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Timeline of Jewish History: Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1970 - 1979)

Timeline of Jewish History:
Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1970 - 1979)


Return to Timeline of Jewish History


Click on a Year: 1970 | 1971 | 1972 | 1973 | 1974 | 1975 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979
Other Periods: 1940's | 1950's | 1960's | 1980's | 1990's | 2000's | 2010's


1970

  Israel participates in the Soccer World Cup finals.

February 2

Heavy fighting on Golan Heights

February 22

Palestinian terrorists blow up Swissair jet in mid air

March

USSR steps up missile shipment to Egypt

April

Israel announces Soviet pilots are flying operational missions for Egyptian airforce

May 9

Israel warns against installation of Soviet missiles close to Suez Canal

May 22

Terrorists attack schoolbus, killing 12 (9 of whom were children), and wounding 24 in Avivim, Israel.

June 25

Secretary Rogers discloses U.S. initiative to end war of attrition along Suez Canal for 90 days and resumption of stalled Jarring mission

July 23

Egypt, after Nasser visit to Moscow, accepts U.S. initiative

July 26

Jordan accepts U.S. initiative

August 4

Israel accepts U.S. initiative, is assured of continued military and economic aid from the U.S.

August 7

Cease-fire goes into effect on Suez Canal

August 7

Egypt violates cease-fire by moving missiles into “stand-still” zone. Israel protests to U.S.

August 8

American-brokered cease-fire ends War of Attrition with Egypt
  Refusenicks are sentenced to death in the USSR for hijacking an airplane.

September

Heavy fighting between Jordanian army and Palestinian terrorists. Syria invades Jordan. U.S. moves Sixth Fleet to Eastern Mediterranean
  Black September: clashes between Jordanian forces and the PLO, in an attempt by the PLO to take control of the country, end in Jordanian victory; the PLO regroups in Lebanon.

September 6

Three airliners holding over 400 passengers were hijacked, and taken to the Jordanian airport by the PFLP. The hostages were released in exchange for terrorists held in Germany, Switzerland, and England

September 16

Hussein proclaims martial law in Jordan and installs military governments to fight terrorists

September 18

Prime Minister Meir meets President Nixon. Israel refuses to return to Jarring talks until Egyptian missiles are withdrawn

September 27

Arab heads of state agree on formula to end hostitilies in Jordan

September 28

President Nasser dies, succeeded by Anwar Sadat

November 5

UN General Assembly calls for 90 day extension of cease-fire and resumption of Jarring talks


1971

  The Black Panthers movement becomes active in Israel among North African Jews, and begins protesting against social conditions; violent demonstrations erupt in Jerusalem.
  The three millionth citizen arrives in Israel.
  Demands of Soviet Jews to immigrate to Israel continue to intensify.

February 15

Sadat formally informs Jarring Egypt willing to envisage peace arrangement with Israel - on his conditions.

February 26

Israel informs Jarring it is keen to negotiate peace arrangements with Arab states but cannot give prior committments on borders and other items to be negotiated. Jarring mission deadlocked

April

Fighting erupts again in Jordan between the King's forces and Palestinian terrorists

April 17

Egypt, Syria and Libya sign agreement to form Federation of Arab Republics

May 27

Egypt and USSR sign 15-year treaty of friendship and co-operation.

July 23

Sadat is granted full powers by Arab Socialist Union to take action to recover Arab lands from Israel.

August 12

Syria breaks off diplomatic ties with Jordan following border clashes

November 28

Jordanian Premier Wasfi Tal assassinated in Cairo by Palestinian terrorists.

December 2

Prime Minister Golda Meir meets President Nixon in Washington


1972

  Ordination of first (Reform) Jewish woman rabbi in U.S.

March 15

Hussein announces plan to make Jordan federal state. Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Libya reject the plan

April 6

Egypt breaks off diplomatic relations with Jordan because of Hussein's federal plan.
  Special paratrooper unit of the IDF, dressed as Arabs, free hostages on a hijacked Sabena plane in Lod.

May 9

Palestinian-inspired Japanese terrorists murder 27 people (including 21 Christian pilgrims from Puerto Rico) at Lod Airport.

July 18

Sadat terminates services of Soviet military advisers

August 31

Anti-Semite Bobby Fischer wins the World Chess Championships

September

Stepped up Soviet military shipments to Jordan, including misiles for the defense of Damascus

September 5

Eleven Israeli athletes are murdered at the Munich Olympic Games by Black September, a terrorist group affiliated with Fatah. (The same group also hijacks a plane en route to Tel Aviv and holds the passengers and crew hostage for 23 hours. The hostages are rescued by IDF counterrorism commandos.)

