The Jews of Georgia are divided into two groups. Georgian Jews have a
2,600-year history in the region, while the Ashkenazim came to the country during the Russian annexation in the early 19th century. Today, there are approximately 3,000 Jews living in Georgia.
- Ancient History
- Russian Annexation
- Anti-Semitism Under the Tsarists
- Soviet Invasion
- Contemporary Georgia
- Independence & Georgia Today
- Tourist Sites & Contacts
Georgian-speaking Jewry is one of the oldest surviving Diaspora Jewish communities.
The origin of Georgian Jews, also known as Gurjim or Ebraeli,
is debated, but some claim they are descendants of the ten
tribes exiled by Shalmaneser. Others say the first Jews made their
way to southern Georgia after Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem in
586 B.C.E. after first fleeing
The first Jews in Western Georgia arrived in the 6th
century when the region was ruled by the Byzantine
Empire. Approximately 3,000 of these Jews then fled to Eastern Georgia,
controlled by the Persians,
to escape severe persecution by the Byzantines. The existence of the
Jews in these regions during this period is supported by archaeological
evidence showing that Jews lived in Mtzheta, the ancient capital of
the East Georgian state of Kartli.
The Ebraeli spoke Georgian and Jewish traders
developed a dialect called Qivruli, or Judeo-Georgian, which included
a number of Hebrew words.
In the second half of the 7th century, the Muslim
Empire conquered extensive Georgian territory, which became an Arab
caliph province. Arab emirs ruled the majority of the region until 1122.
Under the Arabs, in the late 9th century, Abu-Imran
Musa al-Za'farani (later known as Abu-Imran al-Tiflisi) founded a Jewish
sect called the Tiflis Sect which lasted for more than 300 years. The
sect deviated from halakhah in its marriage and kashrut customs.
The Mongols swept through Georgia in 1236, prompting
many of the Jews of Eastern and Southern Georgia to move to the western
region, which remained independent. There they formed small, poverty-stricken
communities along the Black Sea, and eventually their destitution forced
them into serfdom. For 500 years, beginning in the end of the 14th century,
the Jews of Georgia belonged to the kamani, or serf class, under
the Georgian elite.
Their situation worsened in the 15th and 16th centuries due to constant
military conflicts and invasions by Timur, Turkey, and Persia. By the
end of the 15th century, Georgia had fragmented into three separate
kingdoms and five feudal territories. Jewish serfs were sold from master
to master as a family or individuals as debt payments or gifts. The
Jewish communities were torn apart and Jewish communal life was nearly
impossible to maintain. Isolation and lack of a religious and spiritual
center led to a decline of Jewish knowledge.
An endless string of wars and rebellions characterized the late 18th
and early 19th centuries, leaving the region decimated. Jewish property
was often confiscated and Jews were forced to seek the protection of
the local feudal lords. Instead of finding security, many Jews became
enslaved by these lords. Jewish serfs were divided into three categories
according to Georgian law: the King's serfs, Feudal serfs, and the Church's
During this period, large migrations of Jews took place, either voluntary
or forced. In the 15th and 16th centuries, a large number of Jews left
for Crimea, and Jews in the region can still be traced to their Georgian
origins to this day. In the 17th and 18th centuries, tens of thousands
of Jewish and non-Jewish Georgians were forcibly relocated to Persia
by their Persian invaders.
In 1801, the Russian Empire annexed Eastern Georgia.
The King's serfs became the treasury's serfs, and were now obligated
to pay taxes to the Tsar. In 1864-71, the Russian authorities abolished
serfdom, and Jewish former serfs moved to towns and villages where free
Jews were already settled. Finally, the Jews of Georgia began to develop
a Jewish community. Each group moved together to the same towns and
established their own respective synagogues. They were usually made
up of a number of extended family groups spanning three or four generations.
Each community had a gabbai who served as a rabbi, shohet, mohel,
and heder, and oversaw religious and communal affairs. These
small communities developed into the Jewish quarter of their particular
In the beginning of the 19th century, Ashkenazi Russian Jews were forced to move to Georgia by the Russian government.
The Ashkenazi Jews and the Georgian Jews began establishing contact
with each other, but relations were strained. Georgian Jews viewed the
Ashkenazim as godless and secular, while the Ashkenazim looked down
on the Georgian Jews.
Zionism was the
only uniting cause for the two groups, and Ashkenazim joined Zionist
organizations and began to spread their ideas to the Georgian Jewish
communities. In 1897, the first Zionist organization was established
in Tbilisi. On August 20, 1901, the First Congress of Caucasus Zionists
was held in Tbilisi. Rabbi David Baazov led Georgian Zionism during
the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1903, Baazov attended the Sixth Zionist Congress in Basel. In 1918, the All-Jewish Congress in Tbilisi took place and
included representatives from every Georgian and Russian Jewish community
in the country, except for Kutaisi, which had become the center of Anti-Zionist activity.
