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The Jewish Virtual Library would not be possible without the help of many individuals and organizations.

The incredible support of the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise's Board of Directors has made this and other projects a great success:

- Howard Rosenbloom, President / Treasurer
- Dr. Arthur S. Bard, Vice President / Secretary
- Mitchell G. Bard, Executive Director








The Jewish Virtual Library is also made possible thanks
to the generous support of many donors, including:

- The Newton and Rochelle Becker Foundation
- The Ben & Esther Rosenbloom Foundation
- The Dorot Foundation
- The Children of Harvey M. and Lynn Meyerhoff Fund
- The Jesselson Foundation
- The Charles & Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation
- Belz Enterprises
- Larry & Barbi Weinberg
- The Morris J. & Betty Kaplun Foundation
- The MZ Foundation
- Joyce Saffir, in memory of Harold Saffir.

The Library is also made possible through funds granted by the Charles H. Revson Foundation. The statements made and views expressed, however, are solely the responsibility of the authors.

The Holocaust Wing is made possible, in part, by a generous grant from: The Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany-Rabbi Israel Miller Fund for Shoah Research, Documentation and Education


Our work is also significantly enhanced by the assistance of
AICE staffmembers who are amazingly gifted researchers and webmasters.

We'd like to thank: Adam Lurie, Lenny Grover, Lauren Levy, Rebecca Weiner, Shira Schoenberg, Isaac Wolf, David Shyovitz, Alden Oreck, Sara Szymkowicz, Elihai Braun, Beth Weiss, Avi Hein, Jacqueline Shields, Mara Weiss, Rachel Rosen, Stephanie Persin, Ariel Scheib, Joanna Sloame, David Krusch, Jennifer Feinberg, Yariv Nornberg, Jonathan Lord, Allison Krant, Naomi Scheinerman, Kira Doar, Elie Berman, Lisa Snider and Zach Scheinerman for their invaluable contributions


While much of the material in the Jewish Virtual Library was created by AICE, we have been fortunate to receive permission to use information from a wide variety of sources. The generosity of these individuals and organizations has made an enormous contribution to our efforts to inform Jewish students.

In particular, we'd like to thank:

Eliezer Abrahamson for his Great Jewish Leaders biographies.

Acquavella Galleries for permission to use their biography of Chaim Soutine.

Steven Aftergood for permission to use the Federation of American Scientists article on Israel's nuclear capability.

Jessica Alpert for use of a photo of the inauguration of the synagogue in El Salvador.

AltFrankfurt.com for the use of pictures of Germany.

AIPAC and its media liaison Toby Dershowitz.

The American Jewish Historical Society and Dr. Michael Feldberg for use of their Chapters in American Jewish History and material from their Jews in Sports site.

Amnesty International for permission to use their reports.

Krzysztof Antonczyk for permission to use material from The State Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau.

A. Engler Anderson for his invaluable site Documents of Jewish Belief.

Samuel Aroni for permission to use his monument photo and material from his site Memories of the Holocaust Kishinev (Chisinau) 1941-1944.

Jeff Aronson for permission to use maps from the Foundation for Middle East Peace site.

Melanie Aspey for permission to use the Nathan Rothschild bio from The Rothschild Archive.

Prof. Ben Austin for material from his The Holocaust\Shoah Page.

The Avalon Project, directed by William C. Fray and Lisa A. Spar at Yale.

Netanel Bar-David for permission to use material from IsraCast.

Clive Barda for permission to use the photo of Isaiah Berlin from www.clivebarda.com.

Daniel Barenboim for permission to use the Richard Haughton/Teldec photo of him from his site.

Myrna Baron for permission to use the American Jewish Identity Survey from the Center for Cultural Judaism site.

Norman Barth and The Paris Pages for photos from Paris.

Jacques Bauland for permission to use photos from the Jebenhausen site.

Anne Bayefsky for permission to use material from the Eye on the UN web site.

Rabbi Arnold Mark Belzer for permission to use the information on the Jews of Savannah from Congregation Mickve Israel.

Linda Downs-Bembury for trade statistics from MISER.

Dr. Aviva Ben-Ur for permission to use her article on Curacao.

Robby Benson for permission to use his photo.

Marcelo Benveniste for permission to use the photo of Temple Chalom from the Templo Chalom site.

Bergen County (NJ) Public Schools for permission to use photos from the Academy for the Advancement of Science and Technology website.

Arnie Berger and the Aaron Ziegelman Foundation for permission to use material from the Remembering Luboml - Images of a Jewish Community site.

Arnold Berger for permission to use his photo of the Tifereth Israel synagogue from his Abba Hillel Silver site.

Leah Berkowitz for material regarding Jews in the civil war from her Jewish-American History site.

Lawrence Attard Bezzina for permission to use material from the Jewish Community of Malta site.

Ata Bilgili for permission to use his photo of the Achille Lauro.

Edwin Black for permission to use his article, “Could We Have Stopped Hitler?” and Joy Weinberg, managing editor of Reform Judaism Magazine and other articles from his Feature Group site.

Tamas Biro for permission to use material from the Pesti Shul site.

