From the Golden Age of Discovery
to the Inquisition, Portugese
Jewry went from the heights of wealth
and success to the depths of anguish and despair.
The history of Portugese Jewry is like that
of many other places, where success and sadness
go hand in hand. Walking along Lisbons streets, remnants remain of Portugals
rich Jewish life. Sparks of Portugals
past can be found in the remote mountain villages,
where the some of the last remaining Marrano communities can still be found practicing
Jewish rituals behind closed doors, fear of persecutions
still looming. Today, the Jewish community of Portugal numbers approximately 600 people.
- Early History
- Golden Age of Discovery
- Expulsion from Portugal
- Inquisition Period
- Marrano Rennaisance & Customs
- World War II & the Holocaust
- Present-Day Community
Legends say that Jews first came to the Iberian
peninsula during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar in the 6th century BCE or maybe even beforehand during the reign of King
Solomon in 900s BCE. Jews lived and remain active in social and
commercial life of the peninsula during the Visigoth and Muslim
periods of occupation 5th -8th century C.E.
Several important Jewish communities were already active
when the kingdom of Portugal was founded in the 12th century.
During the first dynasty, Jews enjoy relative protection from the crown.
The crown recognized the Jewish community as a distinct legal entity
and appointed specific rulers to adjucate their cases. King Affonso
Henriques (1139-85) entrusted Yahia ben Yahi III, a Jew, with the role
of royal tax collector and supervisor; Yahia be Yahi III also became
the first chief Rabbi of the Portugese Jewish community. Yahia ben Yahis
grandson, Jose ben Yahi was appointed High Steward of the Realm, by
Henriques successor, King Sancho I (1185-1211).
Tensions arose between the Jewish community, who
choose to remain faithful to their religion, and the local clergy and
middle/lower classes. The clergy wanted to invoke restrictions of the
Lateran Council against the Jews, but King Dinis (1279-1235) resisted
and reassured the Jews that they did not have to pay tithes to the
Golden Age of Discovery
The 13th and 14th centuries
were known as Portugals Golden Age of Discovery, in which Jews made
a major contribution to Portugals success. In the early 14th century, more than 200,000 Jews lived in Portugal, which was about 20
percent of the total population.
Jews lived in separate quarters, but had freedom to
move within the country; these quarters remained until the Jewish expulsion
from Portugal. Each of these quarters had its own synagogue,
slaughter house, hospital, jails, bath houses and other institutions.
A rabbi served as the administrative and legal authority within the
Portugal was home to many famous Jews during this period.
Abraham Zacuto wrote tables that provided the principal base for Portugese
navigation, including those used by Vasco Da Gama on his trip to India.
Guedelha-Master Guedelha served as a rabbi and doctor and astrologer
for both King Duarte and King Alfonso V. Isaac
Abravanel was one of the principal merchants and a member of one
the most influential Jewish families in Portugal. Another figure, Jose
Vizinho, served as doctor and astrologer to King Joao II. Joao II also
sent the Jew, Abraham de Beja, on many voyages to the East.
Jews became the intellectual and economic elite of
the country. Jews were involved in all aspects of the explorations,
from financing the sailing fleets to making scientific discoveries in
the fields of mathematics, medicine and cartography. Many were
employed as physicians and astronomers as well royal treasurers, tax
collectors and advisors. It was common to see Jews adorned in silk
clothing, carrying gilt swords and riding beautiful horses. They were
given preferential treatment by the kings.
Jealous of the Jews success, anti-Jewish
sentiment arose in the peasant and middle classes. Fights between Jews and Christians became more common after the influx of Jews from Spain into Portugal, in 1391.
During the reign of King Joao I (1385-1432), Jews were forced to wear a special habit and to obey a curfew. Joaos
successor, King Duarte (1433-1438), introduced laws forbidding Jews from employing Christians. A reprieve took place during Kings
Alfonso Vs rule, when many of these restrictions were repealed.
