In 1494, a Marrano named Luis de Torres arrived on the island
of Jamaica as the interpreter of Christopher
Columbus. Jamaica was a Spanish colony
from the arrival of Christopher Columbus
in 1494 until the British conquest in 1655.
Numerous Portuguese Jews first settled
in Jamaica during the Spanish colonization.
In 1530, the first ship load of Portuguese-Spanish
Jews entered Jamaica. They settled in
Spanish Town (formerly St. Jago de la
Vega), the only operating town at that
time. Many of the Jews that arrived were
Conversos, fleeing Europe to openly practice Judaism.
After the British gained
control of the island, Jews were permitted
to worship in public. In 1660, Jews were
granted citizenship by King Charles. Shortly
thereafter, in 1662, Jews arrived from Brazil, England (1663), British Guiana (1664), and Surinam (1673). Jewish communities began establishing synagogues,
schools, Jewish markets and shops. Most of these immigrants were Sephardim.
During the 17th century one of the greatest Sephardic poets of the period,
David Lopez Laguna (1635-1730), lived in Jamaica. Laguna is most recognized
for converting biblical Psalms into poems. His book of poems, Espejo
Fiel de Vidas (“The True Mirror of Life”), was the first
book published in Jamaica under British rule in 1720.
In 1671, the citizens of Jamaica petitioned the British
officials to expel the Jewish community from the island, but Governor
Lynch opposed this request and it was not enacted. In 1693, however,
a special tax was imposed on the Jews. By 1700, Jews were considered
second-class citizens because of their religion. In 1703, Jews were
forbidden from using Christian servants. Finally, in 1783, Jews were
prohibited from holding public office, they were required to work on
the Sabbath, and again
had to pay extra taxes.
Despite all of these restrictions,
the Jewish community continued to grow and
prosper. During the 17th and 18th centuries,
Jews were very involved in sugar and vanilla
industries of the island. As early as 1530,
the Jews had introduced sugar cultivation
to the island. They were also leaders in
the island’s international trade and
For many years, the Jewish
community demanded emancipation and full
political rights. On December 19, 1831, the
Privy Council in England granted the Jewish
community official recognition and equality
on the island. Jews were then permitted to
vote in the elections and, by 1849, eight
of the 47 members of House of Assembly were
Jewish, including the Speaker of the House.
Jews became so prominent in society that
in 1849, the House of Assembly did not gather
Kippur. By 1881, the Jewish population
Synagogues were erected in Kingston, Port Royal, Spanish
Town and Montego Bay. Two synagogues were built in Spanish Town, the
Sephardi K.K. Neveh Shalom (Habitation of Peace) consecrated in 1704,
and the Ashkenazi K.K. Mikveh Yisrael (Hope of Israel) erected in 1796.
In 1844, the two congregations merged due to the exodus of Jews from
Spanish Town to Kingston. The first Haham, or spiritual leader, of Spanish
Town Jewry was Josiahu Pardo, who arrived from Amsterdam in 1683. The synagogue in Montego Bay was built in 1840, but destroyed
by a hurricane in 1912. The Kingston congregation is believed to have
begun after the earthquake of 1692, but the old Portuguese synagogue
in Kingston, Shaar Hashamayim, was not completed until 1744. The Kingston
Ashkenazi synagogue was completed in 1787. Both were destroyed in the
Great Kingston Fire of 1882.
During the 18th and early 19th century, Jews emigrated
from Curacao and Germany.
After that influx, immigration subsided, but rose again in the late
19th century with the arrival of Jews from Egypt and Syria. By the early 20th
century, the economic prosperity witnessed during the 19th century began
to decline; consequently, many Jews immigrated to the United
States and England.
The Shaar Hashamayim Synagogue
in Kingston was destroyed by a fire in 1882.
Over the next several decades, many Jews
began to intermarry and assimilate, causing
the Ashkenazi and Sephardic synagogues to
attempt to merge, but they were unsuccessful.
