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Baal Shem Tov
(Heb. Master of the Good Name, 1698-1760). Rabbi Yisrael ben Eliezer, (also known as the Ba'al Shemtov for his corpus on maintaining proper dialogue), lived in Eastern Europe during the first half of the eighteenth century and founded Chassidic Judaism. (See also Chassidic).
- (Heb.) Torah reader at public prayer service.
- Prayer leader also known as a chazzan.
- (Heb. One who returns) Religious penitents--Jews raised in non-Orthodox environments who later become religious.
- Ba’alei Tosafot
- A group of Torah scholars, mainly descendents of Rashi, who formulated and perpetuated much of the Ashkenazi Tradition. They lived primarily during the 12 th and 13 th centuries in Christian Europe and their works appear in the Talmud alongside Rashi’s.
- (Arabic. renaissance). A Pan-Arab socialist party with branches
in several Arab countries, most notably Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and
Jordan. The party emerged during World War II, was formally established
in 1947, and has been influential in Arab politics since the early
1950s. Prominent members of the Ba'ath party include Saddam Hussein and Hafez Al-Assad.
- A ravine in Kiev, Ukraine, where tens of thousands of Ukrainian Jews were
systematically massacred during the Holocaust
- Modern-day Iraq. 1. The homeland of the Babylonians, whose ancient empire conquered much of the Near East, including the kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.E. 2. The Jewish community that was exiled there at that time — yet eventually flourished, leaving a lasting mark on Jewish religion, law, and communal organization.
- In 586 BCE Babylonia conquered the Kingdom of Judah. Jerusalem and
the First Temple were destroyed, and most Jews were sent into exile. (See also Galut).
Babylonian Talmud ("Talmud Bavli")
- More than a century after the rabbis of Israel edited their discussions
of the Mishna and created the Jerusalem Talmud (Talmud
Yerushalmi), some of the leading Babylonian rabbis compiled their own
corpus of legal discussions which had
had been going on for some three hundred years. The Babylonian edition was
far more extensive than its Israel counterpart, and eventually became the most authoritative compilation
of the Oral Law. (When people speak of studying "the Talmud,"
they almost invariably mean the Bavli rather than the Yerushalmi).
- Symbols worn by Jews and others targeted by the Nazi regime for
easy identification. Jews were ordered to wear a yellow Star of David;
political prisoners a red triangle; criminals a green triangle; "Asocials"
a black triangle; Gypsies a brown triangle; Jehovah's Witnesses a
purple triangle and Homosexuals a pink triangle.
- (1873-1956) Rabbi, philosopher, and community leader in Berlin. In 1933, he
became president of the Reich Representation of German Jews, an organization
responsible to the Nazi regime concerning Jewish matters. Despite
opportunities to emigrate, Baeck refused to leave Germany. In 1943,
he was deported to the ghetto of Terezin (Theresienstadt), where he
became a member of the Council of Elders and spiritual leader of the
Jews imprisoned there. After the liberation of the ghetto he emigrated
- A Cold War defense treaty signed in 1955 between the United States, Iraq, Turkey, Great Britain, Iran, and Pakistan. The treaty was aimed at containing the Soviet threat, but drew much criticism from pan-Arabist countries such as Egypt and eventually fell apart.
- A religious Zionist youth organization founded in Germany in 1928.
- A plan proposed during the First Intifada in 1989 by U.S. Secretary of State James Baker with the hopes of promoting dialogue between Israelis and Palestinians who still would not sit at the same bargaining table. The plan called for Israel to talk exclusively with the Palestinian representatives it approved of, and allowed for the selected Palestinian representatives to discuss a wider range of issues than initially proposed under the Shamir Plan. The plan fell apart as the PLO was not represented and controversy ensued as to the legal status of Jerusalem Arabs.
- (Yid. M. From the Heb. Ba'al ha'bayit) Head (lit. master) of the household.
- (Yid. F, From the Heb. Ba'alat Ha'bayit) The lady of the house, and usually an especially praiseworthy one.
- Statement issued by the British Government
on November 2, 1917 recognizing the
Jewish people's right to a national home
in the land of Israel, named for British
Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour who
signed it on Britains behalf.
- An altar made on a high place for the service of God or idols. They were prohibited after the Mishkan moved to Shiloh, however, eradicating their use proved difficult.
- (Heb. In the desert). The book of Numbers, fourth book
of the Torah.