In 1492, King Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain expelled
all the Jews from Spain. More than 150,000 Spanish Jews came to
Portugal seeking permanent refuge. King Joao II of Portugal allowed
them to enter because he was preparing for war against the Moors and
wanted to take advantage of their wealth and expertise in weapon-making.
At a price of 100 Cruzados a family, 630 wealthy Jewish families were
granted permanent residence. A number of craftsmen, skilled in making
weapons, were also allowed to become permanent residence. The rest were
permitted to stay in Portugal for eight months, upon payment of 8 cruzados
per adult. At the end of those eight months, shipping was still not
available, so the King forfeited Jewish liberty and declared the remaining Jews slaves.
Another tragedy befell the Jewish community in
1493, when the King ordered the separation of Jewish children from
their parents. Seven hundred children were sent to the newly
discovered island of Sao Tome, off west coast of Africa. In 1993,
descendants of those children held a ceremony commemorating the event.
Expulsion from Portugal
Following King Joaos death in 1494, Manuel I ascended
to the throne and restored the Jews freedom. His legitimacy as
heir to the throne was challenged, so he decided to solidify his position
by marrying Princess Isabel of Spain. Isabel told Manuel that she would
only marry him if he expelled the Jews. Their marriage contract was
signed on November 30, 1496, and, five days later, he issued a decree
forcing all Jews to leave Portugal by October 1497.
Manuel was never content with his decision, mainly
because he appreciated the economic value of the Jews to the country.
To make it more difficult for Jews to leave, he made Lisbon the only
viable port of exit. He also tried to convert as many Jews to
Christianity as he could to keep them in Portugal.
On March 19, 1497 (the first day of Passover),
Jewish parents were ordered to take their children, between the ages
of four and fourteen, to Lisbon. Upon arrival, the parents were informed
that their children were going to be taken away from them and were to
be given to Catholic families to be raised as good Catholics. Children
were literally torn from their parents and others were smothered, some
parents chose to kill themselves and their kids rather than be separated.
After awhile, some parents agreed to be baptized, along with their children,
while others succumbed and handed over their babies.
In October 1497, about 20,000 Jews came to Lisbon
to prepare for departure to other lands. They were herded into the
courtyard of Os estaos, a palace and were approached by priests trying
to convert them. Some capitulated, while the rest waited around until
the time of departure had passed. Those who did not convert were told
they forfeited their freedom and would become slaves. More succumbed.
Finally the rest were sprinkled with baptismal waters and were
declared "New Christians."
While many of the New Christians accepted their religion, many
chose to continue practicing Judaism behind closed doors, while publicly practicing Catholic rituals; they
became known as Marranos or crypto-Jews. The Portugese majority still
considered the "New Christians" Jews, despite their outward
affiliation with Christianity. Claims against the Marranos were presented
to the King, along with a list of crypto-Jews.
In 1506, 3,000 "New Christians" were
massacred in Lisbon. Afterward, King Manuel executed 45 of the main
culprits who had incited the mob.
Popular support for a Portugese Inquisition
surfaced in 1531, when many Christians blamed the New Christians for
the recent earthquake. Pope Clement VII authorized the Inquisition and
the first auto-da-fe (trial) took place in Lisbon on September 20,
The right to seize and confiscate the property of
the accused led to the arrest of every prominent "New
Christian" family. Once arrested, death was only escaped if one
admitted to Judaizing and implicated friends and family. Other
sentences included public admission of the alleged sins, the
obligatory wearing of a special penitential habit and burning at the
stake. Urged by greed, eventually even genuine Christians were
Among those murdered were many famous Jews of the period, including
Isaac de Castro Tartas, Antonio Serrao de Castro and Antonio
Jose da Silva, who was later known as "The Jew."
Attempting to evade the Inquisition, many Portugese
Marrano families fled to Amsterdam, Salonika and other places across
the Old and New worlds. In 1654, 23 Portugese Jews arrived in New
Amsterdam (New York) and became the first Jewish settlers in the
United States. The stream of refugees did not stop until the end of
the Inquisition in the late 18th century. The last public
auto-de-fe took place in 1765; however, the Inquisition was not
formally disbanded until after the liberal revolt in 1821.