Orthodox leaders, the Hakhams, also fought against the spread of Zionism
in the Georgian Jewish communities.
Beginning in 1863, groups of Jews began making aliyah,
mostly for religious reasons. By 1916, 439 Georgian Jews lived in Palestine,
mostly in Jerusalem near
Gate. Very few hakhams immigrated to Israel due to their
staunch Anti-Zionist stance, and most Jews who made aliyah were
poverty-stricken and worked as freight-handlers in Jerusalem.
Anti-Semitism under the Tsarists
Anti-Semitism was a serious problem in Georgia, especially in the second half of the
19th century. Induced by Tsarist officials and the Russian Orthodox
Church, anti-Semitism was supplemented by the end of serfdom and the
urbanization of the Jewish population. Now traders instead of field
hands, Jews became a threat to Georgian workers. Anti-Semitism had been
an issue in Russia for centuries and, under the annexation, had begun
to influence non-Jews in Georgia who, furious at being occupied by Tsarist
Russia, took out their anger and xenophobia on the only other outsider:
Six blood libels took place in Georgia in 1852, 1878, 1881, 1882, 1883, and 1884. The
worst and most infamous case was in the village of Sachkhere in 1878,
when nine Jews were accused of partaking in the ritual killing of a
Christian child to use the blood to make matzah for Passover. The highly
publicized trial occurred in Kutaisi, and was called the Kutaisi Trial.
The accused were found not guilty, but the blood libels continued.
While the government had previously been relatively accepting of the
Jews, after the revolution of 1905, the Russians took a harsher stance.
Georgian Jews separated themselves from Russian Jews, emphasizing their
loyalty to the monarchy and their roots in the region. In 1913, the
deputy governor of Kutaisi extorted money from the city's Jews, and
those who did not comply were murdered.
After the October 1917 Russian Revolution threw out the Tsar's government
and replaced it with the Bolsheviks, Georgia clamored for independence
from their occupiers. On May 26, 1918, the Georgian Republic declared
its independence. With independence came freedom of speech, press, and
organization, which improved the economic situation of the Jews of Georgia.
This newfound freedom did not last long. The Red Army invaded Georgia
in February 1921, prompting a mass exodus from the region. Approximately
1,500-2,000 Jews left Georgia, 1,000-1,200 of whom settled in Palestine.
The remainder fled mainly to Istanbul, where a Georgian Jewish community
had been in existence since the 1880s.
Initially, the Soviets allowed the Jews to maintain their religious customs, but after a Georgian
rebellion in 1924, the government terminated all Zionist activity, imposed economic restrictions, and generally discriminated
against the Jewish community. As a result, many Jewish businesses were
bankrupted and 200 families applied for exit visas. Only 18 were allowed
In the mid-1920s, the Soviets focused on industrializing and secularizing
the Jews of Georgia. Mass numbers of Jews were forced to work in factories
or to join craft cooperatives and collective farm projects. In 1927-1928,
OZET, the organization for settling Jewish workers on farms, established
a number of Jewish collective farms. These small homogeneous communities
became isolated Jewish communities where Jewish learning was continued.
Recognizing this, the Communists disbanded the communities in the 1930s,
scattering the Jews among various farms and destroying Jewish communal
Meanwhile, blood libels continued in full force, with occurrences in
Sachkhere in 1921, Tbilisi in 1923, and Akhalzikhe in 1926.
Due to Soviet persecution and the declining economic
situation, Zionist leaders focused on increasing aliyah efforts.
The Soviets firmly opposed Jewish immigration and, during the 1930s,
cracked down on Zionist organizations, arresting or murdering many members.
In 1937-38, the authorities stifled participation in Jewish religious
services or cultural activities. In September 1937, nine hakhams,
two of whom were Ashkenazi, were arrested in Tzkhinvali (Staliniri at
the time), and sent to prison without trial and murdered.
The only surviving Jewish institution was the History and Ethnography
Museum, but it too was soon closed down. Its director, Aharon Krikheli
was arrested in 1948, and the museum closed in the early 1950s, thus
signifying the annihilation of Jewish culture in Georgia, which the
Soviets had built up during the prewar years.
During World War I,
thousands of Georgian Jews served in the Soviet Army. After the war,
the authorities arrested Jews and closed or destroyed synagogues,
and anti-Semitic acts of violence
erupted. But despite their attempts, the Soviets could not completely
annihilate the practice of Judaism and, even in the late 1960s and 70s, most Georgian Jews managed to observe
Throughout Soviet rule, Jews remained society's scapegoat. They made
up the majority of Georgians convicted for economic crimes, and were
punished more severely than the rest of the population. Blood libels
continued with incidents in Tzkhaltubo in 1963, Zestafoni in 1964, and
Kutaisi in 1965.