- The first Afro-Asian meeting took place in 1955 and included 29 states from Asia and Africa. Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Yemen, Iran, Turkey, and the grand mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husseini as part of the Yemen delegation were present. Israel did not attend due to the Arab boycott threat. The Bandung Declaration released by the end of the Conference called for the implementation of UN resolutions on Palestine and a peaceful resolution of the conflict.
- Israeli bank and the central financial institute of the Histadrut, founded 1921.
- The headwaters of the Dan and Jordan Rivers. A major archeological
site and picnic grounds.
- In earliest Christianity, the rite of ritual immersion in water
that initiated a person into the
Christian church. The roots of baptism can be found in the Jewish purification bath (Mikvah). Very soon, pouring or sprinkling with water came
into use in some churches, and the practice of baptizing infants.
(See also initiation and circumcision).
- WWII Codeword for the military onslaught on the USSR, launched June 22,
- (Heb. Blessed is he) Opening (and sometimes closing) declaration traditionally recited during some prayer services.
- (Aramaic Son of a Star). Simeon ben Kosiba, the leader
of the last and most successful Jewish rebellion against Rome in 132-135
CE. He died in battle when the rebellion was defeated. Rabbi Akiva
believed he was the Moshiach (Messiah).
- Bar Kokhba Revolt
- The second Jewish revolt against Rome (131-135 CE), lead by the
warrior Bar Kokhba and the prominent sage Rabbi Akiva. The Roman emperor
Hadrian promised at first to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple, and
later changed his mind and decided to establish a Roman colony there
instead. After the defeat of the revolt at Betar the Romans leveled
Jerusalem and exiled the population.
- Israeli chief of staff Him Bar-Lev conceived of and implemented a defensive system on the Suez Canal’s eastern bank. The construction began in late 1968 and comprised 30 strongholds, only a limited number of which were full operation by the time the Yom Kippur War broke out in 1973. The purpose of the fortifications was to protect the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. This failed in the Yom Kippur War when Egypt overran them.
Bar (Bat) Mitzvah
- (Heb. son (daughter)-of-the-commandment(s)). The phrase
originally referred to a person responsible for performing the divine
commandments of Judaism; it now refers to the occasion when a boy
or girl reaches the age of religious maturity and responsibility (thirteen
years for a boy; twelve years and a day for a girl).
- (Heb. welcome) Traditional greeting.
- Basar B'Chalav
- (Heb. meat and milk mixture) Combining meat and milk is not allowed in Judaism.
- Theodor Herzl convened the first World Zionist Congress with representatives from around the world in Basel, Switzerland and established the World Zionist Organization. The WZO adopted the Basel Program which called for the establishment of a Jewish home.
- (Heb. daughter or daughter of). Used frequently
in matronymics (naming by identity of mother). (See also Ben).
- Bat Galim Affair
- On September 28, 1954, an Israeli ship, the Bat Galim, carrying plywood and meat from Massawa to Haifa, was confiscate and added to the Egyptian navy. Its crew was imprisoned until January 1, 1955 and its cargo was impounded.
Baum Gruppe (Herbert Baum Group)
- Small, clandestine anti-Nazi organization founded in Berlin at the
beginning of the Nazi regime by Herbert and Marianne Baum. It was
composed of young people, primarily Jewish members of the Communist
party, as well as a number of Zionists. Its activities centered around
increasing education, political, and cultural awareness, but it also
engaged in one act of spectacular sabotage: The bombing of an anti-Soviet
exhibit in Berlin. Most of the members were denounced, tried, and
executed between July 1942 and June 1943.
- Shorthand term for the Babylonian Talmud. (See also Babylonian Talmud).
- (Before the Common Era) Alternative term for "B.C." (Before Christ), used by many Jews and Muslims to refer the same period.
- (Heb.) Firstborn status.
Beck, General Ludwig (1880-1944)
- Chief of Army Staff in 1935, he advocated that
all his fellow Generals resign as a protest to Hitler's aggressive war policies.
Upon his resignation in 1938 he joined with other members of the civilian
and military resistance and became a principle leader in the July
20 Plot. After an aborted suicide attempt he was executed on the
evening of July 20, 1944.