Around 1800, Portugal decided to "invite Jews" back into the country and reverse Portugals economic
decline. The first Jewish settlers to come were British. Tombstones,
written in Hebrew and dating back to 1804, can be found in a corner of
the British cemetery in Lisbon. Other Jewish immigrants came from Morocco, Tangiers and Gibraltar.
Official recognition to the Jewish community was not granted until
1892. After granting the community recognition, Shaare Tikvah
synagogue was built in Lisbon, however, the synagogue was not allowed
to face the street.
In1912, the new Portugese Republic reaffirmed the
communitys rights. The Jewish community was able to maintain places
of worship, a cemetery and a hevra kadisha (burial society) and
could slaughter animals in accordance to Jewish law, register births,
deaths, and marriages and collect charity.
Conversions to Catholicism were still frequent
though in the 1920's, splitting families; this tendency declined by
Marrano Rennaissance & Customs
A brief Marrano renaissance occurred in the early
1930's led by Artur Carlos de Barros Basto. Basto, a Marrano Jew,
decided to convert to Orthodox Judaism at the age of 33. He became an engineer, served as a
professional soldier, was decorated after World War I for his bravery
and eventually was promoted to captain. Known as the "Portugese
Dreyfus," Basto was dismissed from the army because he was a Jew.
After leaving the army, Captain Basto established a synagogue
in the city of Oporto. He also began writing a weekly newspaper and
began visiting remote villages, often in full military regalia. Accompanying
him on these trips were two medical doctors who performed circumcisions when needed. (Circumcision was one of the first Jewish customs to be
dropped because of its identifying nature.)
The synagogue of Oporto grew and moved into a new
building donated by Ellie Kadoorie, a wealthy Sephardic Jew. The "Kadoorie" synagogue was built on property bought
and donated by Baron
Edmond de Rothschild of Paris. Another synagogue was established
in Braganca, with its own Rabbi.
Basto also established a yeshiva in Oporto, which
ran for nine years educating more than 90 students. These activities
did not go unnoticed by the government, especially after an estimated
10,000 families across Portugal admitted to practicing Judaism in secret. Trumped up charges were brought against the Captain and he
was court-martialed, stripped of his rank and was forced to close the
yeshiva. Thus the Marrano renaissance was brought to an end.
Marranos practiced Judaism privately in their own
homes, however, they abandoned any obvious identifying Jewish
practice, such as circumcision,
mikveh and the celebration of any public holiday. The celebration of Yom
Kippur and Passover were done a couple days late to confuse the Inquisitors. Shabbat lamps were hidden inside clay pots, so those outside could not see the
light burning. Jewish women also led prayer services, since this was
the job normally performed by males.
If a community member died, a minyan gathered at
the home of the families members, but made it appear as if their
attendance was just done to consol the mourners.
Catholicism did make some inroads into the lives of
the Marranos, resulting in a unique combination of Jewish and
Christian rituals and terms. For example, Marranos worshiped Saint
Moses and Saint Queen Esther and celebrated Little Christmas (which
roughly coincided with Hanukkah).
Marranos also prayed with a Judaized version of the Lords prayer.
The phrase, "I enter this house, but I do not
adore sticks or stones , only the G-d of Israel," was muttered
before entering a Catholic Church and is still stated by Marrano Jews.
Because sacred Jewish texts could not be used, the
Marrano community created their own prayer books, one of these is
called the Rebordelo manuscript (Rebordelo is a remote village in
Portugal). Inside this handwritten prayer book are prayers for
different occasions, which seem to date to the early 18th century. The book also contains a list of recommendations on how to
live an ethical life. Also, there is a folk ballad about a wandering
Jewish troubadour who elopes with a girl trying to avoid a marriage to
a rich man.
Besides for books like these, the only references
available to the Marrano community about Jewish life and history is
the Old Testament.
