The World Within
Medieval Jewish men of science had a mechanistic view
of the world and of man; they saw both as marvelous, divinely contrived
machines. Not so the teachers of Jewish mysticism, the Kabbalah.
Kabbalah had its own cosmogony, with creation as emanation from the
One; and its own theosophy, the special relationship between an immanent
Creator and the world, and most especially, man. "What exists in
God," Gershom Scholem wrote in his Kabbalah (New York, 1987),
"unfolds and develops in man."
Man is the perfecting agent in the structure of the cosmos ... the
process of creation involves the departure of all from the One and
its return to the One, and the crucial turning-point of this cycle
takes place within man, at the moment he begins to develop an awareness
of his true essence and yearns to retrace the path from the multiplicity
of his nature to the Oneness from which he originated.
Kabbalah's mission is to help man develop this awareness and turn him
onto the path. Four manuscripts in the Hebraic Section touch upon this
quest, dealing with dreams and their interpretation; transmigration
of souls; healing the soul; and remedies and recipes for such healing.
in the Bible, dreams were understood
as vehicles for God's communication to man. only the chosen could understand
such communication as, for example, Joseph and Daniel, who were the
biblical interpreters of dreams par excellence. In Talmudic days, dreams
were also interpreted psychologically as windows to the soul through
which one might glimpse the dreamer's innermost thoughts and feelings.
Said Rabbi Jonathan, "a man is shown in a dream only what is suggested
by his own thoughts" (Berakhot 55b).
Maimonides, ever the
rationalist, saw dreams as products of the imagination, but the Zohar,
the classic text of Jewish mysticism, gives dreams both reality and
potency. Among the kabbalists, and particularly in the mystical teachings
of Isaac Luria (1534-1572), dreams
and their interpretation are of central concern. Thus, Hayim Vital (1543-1620),
Luria's chief disciple, fills his spiritual autobiography, Sefer
ha-Hezyonot, with dreams and visions.
Title page of the third
edition of Solomon Almoli's popular treatise on the interpretation
of dreams, Pitron Halomot. The author states that the work
based on the chapter on dreams in Tractate Berakhot and on statements
scattered throughout the Talmud, on passages in the Zohar, as especially
on those noted for their skill in interpreting dreams, Joseph, Daniel,
Hai Gaon, and the scholars of the nations of the world.
Solomon Almoli, Pitron Halomot (The Interpretation of Dreams),
Cracow, 1580. Hebraic Section.
The most popular of the works on dreams was Solomon Almoli's Pitron
Halomot (Interpretation of Dreams), first published in Salonica,
1515, as Mefasher Halmin. In full or abridged form it has since
been republished at least a dozen times in Hebrew, twice in Yiddish,
and twice in Persian translations. Almoli, born in Spain before 1485,
lived in Constantinople, where he served as a rabbi and physician. His
work is a dissertation on the history of the role of dreams in the Jewish
religious tradition, views on the subject drawn from the classical texts
of non-Jewish authors, and a handbook for the interpretation of dreams.
The Library owns a manuscript version of the work, apparently from the
eighteenth century, as well as the rare Cracow edition of 1580.
The doctrine of the transmigration of souls, alternately accepted and
refuted by Jewish religious leaders and scholars, was raised to a dogma
by Kabbalah. Those who upheld it claimed that it was an expression of
God's justice and mercy-otherwise how could one explain the suffering
of the righteous, the prosperity of the wicked, the suffering of children?
Only punishment for sins committed and rewards for righteousness performed
in earlier manifestations, in other bodies, could explain such inequities.
Isaac Abrabanel (1437-1508)
argued that God in His mercy grants
a grievous sinner yet another opportunity for repentance and redemption
by affording his soul another life in another body. Even the great suffering
inflicted upon the righteous may be an expression of God's mercy, Abrabanel
maintains, for it may be a lesser punishment here on earth for sins
committed in an earlier manifestation, instead of the justly deserved
harsher punishment which would have to be meted out in the next world.
To which Leone Modena (1571-1648) countered: Why send the soul into
another body for punishment, why could the punishment not have been
inflicted on the soul while still in the body which abetted the sin?
And would it not be more in keeping with God's mercy to recognize the
weakness of the body and to forgive, rather than to punish?