- Upon his return from the Ismailia Summit with Egyptian president Anwar Sadat in 1977, Menachem Begin unveiled his peace plan which developed later on into the Autonomy Plan that was incorporated into the Camp David Accords. It called for limited self-rule in the territories and the possibility of Israeli and/or Jordanian citizenship for the Palestinians. The talks that ensued eventually failed.
Beilin-Abu Mazen Plan
- On October 31, 1995, Israeli deputy foreign minister Yossi Beilin and Chairman Yasser Arafat’s deputy and future prime minister Mahmoud Abbas proposed a plan that Israel annex 4-5% of the West Bank and transfer the remaining areas to a Palestinian state. Jerusalem would be the capital of Israel while Abu Dis would be the capital of Palestine. An international commission would be formed to settle the issue of the refugees.
Beirut Airport Bombings
- On October 23, 1983, Hezbollah militant rammed a truck loaded with TNT into Beirut International Airport killing 241. This attack came against the backdrop of an Islamic Jihad suicide bomber in the US embassy in West Beirut. These attacks resulted in US and French pullout of troops from Lebanon while at the same time eliminated any possibility of an early Israeli military withdrawal from southern Lebanon.
- December 28, 1968, Israel destroyed Lebanese Middle East Airways civilian aircrafts at Beirut International Airport in response to attacks two days earlier on El Al aircrafts in Athens, carried out by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in which one person was killed and many others injured.
(Heb. house of law) Court of Jewish law.
Beit Hadassah (Hadassah House)
- A large deserted Jewish house in Arab Hebron that was illicitly occupied in 1979 by Jewish settlers, whose stay was later legalized by the government; a controversial place and the site of many violent acts.
- Beit HaMikdash
- Holy Temple, spiritual center of the Jewish people.
- (Heb. House of Hillel). A school of thought during the
Talmudic period, generally contrasted with the stricter, more legalistic
views of Beit Shammai.
- (Heb. House of assembly) Synagogue
- Beit Lid Bombing
- On January 22, 1995, two suicide bombers blew themselves up at a bus station at the Beit Lid junction in northern Israel, killing nineteen, most of whom were soldiers trying to return to their bases.
Beit Lohamei Haghettaot
- (Heb. House of the ghetto warriors) Israeli museum established by survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising to document Jewish efforts to resist the Nazi's and other oppressors.
Beit Midrash (Beis Midrash)
- (Heb. House of study). A place set aside for study of
sacred texts such as the Torah and the Talmud, generally a part of
the synagogue or attached to it.
Beit Midrash l'Shalom
- (Heb. The House of Study for Peace) Monthly meeting held by Oz/Netivot; a religious Zionist peace movement.
- (Heb. House of Shammai). A school of thought during
the Talmudic period, generally contrasted with the more lenient, humanistic
views of Beit Hillel.
- Belgium Law
- Legislation introduced in 1999 authorized Belgian courts to prosecute individuals accused of crimes against humanity or war crimes regardless of their connection to Belgium or the presence of the accused on Belgian soil. This allowed for the possible persecution of Ariel Sharon for the Sabra and Shatila Massacre. However, in 2003, the Belgian parliament amended the law and the Supreme Court dismissed the case against Sharon.
- (Heb. son, son of; Aramaic. bar)
Used frequently in patronymics (naming by identity of
father)). (See also bat and bint).
- (1886-1973) One of the early founders of the State of Israel and its first prime minister.
- (Yid. To bless) Usually refers to the birkat ha-mazon (Grace after Meals).
- The ritual unveiling of the bride by the bridegroom. This custom developed
from the biblical story of Jacob, who married Leah by mistake, instead
of Rachel, the woman he loved.
- One of the six extermination camps in Poland. Originally established
in 1940 as a camp for Jewish forced labor, the Germans began construction
of an extermination camp at Belzec on November 1, 1941, as part of
Aktion Reinhard. By the time the camp ceased operations in January
1943, more than 600,000 persons had been murdered there.
- Ben Ami Operation
- During the War of Independence, Jewish forces partially isolated Acre and then launched an attack from its seashore. They eventually captured the city on May 17, 1948.
- (Heb. Son of the Torah) One who is religiously observant and well-versed in the classical religious texts.
- (Heb. In the beginning). Genesis, the first book of
- Nazi concentration camp in northwestern Germany. Erected in 1943.
Thousands of Jews, political prisoners, and POWs were killed there.
Liberated by British troops in April 1945, although many of the remaining
prisoners died of typhus after liberation.