Many of these Marrano practices are still being
performed behind closed doors and shaded windows. In 1920, in the town
of Braganca, no child under the age of 12 was permitted to attend
religious meetings, out of fear of the child innocently exposing their
In 1987, David Augusto Canelo, a non-Jew, wanted to
write a book about the last Crypto-Jews and was only able to obtain
interviews with the community members if he agreed not to use their
names. Community members still fear being "tried" by the Inquisition.
In 1991 a French TV crew wanted to film the ceremony of matzah
preparation performed by the Marrano community to be seen in a French
documentary. The crew was allowed to tape the ceremony, which was still
performed secretly. A door knock in the middle of the filming scared
many of the participants, despite the fact that the Inquisition had
ended more than 150 years earlier.
World War II & the Holocaust
Approximately 380 Jews were living in Portugal
during the outbreak of World War II and an additional 650 Jewish refugees from Central Europe were granted
"resident" status. After France fell to Nazi Germany, Portugal adopted a liberal visa policy allowing
thousands of Jewish refugees to enter the country, however, those of
Russian origin or birth were excluded. More stringent restrictions
were made in immigration policy, from late 1940 to spring 1941,
resulting in decrease usage of its ports.
During the Holocaust,
Aristides de Sousa Mendes, disobeyed government orders and issues
visas enabling Jews to travel from France to Portugal. He was
dismissed for disobedience and died impoverished. For his efforts, he
was later recognized as one of the "Righteous
Among the Nations," Portugals only honoree.
During the second part of the war, Portugal agreed
to give entry visas to those coming via rescue operations, on the
condition that Portugal would only be used as a transit point.
Portugal also joined other neutral countries in the efforts made to
save Hungarian Jewry. More
than 100,000 Jews and refuges were able to flee Nazi Germany into
freedom via Lisbon. All of Portugals Jews and Jewish refugees
living there survived the war.
Portugal and Israel had low level ties in the
1950's. In 1959 the Bank of Portugal and the Bank of Israel
established financial relations. Diplomatic relations were not
established though until 1977.
Following the revolution in Portugal in 1974 and
the ensuing unrest, about half of Portugals Jewish population left
the country and immigrated to
Israel, Brazil, Canada and the U.S.
Today there are about 600 Jews living in Portugal,
as well as a Marrano community numbering close to 100 individuals.
Marrano communities were discovered by Samuel Schwartz, a Polish
mining engineer, in remote mountain villages. Many of the Marranos did
not believe Schwartz was Jewish because he openly identified himself
as a Jew and they believed they were the only Jews still living. The
communities were only convinced of his Jewish identity after he
recited the Shema prayer. In
recent years, many members of the Marrano community decided to
reconvert to Orthodox Judaism.
In 1997, Portugals National Assembly marked the
expulsion from Portugal and commemorated the development of exile
Portugese communities throughout the world. A special session attended
by dignitaries was held in the capitol.
Also in 1997, Portugals Prime Minister announced
that he would conduct an investigation into government documents relating to
the transfer of gold from Nazi Germany into Portugese banks.
The largest Jewish community of about 300 can be found in Lisbon, where there are two synagogues, one Sephardic, Shaare Tikva and one Ashkenazi, Ohel Yaacov (Ohel Jacob). Lisbon's Jewish community is centered around the Comunidade Israelita de Lisboa, or the Jewish Community of Lisbon, a community center that houses Shaare Tikva. The Sephardic synagogue offers traditional services, study groups, children’s activities, and cultural events and houses documents and religious objects dating back to the 1300s.
Ohel Jacob is the only Ashkenazi synagogue in the Iberian Peninsula and was originally established as an Orthodox congregation. The synagogue was inactive for a period, but following its reconstitution in the 1990’s the Bnei-anussim, or children of Marranos, who were interested in returning to Judaism, were welcomed at the Ohel Jacob synagogue.