Bob Bobic for permission to use a bio of Pius XII from the Pope Pious XII website

Daniela Bouret for permission to use photos from her site on Uruguay

Maros Borsky for permission to use photos from the Slovak Jewish Heritage Center Bratislava

Douglas A. Boyd for permission to use excerpts from his article on clandestine radio broadcasting.

Robert I. Bradshaw for permission to use material from his Creationism and the Early Church site.

Mitch Braff for permission to us material from the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation

Bradley L. Brenneman for permission to use material on the Bukharan Jews from the Partnership in Academics and Development site.

The British National Archives Image Library for material on Great Britian during World War II.

Seymour Brody for use of his material on American Jews from his web sites, Jewish Heroes and Heroines in America and Sixteen Jewish Recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Patrick Brunings for permission to use a photo of the Judensavanne from the Jodensavanne Foundation.

Stewart Bryant for permission to use his article on the defense of Omaha Beach from the Omaha-Beach.org site.

Louis Bülow for use of biographies from his site on "The Saint from Auschwitz", material on Oskar Schindler from his Holocaust site and information on Klaus Barbie, Alois Brunner and the children of Izieu from that site.

Gary Burns for permission to use material from the Central Synagogue site.

Randall Bytwerk for permission to use six articles from the German Propaganda Archive.

David Carson for permission to use the copyrighted photo of Nablus/Mt. Gerazim from his Photos of Israel site used on the Nablus page.

The Catholic League for use of their articles related to Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust.

Claire Cevasco for permission to use material from the New York Jewish Week.

Chabad Prague for permission to use biographies of the Mharal and Nodah B'Yehudah from their Jewish Prague site.

John Michael Chanslor for permission to use his father's World War II photos from his site

Meir Chasan for permission to use material from the ATID EDI web site.

Johnny Cho for permission to use material from the Milken Archive of American Jewish Music.

Heléne Cilliers for permission to use the photo of the Sammy Marks Museum from the Pretoria Online site.

Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin for permission to use photos of synagogues in Azerbaijan from the Hebrew University site.

Lynda Corey Claassen for permission to use the biography of Leo Szilard from the Mandeville Special Collections Library, University of California, San Diego.

The Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life (COEJL) for permission to use material from its site.

Brian Cohen for permission to use photographs from the Bet Menorah site.

Daniel Cohen for permission to use specific material from the Israeli Special Forces isayeret.com site.

Itzik Cohen for permission to use material from the Israeli Ministry of Finance site.

Nisso Cohen from IDC Israel for his review of the Israeli high-tech industry.

Greg Cole for permission to use material from the Beyond the Pale site.

Tim Crumrin for permission to use his article on the Jews of Indiana from his Conner Prairie site.

The Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism for permission to use their article on anti-Semitic trends.

Ester Csaky for permission to use material from her memorial to the Jews of Lublin site.

Angela Cutler for permission to use material from the ORT monuments project

Gabriel Cwilich for permission to use his photos of Italy.

John de Bye for permission to use material from the History of Suriname.

Jono David for permission to use his photos from around the world and articles from The Jewish Magazine and his HaChayim HaYehudim Jewish Photo Library (Jono David Media).

Manuela Davies and ProPix.info for permission to use the photo of Anna Smashnova from Tennis Info.

Melonee Davies for permission to use the Agnes Keleti photo from the Herald and Weekly Times Photographic Collection.

Allan DeYoung for permission to use material from the JDC web site.

Moshe Denburg for his article on Jewish music from Jewish World Music.

Ruud Deurenberg for his article on the Lavi from the Aircraft of the World site.

David Dickerson for permission to use material from the Holocaust/Shoah pages of his site.

Dan Diker for permission to use maps from the Defensible Borders for a Lasting Peace site.

Pat Dimet for kind permission to use 10 biographies from the The Institute for the Translation of Hebrew Literature.

Dr. Allan Din for permission to use a photograph of Ilya Prigogine from the Geneva Research Collaboration.

Tim Dirks for material from his sight The Greatest Films.

Steve Dixon and the 70th Infantry Division Association for their material on POWs.

Colin Donovan for use of papal documents from the Eternal Word Television Network library.

Arieh Doobov for permission to use material from the World Jewish Congress (WJC) “Jewish Communities of the World” site.

Pawel Dorman for permission to use the map and photos from The Polish Jews site.

Professor John Drobnicki for permission to use his article on the soap allegations from The Nizkor Project.

George Duncan for permission to use material from his Women of the Third Reich site.

Michael Declan Dunn for permission to use the Zwartendijk bio from A Cybrary of the Holocaust, the remember.org site.

Kay Ecelbarger for permission to use the Montgomery County Library's article on Evaluating Internet Sites.

Rabbi Yechiel Eckstein for permission to use material from his book, What You Should Know About Jews and Judaism, and the International Fellowship of Christians and Jews site.

Dr. Rachel Ehrenfeld for permission to use her study on PA finances from the American Center of Democracy.

Michael E. Eidenmuller for permission to use Herod’s speech from the American Rhetoric site.

EJ for permission to use recipes from CookingCache.com.

