The Jewish forefather Jacob fathered
12 sons - these are the original ancestors of the Tribes of Israel.
Upon conquering Israel under the leadership of Joshua, each of the 12 tribes was designated an individual territory in the land.
The tribe of Levi was not given territory for it was set apart from the other tribes to serve in the Temple.
The tribes of Reuben, Gad and half the tribe of Menasheh were given territory on the eastern side of the Jordan River.
*- The sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Menasseh,
were also given the status of independent tribes.