After the Six
Day War, huge numbers of Georgian Jews applied for exit visas to
immigrate to Israel. In August 1969,
seventeen families wrote to the Human Rights Commission of the United
Nations demanding permission to make aliyah. This was the
first public insistence by Soviet Jews for immigration to Israel. As
a result, the Israeli government and the Jewish world campaigned heavily
on behalf of the plight of the Georgian Jews. In July 1971, a group
of Georgian Jews went on a hunger strike outside a Moscow post office. The determination of the Jews of Georgia led the Soviets
to lessen their harsh anti-Jewish policies.
Georgian Jews waiting to obtain emigration
permits, Georgia (Gruzia), SSR 1978
Photo: Dr. Morris Plust, USA.
During the 1970s, about 30,000 Georgian Jews made aliyah and thousands of others left for other countries. Approximately 17 percent
of the Soviet Jewish population emigrated at this time. In 1979, the
Jewish population in Georgia was 28,300 and, by 1989, it had decreased
Independence & Georgia Today
After the fall of the Soviet
Union, Georgia declared her independence in 1991, and became a Commonwealth
of Independent States (CIS) republic. Since independence, the country
has faced continuous military conflict, leaving the region in political
and economic turmoil.
The situation of the Jewish community of Georgia improved dramatically
due to the end of the Soviet occupation. In 1994, President Shevardnadze
issued a decree to protect Jewish religious, cultural and historic monuments.
In addition, the Jews of Georgia have successfully maintained their
Jewish identity and traditions despite the oppression they faced under
the Soviets. Intermarriage has always been low and levels of Jewish
knowledge are significantly higher than those of other CIS republics.
In 1990, the Rachamim Society was established, which
supplies financial and medical support to the Jews of Tbilisi and maintains
Jewish cemeteries and synagogues. It functions as an umbrella organization
for Ashkenazi Jews. The
Association of Georgian Jews (Derekh Yehudi) focuses on regaining
Jewish property confiscated during the Soviet era. The Jewish community
still faces acts of violence and obstacles in the return of property
rights to a 19th century Ashkenazi synagogue stolen by the Soviets.
The Chief Rabbi of Georgia is Rabbi Ariel Levin.
There is no umbrella organization for all Jews in Georgia,
but more than 30 Jewish institutions are in existence, in addition to
one Jewish day school and four supplementary schools. Three Jewish newspapers
are published-Menora, Shalom, and 26 Century, and
there is also a Jewish radio and television station.
The Jewish population of Georgia has steadily decreased
over the years due to aliyah in response to the political and
economic issues since independence. Overall, since 1989, 21,134 Jews
have moved to Israel. Once numbering as many as 100,000, today the Georgian
Jewish population is approximately 13,000. Tbilisi has the largest Jewish
population at 11,000 out of 1.5 million. Jewish communities are located
in Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi, Oni, Achaltische, Ahalkalaki, Surami, Kareli,
and Stalin's hometown of
Gori, and synagogues are located in most of these cities. The provinces
of Abkhazia and South Ossetia are virtually void of Jews due to the
military conflicts in these areas.
In January 2001, in a first step toward establishing relations, the
Georgian Orthodox Church and the Jewish community of Georgia signed
a cooperation agreement of mutual respect and support. In 2002, Georgian
Orthodox Christianity was established as the state religion, and since
then there has been concern for all religious minorities in the country.
Relations between Georgia and Israel are warm. The Israeli embassy is located in Tbilisi and also serves
Armenia;the Georgian embassy is in Tel
Aviv. Israel has supplied humanitarian aid to Georgia a number of
times, including drought assistance and aid for earthquake victims.
The Jewish Agency for Israel (JAFI) and American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee (JDC) both have permanent representatives in Georgia. JDC
and Hesed Eliyahu distribute food and medical aid to the Jewish elderly,
who make up more than 50 percent of the Georgian Jewish community.
Tourist Sites & Contacts
Entrance to the synagogue of the Georgian
Jews, Tbilisi, Georgia (Gruzia) SSR, 1976.
The Georgian Synagogue
45-47 Leselidze Street
The Ashkenazi Synagogue
13 Kozeveny Street
65 Kozeveny Lane
C/o JDC Office
Galaktion Tabidze st. 5/3 Rm. 48
The Federation of Jewish Communities
The Jewish Agency for Israel
Galaktion Tabidze, 4
Embassy of Israel
Achmashenabeli Ave. 61,
Tel. 995 8832 964 457/951 709
Community of Tbilisi, Georgia; The
Peoples of the Red Book; AmYisrael ; World Jewish
Congress; NCSJ; Former
Soviet Union Moniter; World
Congress of Georgian Jews; "Georgia" Encyclopedia
Hatefutsoth, Photo Archive, Tel Aviv - Jews
Waiting to Obtain Emigration Permits (courtesy of
Dr. Morris Plust) and Entrance to the Synagogue of Georgian Jews (courtesy of Valery Fayerman); © Beth
Hatefutsoth Photo Archive