(1868 - 1943)
Karl Landsteiner was born on June 14, 1868, in Vienna, Austria. In 1891, he earned
a medical degree from the University of Vienna. After spending five
years in various laboratories in Munich conducting research, Landsteiner
returned to Vienna. Landsteiner became an assistant under Max von Gruber
in the Hygiene Institute in Vienna in 1896. From 1898 to 1908, he became
an assistant in the University Department of Pathological Anatomy in
Vienna. It was there that Landsteiner began his studies on morbid physiology.
In 1908, he was appointed Prosector in the Wilhelminaspital in Vienna.
By 1911, he became Professor of Pathology at the University of Vienna.
War I, he left for the Netherlands.
In 1919, Landsteiner accepted the position of Prosector to a Roman Catholic
Hospital at The Hague. In 1922 he joined the Rockefeller Institute for
Medical Research in New York,
and remained there for the remainder of his life. In 1939, he was granted
Emeritus Professor at the Rockafeller Institute, but continued his research
in the laboratories. During this period he became an American citizen.
Much of his research focused around morbid anatomy
and immunology. He revealed new information regarding the immunology
of syphilis and named the immunological factors haptens. Landsteiner
also laid the foundations for the cause and immunology of poliomyelitis.
In 1901-1903, Landsteiner discovered that during a
blood transfusion from human to human, different foreign bloods tends
to clump and cause shock or jaundice. During this research, he proposed
that the paternity of a child can be determined because the characteristics
of blood groups are inherited. In 1909, Landsteiner categorized the
modern system for human bloods into A, B, AB, and O groups. Landsteiner,
along with A. S. Weiner, identified the Rh factor in 1940.
In 1930, Landsteiner received the Nobel
Prize for Medicine for his work on differentiating the blood groups.
Landsteiner died on June 26, 1943, of a heart attack
while still working at his laboratory in New York.