- Anglo-American Conference on refugees held in Bermuda April 19-30,
- Modified partition plan proposed by U.N. mediator Count Folke Bernadotte after the outbreak of the 1948 War of Independence. The plan called for Transjordan to control all of Jerusalem (later revised to be an international zone), the Negev (southern desert region) to be given to the Arabs, and the Galilee (northern region) to be allotted to the Jews. Two days after submitting the plan to the U.N. Bernadotte was assassinated by members of the Israeli militant group known as the Stern Gang.
- Petition against Nazi anti-Jewish legislation in German Upper Silesia,
signed by Franz Bernheim, a warehouse employee in Upper Silesia and
submitted to the League of Nations on May 17, 1933.
- Youth movement of the Zionist Revisionist party (now of the Herut
- (Heb. Flash) Israel's state-owned communications company.
- (Gre. Book).
Designation normally used for Jewish scriptures (TaNaK = Protestant
Christian Old Testament; plus the Apocrypha in classical
Christianity) or Christian scriptures (Old Testament plus
the Christian New Testament). (See also Septuagint).
- (Heb. Visiting the sick) Mitzvah to visit a sick person.
- Biltmore Program
- The program adopted at the Extraordinary Zionist Conference held at the Biltmore Hotel in New York in 1942. Facing increasing restrictions on Jewish immigration to Israel during the Holocaust (as imposed by the MacDonald White Paper of 1939), the declaration was a show of support from American Jewry that called for the establishment of a Jewish state and marked the transfer of Zionist power from Britain to America.
- (Heb. acronym House of Jacob Let Us Go Up [Isaiah 2.5]) Zionist organization founded in 1882 and comprised of 14 ex-university students from the Ukraine; among the first to immigrate to Israel during the first aliyah.
- (Heb. Stage). Location in a synagogue
from which the Torah is read.
- (Heb. Intuition, understanding, intelligence) A quality that women supposedly
have in greater degree than men. Also, in kabbalistic thought, one
of the ten sephirot.
- The concept or support of a single joint Jewish/Arab state.
- The successor of Moses that conquered the land of Canaan and divided
the conquered land among the Israelite tribes. His life and activities
are described in the Biblical Book of Joshua.
- Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)
- A statute that came into force on March 26, 1975 which prohibits any possession of biological warfare agents, toxins, equipment, or delivery systems. Israel is not a signatory although most nations in the Middle East are.
- (Heb. Benediction concerning heretics) A prayer
that invoked divine wrath upon Christian Jews and other heterodox
Jewish groups. Twelfth section of the shemoneh esreh.
- (Heb. Grace after meals) Prayer traditionally recited after meals.
- The death camp of Auschwitz II and III. Today, Auschwitz II is mostly destroyed;
Auschwitz III is destroyed except for a few barracks.
B’khor Shor, Joseph ben Isaac
- Twelfth-century Bible commentator and rabbinic scholar; 12th century France.
- Black Letter
- In response to the strong restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine that the White Paper imposed, Chaim Weizmann, head of the Wrold Zionist Organization, put strong pressure on Great Britain to reverse its policies. Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald on February 13, 1931, sent an official letter to Weizmann wherein he nullified the White Paper and upheld a policy of Jewish national homeland through further land settlement and immigration. Arabs referred to these referrals as the Black Letter.
- Popular shrine of great national and religious significance
to Poland. It is located in the city of Czestochowa in the monastery
of Jasna Gora (Bright Mountain). The Black Madonna is a painting on
wood that depicts the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus. Its origins are
ancient and obscure.
Black Sabbath (Operation Agatha)
- British military operation carried out in the Palestine Mandate on Saturday, June 29, 1946. Thousands of British troops were sent around the country to try and contain Jewish paramilitary development. During the operation, several underground weapons storehouses were uncovered and the Jews of the Palestine Mandate were placed under strict curfew. Additionally, close to 3,000 Jews were arrested, among them were future Israeli Prime Ministers David Ben-Gurion and Moshe Sharett.
- Military confrontation between Jordan and the Palestinian guerrillas
in September 1970, which lead to the expulsion of the PLO from Jordan.
- (Gre. Speak ill or Defame) A general term for speaking
against the deity or things associated with the deity. (See also sacrilege).
- An allegation, recurring during the thirteenth through sixteenth
centuries, that Jews were killing Christian children to use their
blood for the ritual of making unleavened bread (matzah).