Ohel Jacob is housed on the second floor of a rundown building at Avenida Elias Garcia 110. The HeHaver Jewish Association, which currently administers the Ohel Jacob building, allows Kehilat Beit Israel to use the synagogue for the practice of Masorti, or Conservative, Judaism, which has welcomed Bnei-anussim back to the community. Beit Israel is under the rabbinical authority of Rabbi Jules Harlow. Today, the Bnei-anussim make up about one third of this Ashkenazi congregation in Lisbon. Ohel Jacob will be rededicated on December 17th, 2006. This will be the first synagogue dedication in Portugal since the opening of the Belmonte synagogue in 1997.
There is also a Jewish cultural center, a kosher butcher, a special slaughtering house and a home for the aged in Lisbon. Jewish visitors to Lisbon may be interested in visiting the remains of the medieval Jewish quarter and Rossio Square, the site of the Palace of the Inquisition, where 1,300 Jews were burned at the stake. A collection of Jewish tombstones, with inscriptions written in Hebrew, can be found at the Archaeological Museum. In the National Museum of Ancient Art, there is a painting of Grao Vasco, a 16th century Jew.
Located about 80 kilometers north of Lisbon is the
seaside village of Obidos, in the Costa de Prata region. A Jewish
community lived in Obidos between the fifth and seventh centuries,
when the city was occupied by the Visigoth. Another Jewish community
lived there between the eighth and twelfth centuries, while it was
under Arab rule. In Obidoss Jewish quarter, a synagogue can be
found that dates to the end of the 12th century.
Also in the Costa de Prata region, in the city of
Tomar, an ancient 15th century Jewish synagogue and mikveh,
one of the two surviving monuments of medieval Jewish heritage, can be
found. The synagogue has become a national museum and features
historic remains of medieval Portugese communities. In 1993 a Yom
Kippur service was held at the synagogue because of the large
number of Jewish tourists.
In the Costa Verde region, a small Jewish community
can be found in the city of Porto, which served as a major center for
Jewish traders during the Middle Ages. One of the sites is the earliest
known Jewish Quarter found in Portugal, now Rua de Santa Ana.
Visitors can also visit the Kadoorie Synagogue as well.
In the mountainous village of Belmonte, the last
Marrano community can be found. In 1997, Portugals first new
synagogue in 70 years was dedicated in Belmonte. The dedication
ceremony was attended by Israeli President Ezer
Weizman and Portugals President Jorge Sampaio. Many of members
Belmontes Marrano community have reconverted to Orthodox Judaism.
In Belmonte there is also a mikveh.
Excavations of possible 15th century
synagogues are being undertaken in Evora, in the mountain village of
Castelo de Vide and in Valencia de Alcantara, which is on the Spanish
side of the border.
In Evora, there is a stone with Hebrew inscriptions
on it, dated 1378, which can be found in the Evora Museum along with a
money box and bench from the Inquisition. Across the street from the
Evora Museum in the Public library is a rare 1st edition
copy of the "Almanac Perpetuum" written by Abraham Zacuto.
In April 2013, the Portuguese Parliament introduced legislation entitling descendants of Jews who left Portugal during the Inquisition period Portuguese citizenship. Also that month, Portuguese researchers discovered and catalogued hundreds of secret markings that Jews left on buildings in Seia, a municipality in north Portugal, during the 16th century after their forced conversion to Christianity. Researcher Alberto Martinho said the findings "elucidate the Jewish presence" in the region at that time.
Portuguese officials worked on the legislation for 2 years, and in January 2015 Portugal announced the introduction of the final legislation that would grant Portuguese citizenship rights to descendents of those Jewish individuals who were expelled from and persecuted by Portugal over 500 years ago. This means that Sephardic Jews who can prove their relation to Portuguese Jews who were expelled and mistreated by the Portuguese government can apply for dual nationality. Applicants are not required to travel to Portugal, however they will have to produce some sort of evidence that demonstrates a full and traditional connection to ancient Portuguese Jewry, which will then be scrutinized by Portuguese Jewish community institutions and government agencies. The application and review procedure is expected to take anywhere from four to six months.