Jason & Leiah Elbaum for material from their Information Regarding Israel's Security (IRIS) site.

Rachel Elrom for permission to use David Raab's article from the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs site.

Leo Emanuel for permission to use photos of the Grand Synagogue of Paris from the French site.

Tamar Engel for permission to use her photos from her Jews of Kobe site.

Stephen Epstein of Stephen Epstein/Big Dipper Communications for use of his photos of Poland from the March of the Living.

Gabriel Erem for permission to use profiles and photos from Lifestyles magazine.

Dr. Reuven Erlich for permission to use material from the Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S).

Jay Euell for permission to use the photo of Randy Newman from the International Music Products Association site.

David Ezrets for use of material from his Aezrets site.

Cliff Falk for permission to use synagogue photos from his Jbuff site.

Dr. Stephen Feinstein for permission to use material from the University of Minnesota's Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies.

Pamela Feltus for permission to use material from the National Museum of American Jewish Military History.

Dr. Jason Fenton for his article on Machal. See also his site on the subject.

Peter Ferrara for permission to use photos and bios from the Yeshiva University site.

Chuck Ferree for material about the Holocaust from his Forgotten Camps site.

Walter Field for permission to use material from his Dor LeDor site.

Friedrich Fischer for permission to use photos and material on the Baden synagogue from the Jewish Community of Baden site.

James Fish for his material on the White Rose.

Simon Fisher for permission to use the logo from the SACH site for our article on Save a Child's Heart.

Shirley Flaum for permission to use material from her ShtetLinks Site for Lodz.

Tzvi Fleischer, editor of The Review of the Australia/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council (AIJAC) for permission to reprint articles.

Dr Ori Fragman-Sapir for permission to use information regarding the Jerusalem Botanical Gardens from their site.

Martin Frank for permission to use the photo of Joseph Erlanger from the American Physiological Society site.

Steven Fransblow for material on the March of Living from the Canadian march site.

Alan Freedman for permission to use material from the New York Jewish Sports Hall of Fame.

Ilan Friedman for photos from MidEastTruth.

Dr. Motti Friedman for material from The Pedagogic Center.

Thomas Friedman and the New York Times for permission to use his bio and photo.

Harvey Friedrich for permission to use photos of the Beth Sholom synagogue from the congregation's web site.

Charlene Fuhlendorf for permission to use her father's photos of Dachau, which he helped liberate, from the War Photos of Mickey Martins.

Noam Galai for permission to use the photo of Shay Doron from the site, Shaydoron.net.

Gayle Galbraith for permission to use the satellite map and articles from the Interactive Holy Land Satellite Map site.

Martin Robert-Galle for permission to use material from his Omaha Beach site.

Walter Gamba for permission to use his photo of Guimard’s Synagogue from his site.

Carmen Garcia for permission to use photos from the ORT University of Uruguay.

Lajos Gelencser for permission to use material from the Tourism Office of Budapest site.

Manfred Gerstenfeld for permission to use Amos N. Guiora’s article on morality in armed conflict from the JCPA web site.

Raymond Geselbracht for assistance with the use of original documents from the Israel at 50 exhibit at the Harry S. Truman Library & Museum.

Seth Goddard for permission to use the profile of Oskar Schindler from the Life Magazine Hall of Heroes web site.

Edward Goldberg and the board of the Medici Archive Project for permission to use material from their site.

JJ Goldberg for permission to reprint Women of Valor from the Forward.

Olga Goldman for permission to use photos from the Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS and Baltic States site.

Rabbi Yochonon Goldman for permission to use photos of Congregation B'nai Abraham.

Pinchas Goldschmidt for permission to use photos of the Moscow Choral Synagogue from the All About Judaism in the CIS site.

Neal Goldstein for permission to use the report on Hizballah from the American Jewish Congress web site.

Jo Ann Goldwater for permission to use photos from the collection of Nina Finkelstein Anshell of the Kovno ghetto.

Rabbi David Gordis for permission to use Robert Gordis' article on Agunot.

Stan Graff for permission to use photos from Nordhausen taken by his father.

Alan Grant for permission to use photos from his PBase site.

Ron Greene for material on the remarkable story of Chiune and Yukiko Sugihara.

Philip Greenspun for permission to use his photos of Germany from www.photo.net.

Sabine Griffel of the Belgian Tourist Office for permission to use their photos.

Lauren Gross of the Kaiserman Jewish Genetic Disease Screening Program, Victor Center for Jewish Genetic Diseases, Albert Einstein Medical Center, for the article on Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Diseases.

Ruth Ellen Gruber for permission to use her photos of Slovakia from the Slovakia and Centropa sites.

Michael Grunberger and the The Library of Congress for permission to put the Judaic treasures of the library online.

Naim Avigdor Güleryüz for permission to use his article on Turkey.

Dr. Mahdi Abdul Hadi and Mahmoud Abu Rmileh for use of material and photos from the PASSIA: Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs site.

Tjerk H. Halbertsma for permission to use the biography of Tobias Michael Carel Asser from the T.M.C. Asser Institute site.

Hillel Halkin and Andrew Silow-Carroll for permission to reprint the Philologos column on the Western Wall from the Forward.

