(1940 - 1996)
Joseph Brodsky was born Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky.
Brodsky was a Russian-American poet, winner of the 1987 Nobel
Prize in Literature, and Poet Laureate of the United States for
Brodsky was born in Leningrad, now St. Petersburg
to a family of a Jewish photographer. In the early childhood he survived
the Siege of Leningrad. When he was fifteen, after the eighth grade,
Brodsky left school. He worked at a wide variety of jobs, including
a hospital, a morgue, a factory, a ship boiler room, and a geological
Brodsky taught himself English and Polish, acquired
deep interest in classical philosophy, religion, mythology, English
and American poetry and began writing poetry in 1958. He had no degree
in the liberal arts. Later in life he admitted that he picked up books
from anywhere he could find them, including even garbage dumps. The
young Brodsky was encouraged and influenced by the poet Anna Akhmatova
who called some of his verses “enchanting.”
In 1963, he was charged with social parasitism by the
Soviet authorities. A famous excerpt from the transcript of his trial
(smuggled to the West):
Judge: "Who has decided that you're a poet?
Who has ranked you as a poet? Have you studied poetry at an institution?
Have you prepared for a university course where you're taught to write
Brodsky: "I don't think poetry comes from an
Judge: "Well then, where does it come from?"
Brodsky: "I think that it comes from God."
For his parasitism Brodsky was sentenced to five years
of hard labor in internal exile and served 18 months in Archangelsk
region. The sentence was commuted in 1965 after prominent Soviet literary
As the 1960s Khrushchev Thaw period ended, only four
of his poems were published in the Soviet
Union. Most of his work has appeared only in the West. On June 4,
1972, Brodsky was exiled and became a U.S. citizen in 1977.
He achieved major successes in his career as an English
Brodsky died of a heart attack in New York City and
was buried at Isola di San Michele cemetery in Venice, Italy.
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