Following the example set by Britain, Spain, Sweden, and France, on December 12 2014 Portugal's Parliament adopted a resolution calling for the government to unilaterally recognize the state of Palestine. The Parliamentary motion proposed "recognising, in coordination with the European Union, the state of Palestine as independent and sovereign". After the vote Portugal's Foreign Minister Rui Machete clarified that the government "will choose the moment best suited" for recognition of a Palestinian state. Similar to the previous recognitions of Palestinian statehood earlier in 2014 from Portugal's European neighbors, this vote is largely symbolic, has no bearing on policy, and is inconsequential.
Hundreds of people including Jews from all around the world attended the rededication ceremony for Portugal's oldest standing synagogue on April 23, 2015. The Sahar Hassamain synagogue is located on Sao Miguel Island, 900 miles from the Portuguese capital of Lisbon, and was rededicated following a restoration project started in 2014. Jose Oulman Carp, the president of the Jewish Community of Lisbon, stated at the dedication ceremony that “the renovation has been completed in a very thorough and professional manner with a lot of help from the United States, and from descendants of the big community of Jews from the Azores archipelago there”. The building was restored to function as an Orthodox synagogue, but since there is only one Jewish resident of the Island it will mostly be used as a museum and library specializing in Jewish heritage and literature. Oulman Carp said that he hopes the synagogue restoration encourages Jewish tourism to the area, and encourages local people to explore their Jewish heritage and the Jewish history of their island. The Sahar Hassamain synagogue functioned as a place of worship for more than 50 years at one point, but had fallen into great disrepair.
Comunidade Israelita de Lisboa
Rua Alexandre Herculano, 59
Phone: 351 1 385 8604
Fax: 351 1 388 4304
Israeli Embassy of Lisbon
Rua Antonio Enes, 16
Phone: 351 1 570 251
Fax: 351 1 352 8545
Chabad Lubavitch of Portugal
Rabbi Eliyohu Rosenfeld, Director
Mrs. Raizel Rosenfeld, Co-director
Lisbon, 1050-018 Portugal
Comunidade Judaica Masorti de Lisboa- Beit Israel
Rua Filipe da Mata 103 - 2º Andar 1600-070
Email: Adi Souza - firstname.lastname@example.org
Email: Information - email@example.com
Phone: (+351) 217975283
Sources: Haaretz, “Portugal's oldest standing synagogue rededicated in São Miguel Island”. April 23, 2015
The Gaurdian, "Portugal to grant citizenship to descendants of persecuted Jews". January 29, 2014
Yahoo News, "Portuguese parliament calls on govt to recognise Palestinian state", December 12 2014.
Arthur Benveniste. "500th Anniversary of the Forced Conversion of the Jews of
Address at Sephardic Temple Tifereth Israel,
Los Angeles, October 1997.
"Crypto Jews of Portugal." The Sephardic Jews in
Portugal. Lusa Web.
Eduardo Mayone Dias. "Crypto-Jews in Portugal - A Clandestine
Eduardo Mayone Dias. "The Jews, New Christians and Crypto Jews
of Portugal." Lason Vol. 5. March/April 1993. Lusa
Mario Henrique Gomes van Grichen."Sinagoga Obidos." Saudades.
Rufina Bernadetti Silva Mausenbaum. "A Brief Outline of the
Rufina Bernadetti Silva Mausenbaum. "Secrets from a forgotten
Judaica. CD-ROM 1996.
"Portugal - Aristedes de Sousa Mendes." Museum
of Tolerance Online Multimedia Learning Center.
"Portugals Prime Minister Tell Bnai Brith it will
establish commission to investigate its financial dealing with Nazi
Michele Sanfilippo. "Tracing Jewish Roots." Travel Agent.
March 29, 2000.
Tom Tugend. "Portugals few leading rich lives of culture,
Bulletin of Northern California. April 25, 1997.
"Hundreds of Jewish markings catalogued in Portuguese town," Jewish Telegraphic Agency, April 21, 2013.
For more information on Jewish sites and
cultural life in Portugal, contact the Portugese
National Tourist Office: phone 212-354-4403/4
or fax 212-764-6137.