Patricia Halloran for permission to use the photo of Walter Kohn.

Nicole Haney for permission to use material from her site on The Dachau Trials.

Dr. Paul Harrison for permission to use his biography of Spinoza from his Scientific Pantheism site.

Paul Harvath for permission to use the photo of Sarah Hughes from the Photos On Ice site.

Rudolf Haunschmied for material from his KZ Mauthausen-GUSEN Info-Pages.

Tom Hawkins for permission to use the article on the Dupont mission from the UDT-SEAL Association's, "BLAST" magazine.

Ed Haynes for use of material regarding the Arab League from his League of Arab States site.

Jack Hazut and J.H.M. Photography for use of his photographs of Israel.

Jeanette Heibel for permission to use information and photos from her Scientists site

Avram Heilman for permission to use material from the Constitution for Israel Project site.

Dr. Mark Heller for permission to reprint Tel Aviv Notes from the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies

Stuart E. Hersh, Publisher/Middle East Bureau Chief of the Middle East News Service for providing many historical documents.

Aaron Hertzman for the use of his photographs of Worms, Germany.

Rabbi Herzfeld for permission to use photographs of the National Synagogue from the synagogue site.

Wesley V. Hilton for permission to use documents on the Holocaust he collected for his research.

Richard Hines and Richard Hooker of  Washington State University for use of material from Dr. Hooker's site, The Hebrews: A Learning Module.

The Holocaust Memorial Center and its Founder and Executive Vice President Rabbi Charles Rosenzveig.

Avrom Honig for permission to use material from Feed Me Bubbe.

Michele Horaney for permission to use the Hoover Institution's biography of Milton Friedman.

David Horowitz for permission to use his bio and photo.

Morton Horvitz for permission to reproduce GIs Remember from the National Museum of American Jewish Military History.

Brian Houghton for use of material from The Terrorism Research Center.

Professors W. Nathaniel Howell and John Minor Maury, Jr. from the University of Virginia for permission to reprint their report "Oil Companies in the Gulf."

Steve Hurlbert for permission to use the photo of David Newhan of the Colorado Springs Sky Sox.

Alan Humm for use of his photographs relating to Germany.

Geoff Hurst for permission to use photos of the Freeport Hebrew Congregation from the congregation's site.

Peter Hvidsten for photos given to him from Bergen-Belsen.

Justin Ide for permission to use the photo of Konrad Bloch from the Harvard University site.

The Institute for Jewish Culture for permission to use the photo of Aron Isak.

Ami Isseroff for permission to use maps from MidEastweb and documents from the Zionism-Israel Center.

The Israeli Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Immigrant Absorption.

Lior Jacobi for permission to use photos from the Jewish Community in Japan site.

Alan Jacobs for permission to use his photos of concentration camps from the Cybrary.

Dave Jacobs for a biography of his father, Medal of Honor winner Jack Jacobs.

Waleed Jayyousi for permission to use his map and information on Tulkarm from his Welcome To Tulkarm site.

The The Jewish Federation of Greater Washington for permission to reprint their history.

The Jewish Reconstructionists Federation.

Mark Joffe for permission to reprint the history of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency from the JTA site.

The Joint Authority for Jewish Zionist Education in the Diaspora in Canada.

Kacey Jones for permission to use the Kinky Friedman bio from the Kinkajou Records site.

Jan de Jong for permission to reprint maps from the Foundation for Middle East Peace site.

Raissa Jose and Bruce DuMont for permission to use biographies from the Museum of Broadcast Communications and Radio Hall of Fame.

The Juedisches Museum Worms for permission to use materials from their website.

Eytan Kahn for permission to use photos from his Pitigliano site.

Toni Kamins for permission to use her article on Strasbourg from the Complete Jewish Guides.

Eric Kandel for permission to use his photo.

Dan Kantor for permission to use material on the Jewish Community of Helsinki.

Phillip Kapusta for permission to use drawings of the Ark of the Covenant.

Federico Karpeles for permission to use photos from his Pictures of Argentina site.

Ira Kasdan for permission to use articles from Jewish Law.

Michelle Katz for permission to use material from UN Watch.

Noam Katz for permission to use photos of Uganda from his site.

Yael Katz for permission to use her biography of Shlomo Carlebach from her site.

Ruth Keating for permission to use the photo and biography of Aaron Ciechanover and Avram Heshko from the The Lasker Foundation site.

Joan Keller and Thomas Longstaff for permission to use an article on Sepphoris from the Colby College religious studies site on the University of South Florida's excavations in Israel.

John Kent for permission to use the photo of the F-35 from the Lockheed Martin site.

Daniel Keren for use of his materials related to Holocaust denial.

Jonathan Kessler for permission to use material from the Middle East Insight magazine and web site.

Rolland Kidder for permission to use the bio and photo of Justice Jackson from the Robert H. Jackson Center.

L.C. Killin for contributing his father's photos of the Liberation of Buchenwald.

Sherry Kirschenbaum for permission to use the bio of Ismar Schorsch from the JTSA site.

Dan Klajmic for his material on Rav Kook.