October 15

Israel strikes at terrorist bases in Jordan and Lebanon

October 29

West Germany releases Munich killers after German airliner is hijacked

November 1

USSR agrees to restore missiles to Egypt's air defence system


1973

  Conservative Movement's Committee on Jewish Laws and Standards (CJLS) of the Rabbinical Assembly approves minority opinion allowing women to count in a minyan; by 1996, fully 83% of Conservative synagogues counted women in their minyan.
  Saudi government buys 25% participation interest in Aramco.

March 1

Prime Minister Meir meets President Nixon in Washington

March 1

Palestinian terrorists kill U.S. Ambassador, his deputy head of mission, and Belgian diplomat in Khartum

March 28

Sadat proclaims himself military governor of Egypt, and declares martial law

May 24

Ephraim Kazir becomes Israel's fourth president.

September 13

Thirteen Syrian MIG-21 planes downed in aerial battle off Syrian coast.

October 6

The Yom Kippur War begins with Egyptian and Syrian forces attacking across 1967 ceasefire lines (Egypt crosses Suez Canal, Syrian forces attack Golan Heights

October 6-7

First naval battle in history fought with only missiles between Israel and Jordan. All Syrian ships sunk; no Israeli losses.

October 7

Syrian attack contained

October 8

Israeli counter-offensive in Sinai fails

October 10

Syrian forces driven back in Golan. Israel stablizes new line in Sinai

October 12

IDF advances to within 28 miles from Damascus

October 13

IDF repels Jordanian and Iraqi forces fighting with Syrians in the Golan Heights

October 14

Operation Nickel Grass: U.S. covertly delivers weapons and supplies to Israeli positions during the Yom Kippur War.

October 15

First IDF forces cross Suez Cana
  Countering massive sea and air lift of Soviet arms to Egypt and Jordan, U.S. starts air lift to Israel
  Israel's military attache in Washington is killed by terrorists.

October 17

Arab Oil Embargo announced. Arab oil producing states announce 10 percent reduction in oil production and impose total embargo on U.S. and Netherlands.

October 17

Sadat proposes a cease-fire

October 19

President Nixon asks Congress to appropriate $2.2 billion for emergency aid to Israel

October 20

Israel expands its bridgehead on West Bank of Suez Canal, besieging Third Egyptian Army

October 22

UN Resolution 338 is passed. First cease-fire declared on southern front. Fighting continues

October 24

Second cease-fire declared on southern front; cease-fire on northern front.

October 25

President Nixon orders world-wide alert as fear of Soviet military intervention on Egypt's behalf mounts.

October 25

Security Council establishes UNEF to supervise cease fire.

October 31

Premier Meir arrives in Washington for talks with President Nixon and Secretary Kissinger

November 11

Truce agreement (6 point agreement for the stabilisation of the cease-fire) signed with Egypt at "Kilometer 101."

November 15

Exchange of POWs with Egypt.

November 18

Governement decides to set up state commission of inquiry (Agranat Commission) into the beginnning of the war.

December 1

David Ben-Gurion dies and is buried at his home in Kibbutz Sde Boker in the Negev.

December 21

Geneva Peace conference on Middle East opens.

December 31

Election of the Eighth Knesset.


1974

January

Shuttle diplomacy by Dr. Kissinger to bring about Israel-Egypt separation of forces agreement

January 18

Israel-Egypt separation of forces agreement is signed in kilometer 101 on the Cairo-Suez road

January 18

Sinai Disengagement Agreement signed between Israel and Egypt.

March

Continued war of attrition along the Israel-Syria cease-fire line

March 4

Israeli army deployed along new lines in Sinai in accordance with disengagement agreement

March 18

Arab states lift oil embargo on the U.S.
  Saudi government incesases its participation interest in Aramco to 60%.

April 11

In Kiryat Shemona, Israel, 18 are killed, 8 of whom were children, by PFLP terrorists who detonated their explosives during a failed rescue attempt by Israeli authorities.
  Golda Meir’s government resigns, including Defense Minister Moshe Dayan and Foreign Minister Abba Eban, after the criticism of the government's handling of the Yom Kippur War.

May 15

Terrorists murder 26 people (22 of them children) at a school in Ma'alot.

May 31

Golan Heights Disengagement Agreement signed between Jordan and Israel.

June 3

Yitzhak Rabin becomes Prime Minister.

June 16

U.S. President Nixon visits Israel. First visit from U.S. president.
June 14
Four terrorists attack Kibbutz Shamir, killing three women after engaging in gunfire with security personnel.  Three gunmen are eventually shot, and one detonates an explosive device.  
 

June 18

IDF completes its withdrawal from the “Syrian bulge” in the framework of the Israel-Syria Disengagement of Forces agreement

July 1

Rabin proclaims there is no room for another state between Israel and Jordan
  U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation is founded.
  Ordination of first Reconstructionist Jewish woman rabbi, Sandy Eisenberg Sasso. She serves a joint Conservative-Reconstructionist-affiliated congregation, making her the first woman rabbi to serve a Conservative congregation.