- An infamous pogrom. The German army entered Czestochowa, Poland
on September 3, 1939. The next day, later called "Bloody Monday,"
a pogrom was organized in which a few hundred Jews were murdered.
On December 25, 1939 a second pogrom took place and the Great Synagogue
was set on fire.
- Bludan Conference
- In September 1937, Arab nationalists from sever countries met in Bludan, Syria to express their support for the Palestinian struggle and opposition to the Peel Commission report, which advocated the partition of Palestine.
- Blue-White Operation
- Massive Israeli mobilization of troops and calling of reserve troops in response to misinformation from the double agent Son-in-Law in Egypt who falsely informed Israel that Egypt would attack on May 15, 1973. Indeed, Egypt was mobilizing troops. But, they lacked the long-range scud missiles that the Son-in-Law had previously said were required for any Egyptian attack. The operation, implemented on April 19, was aimed at crystallization military operations and speeding military purchases. When the Egyptian attack failed to materialize, the troops were dispersed on August 3, just seven weeks before the attack on Yom Kippur. The foiled operation cost the government $45 million and thus drew much criticism about the use of tax payers’ money. The plan was pushed by Chief of Staff David Elazar and defense Minister Moshe Dayan however was opposed by Chief of the Military Intelligence Eliahu Zaira.
Blut und Boden
- (Ger. Blood and Soil) Phrase used by Hitler to mean
that all people of German blood have the right and duty to live on
German soil (i.e. in the German Fatherland).
- (Heb. Children of Akiva (Ben Yosef) Religious-Zionist youth movement founded in 1929, emphasizing the religious and spiritual importance of life and work in Israel.
- (Heb. Children of the Covenant) World's oldest and largest Jewish organization, founded in 1843
in New York, concerned with protecting Jewish interests around the
- (Heb. Children of Noah) Sons of Noah; refers to non-Jews who strive to live by the basic
laws for humanity derived from the Torah.(See also Noachide Laws).
- (Heb. The children of Israel) Term used to describe the nation of Israel.
- (Heb. Security Hole) Fortified subterranean chambers located across Israel. The hole functions as a quick and safe means to dispose of bombs.
Bormann, Martin (1900-1945)
- Adolf Hitler's personal secretary. One of the most powerful men
in the Third Reich since he controlled access to Hitler. Known as
the Brown Eminence and the man in the shadows.
Helped the Fourier with his personal finances. Hitler viewed him as
an absolute devotee, but he had high ambitions and kept his rivals
from having access to Hitler. Was in the bunker during Hitler's last
days. Left the bunker on May 1, 1945, and is believed to have died
shortly thereafter either by a Soviet shell or by suicide. He was
sentenced to death in absentia by the Nuremberg tribunal. The West
German government officially declared him dead in 1973.
- (Heb. Mud) Israeli slang term for Turkish coffee.
- A reward, premium or subsidy, especially when offered or given by
a government. A payment for the capture of an outlaw.
The Gestapo offered a bounty to those who turned in Jews in hiding.
- Organized activity in Nazi Germany directed against the Jews to
exclude them from social. economic and political life.
- (Heb. blessing). In Judaism,
an offering of gratitude that praises God for a benefit conferred
or a great event experienced. (See also shemonah esreh).
- Ornament traditionally hung around the "neck" of the Sefer Torah, reminiscent
of the breastplate worn by the High Priest when he ministered at the
Temple in Jerusalem.
- Six point plan presented by Soviet President Brezhnev in September
1982. The plan called for unilateral withdrawal of Israel from all
territory acquired in the Six Day War.
- (Heb. flight). Underground operation moving
Jews out of Eastern Europe, USSR, Balkan, and Baltic countries, into
central and Southern Europe between 1944 and 1948, as a step toward
theirmostly illegalimmigration to Palestine:
also name of spontaneous mass movement of Jewish survivors from Europe
toward Eretz Israel.
Brit (Brit or Brit Milah)
- (Heb. Covenant). Term used to describe the the
special relationship believed to exist between God and the Jewish
people; Hebrew term for ritual circumcision performed on the eighth day after a baby boy is born.
Brit Habirionim (Covenant of Thugs)
- A small, radical right-wing group that existed in Palestine between 1928 and 1933.
