1: Through a United Nations check
point, and via the road between Abu Aweigila and the
intersection of the Abu Aweigila road and the Gebel Libni
road (at Km. 161), as shown on Map 2.
T2 and T3: through a United Nations
checkpoint and via the road constructed across the buffer
zone to Gebel Katrina, as shown on Map 2.
T2, T3, and T4: via helicopters flying
within a corridor at the times, and according to a flight
profile, agreed to by the Joint Commission. The
helicopters will be checked by the United Nations Force
at landing sites outside the perimeter of the
Israel will inform the United Nations
Force at least one hour in advance of each intended movement
to and from the installations.
Israel shall be entitled to evacuate sick
and wounded and summon medical experts and medical teams at
any time after giving immediate notice to the United Nations
The details of the above principles and all
other matters in this Article requiring coordination by the
Parties will be handled by the Joint Commission.
These technical installations will be
withdrawn when Israeli forces withdraw from the interim
withdrawal line, or at a time agreed by the parties.
Disposition of Installations and Military
Disposition of installations and military barriers
will be determined by the Parties in accordance with the following
Up to three weeks before Israeli withdrawal
from any area, the Joint Commission will arrange for Israeli and
Egyptian liaison and technical teams to conduct a joint
inspection of all appropriate installations to agree upon
condition of structures and articles which will be transferred to
Egyptian control and to arrange for such transfer. Israel will
declare, at that time, its plans for disposition of installations
and articles within the installations.
Israel undertakes to transfer to Egypt all
agreed infrastructures, utilities, and installations intact,
inter alia, airfields, roads, pumping stations, and ports. Israel
will present to Egypt the information necessary for the
maintenance and operation of the facilities. Egyptian technical
teams will be permitted to observe and familiarize themselves
with the operation of these facilities for a period of up to two
weeks prior to transfer.
When Israel relinquishes Israeli military
water points near El Arish and El Tor, Egyptian technical teams
will assume control of those installations and ancillary
equipment in accordance with an orderly transfer process arranged
beforehand by the Joint Commission. Egypt undertakes to continue
to make available at all water supply points the normal quantity
of currently available water up to the time Israel withdraws
behind the international boundary, unless otherwise agreed in the
Israel will make its best effort to remove or
destroy all military barriers, including obstacles and
minefields, in the areas and adjacent waters from which it
withdraws, according to the following concept:
Military barriers will be cleared first
from areas near populations, roads and major installations
For those obstacles and minefields which
cannot be removed or destroyed prior to Israeli withdrawal,
Israel will provide detailed maps to Egypt and the United
Nations through the Joint Commission not later than 15 days
before entry of United Nations forces into the affected
Egyptian engineers will enter those areas
after United Nations forces enter to conduct barrier
clearance operations in accordance with Egyptian plans to be
submitted prior to implementation.
Aerial surveillance activities during the
withdrawal will be carried out as follows:
Both Parties request the United States to
continue airborne surveillance flights in accordance with
previous agreements until the completion of final Israeli
Flight profiles will cover the Limited
Forces Zones to monitor the limitations on forces and
armaments, and to determine that Israeli armed forces have
withdrawn from the areas described in Article II of Annex I,
Article II of this Appendix, and Maps 2 and 3, and that these
forces thereafter remain behind their lines. Special
inspection flights may be flown at the request of either
Party or of the United Nations.
Only the main elements in the military
organizations of each Party, as described in Annex I and in
this Appendix, will be reported.
Both Parties request the United States
operated Sinai Field Mission to continue its operations in
accordance with previous agreements until completion of the
Israeli withdrawal from the area east of the Giddi and Mitla
Passes. Thereafter, the Mission be terminated.
Exercise of Egyptian Sovereignty
Egypt will resume the exercise of its full
sovereignty over evacuated parts of the Sinai upon Israeli withdrawal
as provided for in Article I of this Treaty.
Map of Israel-Egypt
Protocol Concerning Relations of the Parties
Diplomatic and Consular Relations The Parties
agree to establish diplomatic and consular relations and to exchange
ambassadors upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
Economic and Trade Relations
The Parties agree to remove all discriminatory
barriers to normal economic relations and to terminate economic
boycotts of each other upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
As soon as possible, and not later than six
months after the completion of the interim withdrawal, the
Parties will enter negotiations with a view to concluding an
agreement on trade and commerce for the purpose of promoting
beneficial economic relations.
The Parties agree to establish normal cultural
relations following completion of the interim withdrawal.
They agree on the desirability of cultural
exchanges in all fields, and shall, as soon as possible and not
later than six months after completion of the interim withdrawal,
enter into negotiations with a view to concluding a cultural
agreement for this purpose.
Freedom of Movement
Upon completion of the interim withdrawal,
each Party will permit the free movement of the nationals and
vehicles of the other into and within its territory according to
the general rules applicable to nationals and vehicles of other
states. Neither Party will impose discriminatory restrictions on
the free movement of persons and vehicles from its territory to
the territory of the other.