In 1885, Shaare Shalom was built by the United
Congregation of Israelites. The original
Shaare Shalom was ruined by an earthquake
in 1907 along with the Neveh Shalom synagogue
in Spanish Town. In 1911, the community of
Kingston reconstructed the Shaare Shalom
building. In 1921, the Ashkenazim finally
agreed to amalgamate with the Shaare Shalom
Approximately 200 Jews reside in Jamaica today, predominately
in Kingston. While only a single synagogue remains, the Shaare Shalom Synagogue
in Kingston, there are remains of the old synagogues on
the island. The Shaare Shalom synagogue can accommodate 600 congregants, though only about 75 attend High Holiday services. In the 1970s, the congregation started counting women as part of a minyan for practical reasons. After the longtime lay leader Ernest de Souza died suddenly in 2000, community leader Steven Henriques held the reins until Rabbi Dana Kaplan was hired. Kaplan is thus the first rabbinically ordained leader the Jamaican Jewish community had had in three decades. In 2014, he said "we get a minyan 90 percent of the time."
The synagogue ark contains 13 Torah scrolls, many of which have been preserved
from past synagogues on the island. The sand-covered floor makes it one of just 5 similar synagogues in the world today, among them St. Thomas. It is believed to be a tradition derived out of necessity, originating from conversos' Jewish traditions in the 1600s in northern Brazil, where Spanish-Portuguese conversos [forced converts from the Inquisition] needed to keep their religious practice secret from the ecclesiastical authorities. The sand or clay floors concealed the noise during prayer services.
Services at Shaare Shalom Synagogue are now done in English, while they once were Orthodox. Rabbi Kaplan was ordained at the Reform Movement's Hebrew Union College in Jerusalem, and he introduced Debbie Friedman's Mi Sheberach into the services in the 2010s; and aims to replace the classical American Reform organ music and British Jewish hymns now in the siddurim with more modern tunes from local Jamaican musical traditions - especially because the country is the birthplace of amazing reggae music. During every service, the congregation still recites the Portuguese prayer,
“for our brethren who are imprisoned by the Inquisition.”
The Jews in the Jamaican community today are very diverse: they are Ashkenazi and Sephardic, black and white, and come from a myriad of geographic locations. Cantor Carl Estick is a black descendant from the Mendez family, one of the first Jewish families in Jamaica. Rabbi Kaplan has helped Jamaicans with Jewish ancestry who want to return to Judaism convert, though there is much skepticism and opposition from some other community members, who actually shut Kaplan's program down.
As Kaplan sees it, "conversion is key," because the community is so small and there are many Jamaicans with Jewish heritage who want to convert. The Jamaican Jews, though small in number, are a highly respected minority group.
Various Jewish communal organizations are active,
including WIZO, B’nai B’rith, a home for the elderly, and
nondenominational Hillel Academy school, founded in 1969. However, there is no formal Hebrew or religious instruction for children in upper elementary grades or above. Twenty-one Jewish cemeteries are scattered
across Jamaica. The oldest Jewish cemetery, Hunts Bay Cemetery, is located
in Spanish Town, and maintained by dedicated groundskeepers. In the late 1990s, the Neveh Shalom Institute was founded
to protect and purchase old Jewish remains from Colonial Jamaica.
Since Jamaica’s independence in 1962, Israel and Jamaica have maintained full diplomatic relations. The Israeli ambassador
in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic represents the government of Israel’s
interests in Jamaica.
Shaare Shalom Synagogue (formerly United Congregation
Rabbi Dana Kaplan, Cantor Carl Estick
Duke & Charles Street
P.O. Box 540, Kingston 6
Neveh Shalom Institute
58 Paddington Terrace, Kingston 6
Judaica - CD ROM Edition Judaica Multimedia (Israel) Ltd.
Zaidner, Michael. Jewish
Travel Guide 2000. Intl Specialized Book Service, 2000.
leader maintains Jewish roots in Jamaica” by Moura Wolpert
Jewish Cemetery Project-Jamaica
of the Jews of the Caribbean” by Ralph G. Bennett
Kadosh Neveh Shalom: Holy Congregation Dwelling Place of Peace”
Jews in Jamaica” by Dr. Rebecca Tortello
Header photo courtesy of WPPilot
Renee Ghert-Zand, "A Dwindling Community," Jerusalem Report, January 13, 2014.