TWERSKY, ḥasidic dynasty in the Ukraine. The founder of the dynasty, MENAHEM NAHUM BEN ẒEVI of Chernobyl (1730–1787), was educated in Lithuanian yeshivot. After his marriage he eked out a living as a teacher. Influenced by the kabbalistic teachings of Isaac *Luria, he practiced self-mortification, and with the spread of *Ḥasidism he journeyed to Medzhibozh to visit *Israel b. Eliezer Ba'al Shem Tov. After the latter's death Menahem became one of the prominent disciples of *Dov Baer of Mezhirech, and was one of the first to propagate Ḥasidism; he was then accepted as maggid (preacher) at Chernobyl, where he lived in penury. The Mitnaggedim were extremely hostile toward him and sometimes insulted him while he was preaching. It is doubtful whether Menahem became a ḥasidic ẓaddik; as an itinerant preacher he wandered among the towns of the Ukraine, engaging also in pious deeds and the "redemption of captives" (in this case, Jewish tax farmers who had been imprisoned for failing to pay rents to the landowners). He wrote Me'or Einayim (Slavuta, 1798), on the Torah and aggadah, and Yismaḥ Lev (ibid., 1798), both of which were frequently reprinted. Menahem added no innovations to his teachers' expositions of Ḥasidism, but among the principles he stressed in particular was the purification of man's moral attributes: "so long as his moral attributes are not purified [a man] will not be worthy of the Torah" (Me'or Einayim, Lekh Lekha); "every day of the week should be devoted to the purification of one particular attribute; the first day to love; the second to fear of God; etc." (ibid., Be-Shallaḥ).
Menahem's son, MORDECAI OF CHERNOBYL (1770–1837), replaced him as maggid in Chernobyl, where he was born. He was the real founder of the Chernobyl dynasty of ẓaddikim. Unlike his father, who had spread the teachings of Ḥasidism while wandering and living in poverty, Mordecai lived in a splendid house and exercised his functions as leader in opulence and power. While maintaining a high standard of living he introduced the payment of ma'amadot, a financial contribution which every ḥasid paid for the benefit of the ẓaddik's "court," collected by emissaries sent from Chernobyl. He was revered by Ḥasidim who traveled to visit him in their thousands. Mordecai wrote Likkutei Torah (1860) on the Bible, and sermons. He added nothing new to the teachings of Ḥasidism. His outstanding pupil was Israel Dov Baer, the maggid of Weledniki, whose She'erit Yisrael was an important ḥasidic treatise of his time.
After Mordecai's death his place was taken by his eight sons, who settled in different cities in the Ukraine. His eldest son (1) AARON (1787–1872) lived in Chernobyl itself. He was educated by his grandfather, Menahem Nahum, and already during his father's lifetime was considered to have a saintly inclination. He based his sermons on his grandfather's teachings and the commentary Or ha-Ḥayyim by Ḥayyim b. Moses *Attar. Thousands of admiring Ḥasidim flocked to him. Aaron was confident of his spiritual abilities and holiness; he once wrote in a letter: "Even if they [his Ḥasidim] live as long as Methusaleh they will never realize even a thousandth part of the good I – with God's help – have bestowed on them." He was convinced that the Messiah would come in his lifetime. He headed the Volhynia kolel in support of settlement in Ereẓ Israel. A dispute concerning the presidency of the kolel between himself and one of his brothers ended in Aaron's favor. Two of his sons, ZUSIA and BARUCH, continued the dynasty of Chernobyl. (2) MOSES (1789–1866) lived at Korostyshev. (3) JACOB ISRAEL (1794–1876), author of Shoshannat ha-Amakim (1884), lived at Cherkassy; he had begun to lead a congregation while his father was still alive, and after the latter's death did not recognize his eldest brother's authority, but after a fierce controversy was forced to yield. His grandson MORDECAI DOV of Hornistopol (1840–1904), son-in-law of Ḥayyim *Halberstamm of Sandz, was a noted scholar and wrote several works, including Emek She'elah (1906), responsa, and Emek ha-Ḥokhmah (1928). (4) NAHUM (1805–1852) lived at Makarov. (5) ABRAHAM (1806–1889) was also known as the maggid of Trisk (Turiysk), where he lived. He exercised his
Horodezky, Ḥasidut, 2 (19513), 59–69; 3 (19513), 85–96; idem, R. Naḥum mi-Tshernobil ve-Ẓe'eẓa'av (1902); Dubnow, Ḥasidut, 2 (1931), 199–203, 315–6; M.J. Guttmann, Rabbi Naḥman mi-Tshernobil (1932 = Mi-Gibborei ha-Ḥasidut, no. 5); A.D. Twersky, Sefer ha-Yaḥas mi-Tshernobil ve-Ruzhin (19382); Y. Alfasi, Sefer ha-Admorim (1961), 24–27.