Luria's disciples raised the dogma of transmigration of souls to a
science and an art. The concept of "impregnation of souls"
permitted a soul that had attained purity in a former life to enter
the body of another individual to help his resident soul in its quest
for purity. Souls which missed attaining full purity could try for the
required "elevation" in a new body, in the process "elevating"
another soul. The process took on material and cosmic proportions. The
purified souls of Israelites unite with the impure souls of other peoples
to free them of their taint and uplift them so that the whole world
may come closer to redemption. Hence, the dispersal of Israel is not
intended as punishment but as the salvation of humankind.
The opening page of a manuscript copy of the Frankfurt-am-Main 1684 edition of a work on the transmigration of souls, so central to Lurianic Kabbalah, by the chief disciple of Isaac Luria, Hayyim Vital, whose writing presented and popularized the Kabbalistic teaching of his master.
Hayyim Vital, Sefer ha-Gilgulim (Book of Transmigration), Italy,
eighteenth century. Hebraic Section.
The classic work on transmigration of souls according to Lurianic doctrine
is Sefer ha-Gilgulim (Book of Transmigration) by Hayyim Vital
of Safed, the recorder some would
say the author of the teachings of Isaac Luria. This material
comprises the fourth section of his magnum opus, Etz Hayyim (Tree
of Life). The Library's manuscript is a copy of the first edition of
that oft-reprinted work, published in Frankfort-am -Main in 1684. Vital
lists a number of contemporaries and the sparks of which souls were
united with theirs. The soul of the biblical commentator Moses Alsheikh,
he said, was united with that of the Amora Samuel ben Nahman, from which
he derived his great talent as a preacher; sixteenth-century Safed kabbalists
Moses Cordovera and Elijah de Vidas were such great friends because
both shared the soul of the good King Zechariah. The soul of Moses which
had once been in the body of Simeon ben Yohai, the "father of Kabbalah,"
was now in the body of Isaac Luria, who assured his disciple Vital that
this soul was one which remained untainted by Adam's sin.
A treatise on the cures for the healing of the wayward or afflicted soul. The text in the right column is attributed to Isaac Luria, the greatest of kabbalists; the left column is the commentary of Abraham ben Isaac Zahalon.
Open to the introduction which deals with the foundation of the physical world, whose undergirding is spiritual repentance. The scribe Abraham ben Mattathias Treves wrote the manuscript in 1609.
Marpe La-Nefesh (Healing for the Soul), 1609. Hebraic Section.
Tainted souls, sinful souls can be cured and uplifted, and the kabbalists
provided the means of doing so: the study of sacred texts at propitious
times. Thus, Marpe La-Nefesh (Healing for the Soul), compiled
by Abraham ben Isaac Zahalon from the teachings of Isaac Luria on ethical
behavior and penitence, is "medicine for the soul." Completed
in Baghdad in 1593, it was published in Venice in 1595. The Library's
manuscript of the work contains Luria's and Zahalon's words in parallel
The letters to be used in preparing a love philter, as the text instructs us, "if you wish for the woman you desire to respond to you, go after you and love you truly." The manuscript contains 386 magic formulas, spells, and incantations for healing a toothache, curing insomnia, growing hair, and improving memory, as well as making love philters.
Sefer Sodot U'Segulot ... (A Collection of Secret Formulas
. . .), Genoa, 1711. Hebraic Section.
If the soul needed uplifting and healing, so too did the body. For
that, there is a manuscript of Sefer Sodot U'Segulot, U'Refuot
V'Ta-a lot (A Collection of Secret Formulas, Incantations, Medicines,
and Cures) written in Genoa in 1711, which contains 386 "magic
formulas for everything from toothache and insomnia to growing hair
and improving the memory, from destroying one's enemies to currying
favor with the mighty. And there are, of course, many love potions."
Dreams and their interpretation, a prelife of the soul and its psychic
consequences, the need and the formulas for the healing of the soulpsyche
attest to the centrality of interest in man-not man as a mechanism or
as the noblest of all creatures, but man as so unique and complex a
being that his essence is different from that of the rest of creation.
Sources: Abraham J. Karp, From
the Ends of the Earth: Judaic Treasures of the Library of Congress,
(DC: Library of Congress,