Kevin Knight for permission to use material from his Catholic Encyclopedia web site project.

Andrew Kobos for permission to use photos from his Shoah - The Holocaust site.

Prof. David Koeller for permission to use material from North Park University's WebChronology Project.

Penni Kolb for permission to use a photo of the Shaar Hashomayim synagogue from the shul site.

Nora Korc-Baum for permission to print the IMF report on the West Bank and Gaza Strip economy.

Cherie Korer for permission to photos from her sites for Humenne, Poienile, Pavoloch and Dvorets.

Reuven Koret for permission to use maps from the Israeli Foreign Ministry site and Koret Communications.

Stepan Kovarik for permission to use material from the Jewish Museum in Prague site.

Rachel Kranson for permission to use material from The Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews (IAEJ) site.

Haig A. Krikorian, President Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem Support Organization, for permission to use the article on the Armenian Quarter from the Armenians in the Holy Land site.

Steven Kronenberg for permission to use photos from the Jewish Italy site.

Tomasz Kuncewicz for permission to use synagogue photos from the Auschwitz Jewish Center Foundation.

Martin Kunoff for permission to use material on the United Synagogue for Conservative Judaism from their site.

Ellen Landweber for permission to use materials from her book To Save a Life: Stories of Holocaust Rescue.

Raphael Langham for permission to use the chronology from the Jewish Historical Society of England.

Prof. Yehuda Lapidot for permission to use material from his comprehensive history of the Irgun found on The Irgun Site.

Brian Large for photos of synagogues in Germany.

Christine Large for permission to use material from the Bletchley Park site.

Patricia for permission to use a recipe from the Le Marais restaruant site.

Dave Lednicer for permission to use material on Israeli air victories and aces from the Elevon: Aviation on the Internet site.

Yehezkel Lein for permission to use the settlements map from B'Tselem.

Rabbi Mark Levine, Executive Editor, for permission to use material from Sparks!, an e-zine for Jewish families.

Rabbi Shlomo Ben Levy for permission to reprint his essay on the Black Jewish community from his Black Jews, Hebrews and Israelites site.

Ken Lewis for permission to use material from his The Einsatzgruppen site.

Simon Lewis for permission to use material from Jewish Ireland.

Sylvia Lewis for permission to use the history from Na'amat's web site.

Rudi Lichtner for permission to use photos of Tempio dei Giovani from the synagogue web site.

Mitchell Lieber for permission to use photos from the Rumbula site.

Sylvie Lietart for permission to use material from the Belgian Tourist Office.

Nancy Lin from NYU Press for permission to use their bio of Serge Klarsfeld.

Heather Lindsey for permission to use the photo of Leo Szilard and Lippmann Gabriel from the AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives of the Center for History of Physics.

Jonathan Lipczer for permission to use the photo of the Ilford synagogue from the synagogue's web site.

David Lipman for permission to use material from his Gates to Jewish Heritage site.

Barry Lippa for permission to use his uncle's photographs of the liberation of Ebensee.

Petri Liukkonen for permission to use profiles from his Pegasos site.

Rabbi Yitzi Loewenthal for permission to use the bio of the Rebbe from Chabad Denmark.

Ralph Lowenstein for permission to use material from the Aliyah Bet & Machal Virtual Museum.

David for permission to use recipes from the Jewish Agency for Israel - Partnership 2000: Tzahar - Palm Beach Educational Exchange.

Massimo Maggini for permission to use photos of Livorno from the Associazione LinguaNova site.

Henry Magrill for permissionto use photos and history of the New West End Synagogue.

David Makovsky for permission to use his bio and photo from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

Yair Malachi for permission to use material from his site on the medals and decorations of the IDF.

Benedikt Mandl for permission to use his article and photos on Jewish Salzburg from his Visitng Salzburg site.

Tom Mani and Ken Poch for permission to use Poch's article on Jews buried at Arlington National Cemetery from the official cemetery web site.

Manuela for permission to use the photo of Noam Behr from the ProPix.info site.

Itamar Marcus for permission to use videos from Palestinian Media Watch.

Edward S. Marek for permission to use photos from his sight Your Dot Com for Africs.

Stephani Margolin for permission to use biographies of Nazi's from the Routledge site.

Dawn Marie for permission to use the biography of Theda Bara from her Bombshells.com site.

Marina Markus for permission to use the articles and photos from The Israeli Mosaic site.

Sarit Marorstein for permission from the Jabotinsky Institute to use their photo of Avraham Stern.

Jose Martin for permission to use material from the Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork site.

Michelle Mason for permission to use material from MyJewishLearning.com.

C.F.William Maurer for permission to use material about the Gomez Mill House.

Rufina Bernardetti Silva Mausenbaum for permission to use the article on the Jews of Mozambique from the Saudades web site.

Lorry May for permission to use photos from Anna Sokolow's Player's Project.

Igna Mayzeles for permission to use photos of the Bnai Israel synagogue from their web site.

Kostas Myrsiades, editor of the Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora, for permission to reprint the document on the Jews of Greece.

Jamie McCarthy for material on human skin atrocities from The Nizkor Project.