Brit Ha-Chashmonaim (The Hashmonaics Covenant)
- A small, ultra nationalist religious movement established in Jerusalem in the late 1930s by Rabbi Moshe Segal; its members were encouraged to join the undergrounds of Etzel and Lehi.
- (Heb. Ritual of life) Ritual developed by Reform Judaism to celebrate the birth of girls.
- (1922-1948) After WWI the British army seized control of Israel from the Ottoman Turks in 1918. Later in July 1922, the
League of Nations entrusted Great Britain with the responsibility of fostering the "Palestine Mandate" until it became self-sufficient.
- Brosh Operation
- During the fourth stage of the War of Independence, "Operation Brosh" was only partially successful in reducing the Syrian bridgehead near Mishmar Ha-yarden. After a month long truce arranged by the United Nations, Israel launched a counteroffensive on July 9, 1948 against Syrian forces threatening from the eastern Galilee. The fighting continued until July 18 when a second truce came into effect. However, Israel was unable to dislodge the Syrian positions at the entrance to the Jordan River.
- Brunnlitz was the industrial town in German-occupied Czechoslovakia
where Oskar Schindler relocated his Krakow factory in late 1944 as the Soviet Red Army advanced
towards Krakow from the east. The weapons factory that Schindler established
in Brunnlitz was a sub-camp of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp.
Labor camps exploiting Jewish and foreign labor like Brunnlitz were
located throughout the Greater German Reich. Brunnlitz, under Schindler,
was one of the few camps where Jews were not treated brutally.
- (Heb. at a good hour) Congratulations to an expectant mother Also the correct response
to the announcement of a marriage engagement. In both cases, it is
in anticipation of a mazel tov for something hoped for,
that has not yet occurred.
- (Heb. In peace) Farewell greeting.
- (Heb. In song)
- (Heb. In the image) Israel's most prominent human rights watchdog organization. The origin of the name comes from the verse "And God created man in his image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them" (Gen. 1.27).
- (Yid. dear or sweetheart) Affectionate term.
- (1878-1965) Jewish philosopher and Zionist.
- One of the largest concentration camps on German soil. It was constructed
in 1937 in Weimar, Germany. Originally a camp for political prisoners,
10,000 Jews were imprisoned there after Kristallnacht.
Buenos Aires Bombing
- On July 18, 1994 a car bomb was detonated outside the office of the Jewish community of Buenos Aires, Argentina killing more than 90 people and injuring over 100. Although the culprits were never caught, the attack is widely believed to have been Iranian sponsored.
- Jewish socialist party founded in Russia (1897), devoted to Yiddish,
autonomism, secular Jewish nationalism, and sharply opposed to Zionism.
- Ghetto slang word for Jews' hiding places within the ghettos.
- German for mayor.
Bus 300 Affair
- On April 12, 1984 four Palestinians hijacked a civilian bus along the Tel Aviv-Ashkelon route. Although Israeli official accounts reported that all four terrorists were killed in a daring rescue operation, it was later revealed that two of them were actually taken prisoner by the Shabak (Israeli internal security agency) and killed later. The release of this information led to public uproar and the eventual resignation of Shabak chief Avraham Shalom.
- Peace plan proposed by the Bush administration during the Second Intifada in 2002 that called for: two independent states, new Palestinian leadership that would crack down on terrorism (indirectly removing PA Chairman Yasser Arafat as a relevant party), and the complete withdrawal of Israeli forces to their pre-Intifada positions. The plan acknowledged Israel's right to protect itself from terrorism and established the post of PA Prime Minister, later filled by Mahmoud Abbas.
- Term created by the Oslo accords to refer to the new roads that Israel built in the occupied territories following the peace agreement with the Palestinians. These roads connected Israeli settlements with one another and with Israel. The costs incurred in the construction of the bypass roads were “security-related” expenses in implementing Israeli withdrawal. Therefore, they were excluded from US imposed conditions on the $10 billion loan guarantees.
- Individuals, or governments, who were indifferent to the plight
of the Jews, and other victims of the Nazis. Bystanders did not come
to the aid of Jews and other persecuted groups. The great majority
of the European populace were bystanders to the destruction of Jews.
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- In 313 the Byzantine Empire was established in the eastern part
of the Roman Empire after the emperor Constantine adopted Christianity.
The Land of Israel had become a predominantly Christian country, and
Jews were deprived of most of the little autonomy they still had.