Mutual unimpeded access to places of religious
and historical significance will be provided on a non-
Cooperation for Development and Good Neighborly
The Parties recognize a mutuality of interest
in good neighbourly relations and agree to consider means to
promote such relations.
The Parties will cooperate in promoting peace,
stability and development in their region. Each agrees to
consider proposals the other may wish to make to this end.
The Parties shall seek to foster mutual
understanding and tolerance and will, accordingly, abstain from
hostile propaganda against each other.
Transportation and Telecommunications
The Parties recognize as applicable to each
other the rights, privileges and obligations provided for by the
aviation agreements to which they are both party, particularly by
the Convention on International Civil Aviation, 1944 ("The
Chicago Convention") and the International Air Services
Transit Agreement, 1944.
Upon completion of the interim withdrawal any
declaration of national emergency by a party under Article 89 of
the Chicago Convention will not be applied to the other party on
a discriminatory basis.
Egypt agrees that the use of airfields left by
Israel near El-Arish, Rafah, Ras El-Nagb and Sharm El- Sheikh
shall be for civilian purposes only, including possible
commercial use by all nations.
As soon as possible and not later than six
months after the completion of the interim withdrawal, the
Parties shall enter into negotiations for the purpose of
concluding a civil aviation agreement.
The Parties will reopen and maintain roads and
railways between their countries and will consider further road
and rail links. The Parties further agree that a highway will be
constructed and maintained between Egypt, Israel and Jordan near
Eilat with guaranteed free and peaceful passage of persons,
vehicles and goods between Egypt and Jordan, without prejudice to
their sovereignty over that part of the highway which falls
within their respective territory.
Upon completion of the interim withdrawal,
normal postal, telephone, telex, data facsimile, wireless and
cable communications and television relay services by cable,
radio and satellite shall be established between the two Parties
in accordance with all relevant international conventions and
Upon completion of the interim withdrawal,
each Party shall grant normal access to its ports for vessels and
cargoes of the other, as well as vessels and cargoes destined for
or coming from the other. Such access will be granted on the same
conditions generally applicable to vessels and cargoes of other
nations. Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace will be implemented
upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of the
Enjoyment of Human Rights The Parties affirm their
commitment to respect and observe human rights and fundamental
freedoms for all, and they will promote these rights and freedoms in
accordance with the United Nations Charter.
Territorial Seas Without prejudice to the
provisions of Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace each Party recognizes
the right of the vessels of the other Party to innocent passage
through its territorial sea in accordance with the rules of
Egypt's resumption of the exercise of full
sovereignty over the Sinai provided for in paragraph 2 of Article I
shall occur with regard to each area upon Israel's withdrawal from
It is agreed between the parties that the review
provided for in Article IV (4) will be undertaken when requested by
either party, commencing within three months of such a request, but
that any amendment can be made only by mutual agreement of both
The second sentence of paragraph 2 of Article V
shall not be construed as limiting the first sentence of that
paragraph. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the
second sentence of paragraph 2 of Article V, which reads as follows:
"The Parties will respect each other's right to navigation and
overflight for access to either country through the Strait of Tiran
and the Gulf of Aqaba."
Article VI (2)
The provisions of Article VI shall not be
construed in contradiction to the provisions of the framework for
peace in the Middle East agreed at Camp David. The foregoing is not
to be construed as contravening the provisions of Article VI (2) of
the Treaty, which reads as follows: "The Parties undertake to
fulfill in good faith their obligations under this Treaty, without
regard to action of any other Party and independently of any
instrument external to this Treaty."
Article VI (5)
It is agreed by the Parties that there is no
assertion that this Treaty prevails over other Treaties or agreements
or that other Treaties or agreements prevail over this Treaty. The
foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the provisions of
Article VI (5) of the Treaty, which reads as follows: "Subject
to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter, in the event of a
conflict between the obligations of the Parties under the present
Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligation under this
Treaty will be binding and implemented."
Article VI, Paragraph 8, of Annex I provides as
"The Parties shall agree on the nations from
which the United Nations forces and observers will be drawn. They
will be drawn from nations other than those which are permanent
members of the United Nations Security Council."
The Parties have agreed as follows:
"With respect to the provisions of paragraph
8, Article VI, of Annex 1, if no agreement is reached between the
Parties, they will accept or support a U.S. proposal concerning the
composition of the United Nations force and observers."
The Treaty of Peace and Annex III thereto provide
for establishing normal economic relations between the Parties. In
accordance herewith, it is agreed that such relations will include
normal commercial sales of oil by Egypt to Israel, and that Israel
shall be fully entitled to make bids for Egyptian-origin oil not
needed for Egyptian domestic oil consumption, and Egypt and its oil
concessionaires will entertain bids made by Israel, on the same basis
and terms as apply to other bidders for such oil.
For the Government of Israel:
For the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt:
JIMMY CARTER, President of the United States