Pat McCune for permssion to use material from The Wallenberg Endowment/University of Michigan.

Evan Mendelson for her article on Jewish philanthropy from the Jewish Funders Network.

The Melbourne Hebrew Congregation for photos of Jewish life in Melbourne.

David Metzler for permission to use material he wrote on the lives of Per Anger and Raoul Wallenberg.

Mathew Meyer for use of material from his site about the Abayudaya Jews of Uganda.

Dr. John S. Micgiel, Co-Editor of Intermarium for permission to use articles from the journal.

Amy Milford for permission to use pictures and the history of the Eldridge Street Synagogue from the Eldridge Street Project site.

Matt Miller for permission to use his material on the Israeli Navy.

Leslie Mirchin and Melissa Gopnik for permission to use material from the Jewish Women's Archive.

John Mooney for permission to reprint the U.S. Army pamphlet about Gunskirchen from his web site, The 71st Infantry at Gunskirchen Lager, Austria - 1945.

Joseph Morgenstern for his article on Israeli high tech from the Israel at 50 site.

Marlene Mossek for permission to use the executive summary of the Center for Monitoring the Impact on Peace (CMIP) study on Palestinian textbooks.

Nicolas Natteau for permission to use material from his site on World War II.

David Navarro for permission to use his Germany photos.

Near East Report and its Editor Rafi Danziger.

Larry Nelson and Benyamin Pilant for use of the JPS Bible from the Breslov site.

Dr. Michael Nevins for material on medicine from the Jewish Medical History—Chevra/SIG site.

Prof. John Nicols for permission to use maps on the Ancient Mideast from his Historic Atlas Resource.

Stuart Nirenberg for permission to use photos and material regarding Welsh Jewry from the Cardiff United Synagogue site.

The Nizkor Project and its Director Kenneth McVay.

Dani Novak for permission to use a chapter from his mother's book, When Heaven's Vault Cracked.

Joe November for permission to use his materials.

John O' Conner for permission to use the Niels Bohr bio from the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland.

Dawn O'Driscoll for permission to use the map of Azerbaijan from the Daily Telegraph site.

Andre Oboler for permission to use photos from the Zionism On The Web site.

Ella Ogden for permission to use material on the St. Thomas Synagogue from tis site.

Udi & Mal Ohana for permission to use their History in a Nutshell presentations from their Concept Wizard site.

Ria Okret for permission to use photos from the Nueva Congregacion Israelita site in Uruguay.

David Olivestone for use of material from the Orthodox Union.

Carah Ong for permission to use the bio of Joseph Rotblat from NuclearFiles.org.

Dr Norman Ospovat for permission to use information and photos about the Gardens Shul from the Cape Town Hebrew Congregation site.

Maj. Erik Overby for permission to use the maps from the Department of History at the U.S. Military Academy.

Marcin Owsinski for permission to use material from the National Stutthof Museum.

Michael Parciak for permission to reprint the Janusz Korczak biography from the Janusz Korczak Communication Center.

Charles Patterson for permission to use his article Mel Gibson and the Gospel of Anti-Semitism.

Stephan Pechdimaldji for permission to use the photo of Gabe Kapler from the Sports Illustrated site.

Jerry Peek for permission to use photos of Emilia-Romagna from photo mondiale.

Doug Peneny for permission to use the Alan Freed biography from his Alan Freed site.

Daniel Pipes, director of the Middle East Forum, for permission to use his material.

Dana Porath for permission to use photos from Yad Vashem.

Greg Powers for contributing his uncle's photo of Barney Ross.

Julian H. Preisler for permission to use photos and text from his West Virginia Jewish History and Genealogy site.

David Pride for permission to use photos of the Soreq Cave from the Israel Nature and Natural Parks Protection Authority site.

Monica Procter for permission to use a photo of Quito from the XPORTA site on our Ecuador page.

Keith Posner for permission to use material on the Jewish Community of Trentino-Alto Adige.

Alexandre Przopiorski for permission to use photos of synagogues from his site.

Jonas Quastel for permission to use the Abie Nathan bio from his Abie Nathan and the Peace Ship site.

The Israeli Prime Minister's Office and Michael Stoltz.

The Palestine Information Center for material on Hamas.

The Religious Action Center and Associate Director Mark Pelavin.

Moshe Raichman for maps from The Jewish Connection.

Rafael Raj for permission to use photos from his site History of the Jews in Hungary.

Deana Ramos for permission to use material on Jews in Portugal from the Portuguese National Tourist Office.

M.L. Rapaport for permission to use the biographies from the Moreshet Mordechai Anilevich Memorial.

Ruth Reingold for permission to use recipes from her Ruth's Kitchen site.

Shmuel Resiman for permission to reprint the article on the Liberty from Azure: Ideas for the Jewish Nation.

Lauren Resnikoff for permission to use a photo of Temple Beth David from the synagogue web site.

Avraham Revello for permission to use maps from his ancient maps site.

Rabbi Leibel Reznick for permission to use photos of Robinson's Arch from the Holy Land Photos site.

Heinz Riemer for permission to use photos of Vienna from Views of Vienna.

Tracey Rich for allowing us to use material from her wonderful Judaism 101 site.

David Richter for permission to use his photo of the Stephen Wise Free Synagogue from the synagogue site.

Teri Riddering for translating some myths and facts into Spanish.

Meri-Jane Rochelson for contributing her article on Israel Zangwill.

Jean Rosensaft for permission to use the bio of Rabbi David Ellenson from the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion site.

Dennis Ross for permission to his bio from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy site and maps from his book, The Missing Peace: The Inside Story of the Fight for Middle East Peace.

Daniel Rogov for permission to use his recipes and articles on food from Rogov's Ramblings and the Israeli Foreign Ministry.

Gary Rosen for permission to excerpt Rob Satloff's article from Commentary.

Jennifer Rosenberg for her excellent articles on the St. Louis and the Lodz Ghetto at The Mining Company.

Rabbi Jonathan Rosenberg for permission to use the photo of Congregation Ahavas Sholom from their site.

Zippi Rosenne for permission to use photos of synagogues from Tbilisi from the Beth Hatefutsoth site.

Prof. Bruce Rosenstock of UC Davis for material from his introduction to Judaism.

Mike Rosenzweig for permission to use material from his Jewish-Polish Heritage site.

Deborarh Ross for permission to use recipes from the B. Manischewitz Company.

Maria Helena Rowell for permission to use the bio of Freud from The Freud Page.

Oren Rozen for material on the Israeli Air Force from his unofficial Israeli Air Force site.

Michelle Russel-Capriles for permission to use material on Jews in Curacao from her site.

Jay Sand for permission to use photos from the Jews of Africa site.

Rob Satloff for permission to use the Washington Institute for Near East Policy's article on the Temple Mount.

Lee Saunders for permission to use the Odessa article from "The Puzzle" project and Crystal Music International.

Paul Scham for permission to use his chart on historical narratives.

Karen Schapiro for permission to use her photos from India.

Rabbi Amy Scheinerman for permission to use material on Judaism from her site.

Mark Schoenberg for permission to use his map of Jewish communities in Judea & Samaria from this Am Yisroel Chai site .

Lenn Schramm for his article on the Rabin assassination and other material from the Israel Yearbook & Almanac.

Richard Schwartz for permission to use material from his site.

Goldie for permission to use material from her Scrap Book Pages.

Dr. Horst Seferens for permission to use material from the Sachsenhausen museum site.

Prof. Eliezer Segal for material from his site with course materials from the University of Calgary.

Shoshan Selavan for permission to use text and photos from the Jewish Quarter Jerusalem site.

Gitta Sereny for permission to use her article on children of the Holocaust.

Edward Serotta for his photographs of synagogues around the world.

Shamash and its web maven Daniel Faigin.

Inon Shampanier for permission to use the etchings by Dora Shampanier from the collection "Synagogues In Glory & In Ruins."

Don Shapiro Don Shapiro for his contributions to the history of Jews in Taiwan.

Arie Shenar for permission to use the description of the Kibbutz Artzi community from the organization's site.

Alan Sherman for permission to use material from the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame.

Lior Shneor for permission to use Gershon Agron's photo from the Jerusalem Municipality.

The webmaster of the Shilo site for permission to use material on the city and ruins.

Orna Shtauber for permission to use material from the The Jabotinsky Institute in Israel site.

David Shulman for permission to use material from the NCSJ site.

Jonathan G. Sierra for permission to use the article on the U. Nahon Museum of Italian Jewish Art from the museum site.

John Simkin for permission to use material from the Spartacus Educational web site.

Michael Sinclair for permission to use his article on the Dreyfus Affair from his site.

Sharon Manson Singer for permission to use the photo of Congregation Emanu-El from the synagogue site.

Julia Slater for permission to use photos from Swissworld.org.

Barry Small, Director of the The Institute for Jewish Medical Ethics and Dr. Daniel Eisenberg, one of the contributors to IJME, for permission to use articles related to Jewish medical ethics.

Prof. Mahlon Smith for permission to use the map of Israel from his site Into His Own.

Richard Smith for permission to use photos from the Jews of Cuba site.

Frank Smitha for permission to use maps from his World History site.

Judith Sokoloff, editor of Na'amat Magazine, for permission to use material from the publication.

Stanlee Stahl for permission to use selected bios from the The Jewish Foundation for the Righteous.

Rabbi Samuel M. Stahl for permission to excerpt his sermon on Mendelssohn from the Temple Beth-El site.

Michael Starr and Karen Klestzick for permission to use “The Sacred Cluster: The Core Values of Conservative Judaism,” and other material from the Jewish Theological Seminary of America site.

Nikos Stavrolakis for permission to use photos and materials from A Short History of the Jews of Greece.

Dr. Federico Steinhaus for permission to use material on Merano from the Jewish Community of Merano site.

Andrew Stewart for permission to use material from the UC Berkeley and Santa Barbara Tel Dor Archaeological Expedition.

James Still for permission to use articles from Internet Infidels.

Theresa Guzman Stokes for permission to use her article on Rhode Island's Jewish community from her site Eyes of Glory, 200 Years of an Ethnic American family.

Gary Stone for permission to use the photo of Beth-El Synagogue.

Edzioni Storti for permission to use photographs of Italian synagogues from Jews and Synagogues. EdizioniStorti Venezia. 1999.

Marcelo Strauch for permission to use photos from his site Jewish Temples from Argentina.

Mark Strauss for permission to excerpt Avner Cohen's article from the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Martin Sugarman for contributing a number of articles on Jews who fought in various wars.

Terry Sullivan for material on the peace process from his Camp David Accords — Framework for Peace site.

The Sydney Great Synagogue for permission to use materials about Jewish life in Sydney.

Gary Szendzielarz for permission to use the Kafka biography and photos from the Jewish Prague by Tom's Travel site.

Esther Tal for permission to use Sasson Tiram's photo of Robert Aumann from the Hebrew University site.

Hakim Talbi for permission to use his photo of the Constantine synagogue in Algeria.

Mark Talisman for use of material and particularly his photographs of Prague and Terezin from the Project Judaica Foundation site.

The Taylor & Francis Group for permission to license maps from The Routledge Atlas of Jewish History Ed. 7 by Martin Gilbert.

Rabbi Joseph Telushkin for his generosity in allowing us to quote from his seminal work, Jewish Literacy.

Yvonne M. Thiele-Bell for contributing her uncle’s photos from Buchenwald.

The editors of Torah.Net for permission to reprint their brachot page.

Traveleurope Italy for permission to use photos from their site.

Udi Tsur for permission to use material from the Israel Export Institute.

Dr. Johannes Tuchel for permission to use material on Plötzensee from the German Resistance Memorial Center site.

Ami Tzubery for permission to use material from the Israeli Ministry of Tourism (North America site.

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum for permission to use material from the USHMM site.

Tom Vasich from UC Irvine for permission to use Paul R. Kennedy's photo of Nobel Laureate Irwin Rose.

Angel Venable for permission to use the bio and photo of Martin Indyk from the Brookings Institution site.

Anya Verkhovskaya for permission to use material from the Heritage Films site.

Edward Victor for permission to use material from his Judaica Philatelic Resources site.

Victoria for permission to use her Modigliani bio from her A dozen lilacs in a shoebox site.

Fritz Voll for permission to use Rudiger Lux's biography of Franz Rosenzweig from the Jewish-Christian Relations site.

Miryam Z. Wahrman for permission to use articles she wrote on medical issues relating to women and Judaism.

Leah Waldman for permission to use material from the Israel Democracy Institute.

Jonathan Wallace for material from An Auschwitz Alphabet.

Steve Walz for permission to use material on Zaka from the International Media Placement, Guide for Jewish Giving in Israel, 2002.

Jason “Mad Ace” Wides for use of photos from his Mad Ace Aviation site.

The Simon Wiesenthal Center and its Associate Dean Rabbi Abraham Cooper.

Michael Wilde for permission to use maps from the Maps of War site.

David Wilder for photos and text from the Jewish community of Hebron.

Dean Wingrin for his descriptions of Israeli air bases.

James Winter and PhotoArts for permission to use photos of the Venice cemetery from The Jewish Cemetery at Lido of Venice site.

Tomasz Wisniewski for permission to use his photos from the Synagogues in Poland site and his Turn-of-the-century postcards site.

The World Zionist Organization Student and Academics Department and its director Eli Birnbaum.

Yad Vashem for permission to use documents and profiles of rescuers from its web site.

Alberto Ventura for permission to use his powerpoint presentations on the Jews of Spain.

Andreas von Breitenbuch for a photo and information about his father, Eberhard von Breitenbuch

Mel Wacks for permission to use material from the Jewish Museum in Cyberspace.

Heather Wagner for allowing us to use the photo of Boris Pasternak from the Hoover Institution Archives.

The webmaster of Israeli Weapons for permission to use photos and material from the site.

Rabbi Avi Weinstein, Director, Hillel's Joseph Meyerhoff Center for Jewish Learning for permission to use his text studies.

Tomasz Wisniewski for permission to use photos from the Synagogues in Poland site and his Turn-of-the-century postcards site.

Mary Wright for permission to use articles on Mengele and Munch from the Candles web site.

Yad Vashem for permission to use material from its site.

Murat Yashin for permission to use the article on The History of Turkish Jews from the Mersina web site.

Don Zhou for permission to use the biography of Count Folke Bernadotte from the Folke Bernadotte Memorial Library.

Tammy Zilbert for permission to use the museum's description of the Herzliya Museum of Contemporary Art.

Yael Zisling for permission to use material from the Gems in Israel site.

Professor Jeffrey Zorn for permission to use his article on Tell en-Nabeh.

Karel Zova for permission to use the article on Jews in Estonia from the Estonian Institute site.

Samuel Zwetchkenbaum for permission to use material from his Famous Portraits on the Stamps of Israel site.

Peace Now and Americans for Peace Now for reference information and maps from their websites.

As the Jewish Virtual Library grows, so will this list, so please come back periodically to see who deserves credit for making the site such an extraordinary resource.

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