August 10

President Ford assures Israel the U.S. will honor its committments

September 10-13

Prime Minister Rabin pays an official visit to Washington, holds talks with President Ford and senior administration officials.

October 14

The General Assembly votes 105 against 4 to invite the PLO to participate in the debate on the “Palestine question.”

October 26-30

Arab summit conference in Rabat determines that the PLO is the sole representative of the Palestinian Arabs and removes Jordan from a future role in the West Bank

November 1

Reacting to the Rabat decisions, Israel announces there will be no talks with the PLO

November 13

Arafat before the General Assembly calls for the liquidation of Israel and the establishment of a “secular democratic Palestine”

November 14

Gen. George S. Brown, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff comments that Jews exert too much influence in the U.S., because Jews “own, you know, the banks in this country, the newspapers.”

November 18

An IAF helicopter crashes in Haifa bay. The crew survives.

November 20

UNESCO condemns Israel for its archaeological digs in Jerusalem.

November 22

PLO receives observer status at the UN.

December 10

71 Senators condemn recent UN resolutions against Israel


1975

  Good Fence Policy instituted between Israel and Lebanon.
  Israel unveils its first locally manufactured figher jet, the Kfir, on Independence Day.
  The 100,000th immigrant from the USSR arrives.
  The West Bank city of Ma'ale Adumim is founded.
  Settlers establish the town of Elon Moreh without the authorization of the government, which evacuates them.
  Saudi, Kuwaiti, and Venezuelan concessions come to an end.

March 6

Terrorists murder 18 civilians and three IDF soldiers in an attack on a Tel Aviv hotel

March 22

Talks with Secretary Kissinger are suspended. President Ford announces a review of U.S. arms deliveries to Israel

March 29

Sadat announces the opening of the Suez Canal on June 5

April 10

President Ford pledges another effort for peace in the Middle East

April 13

The start of the 1975-76 civil war in Lebanon

May 11

Israel and the European Economic Community sign an agreement giving Israel Associate Membership

July 4

Terorist bomb kills 15 people (including two children) at Zion Square in Jerusalem.

June 5

The Suez Canal is reopened for navigation

June 10-11

Rabin holds talks in Washington with President Ford
  “Black Muslims” in America cultivate Sunni recognition.
  President Gerald Ford signs legislation including the Jackson-Vanik Amendment, which ties U.S. trade benefits to the Soviet Union to freedom of emigration for Jews.

September

First residents move into Yamit

September 1

Second Sinai agreement signed with Egypt. Israel-Egypt interim agreement is signed in Jerusalem and Alexandria. An Israel-U.S. protocol is also signed.
  Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.

October 10

Israel signs the military protocol after U.S. Congress approves U.S. presence in Sinai. Abu Rudeis oil field handed to Egypt

October 22

Joint Israel-Egypt military commission meets for the first time in Sinai

November 10

UN General Assembly passes a resolution declaring Zionism to be a form of racism.

November 13

Terrorist bomb in Jerusalem kills seven.


1976

January 12

The Security Council opens Middle East debate. PLO invites, Israel boycotts the sessions.
  The U.S. vetoes a draft resolution in the Security Council. The discussion ends with no resolution being adopted.

January 26-29

Prime Minister Rabin pays an official visit to the U.S., addresses a joint session of Congress

February 22

IDF completes withdrawl under the Interim Agreement

March 22

The U.S. vetoes an anti-Israel draft resolution at the conclusion of a Security Council discussion on the situation in the West Bank

March 30

Land Day is marked by Israeli Arabs for the first time.

April 12

Elections are held in 24 municipal and local councils in the West Bank

June 27

Air France airliner enroute from Tel Aviv to Paris is hijacked after a stop over in Athens. It is flown to Entebbe.

July 3-4

IDF troops mount dramatic rescue of hostages taken to Entebbe, Uganda. Three passengers and the commander are killed during the operation.

July 11

Israeli Rina Mor wins the Miss Universe competition.

August 5

Israel and the U.S. initial an agreement for the supply to Israel of two nuclear reactors.

August 11

Terrorists attack El Al passengers in Istanbul airport

September

At its sixty-sixth session held in Cairo, the Arab League Council accepts Palestine, as represented by the PLO, as a full member of the Arab League equal to all other members

October 21

Jewish novelist Saul Bellow is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.

December 10

The General Assembly adopts a resolution for a nuclear free zone in the Middle East

December 21

Prime Minister Rabin submits his government's resignation, after controversy erupted when F-15 fighters landed after the onset of Shabbat.


1977

  The first Jewish civilian settlement in Gaza is built
  U.S. Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund  (BARD) and the Binational Industrial R&D  (BIRD) Foundation are established.

March 7-9

Prime Minister Rabin visits Washington for talks with President Carter

March 9

President Carter announces new U.S. policy for the Middle East

April 7

Yitzchak Rabin announces his resignation as Labor Party leader following allegations of foreign currency violations.

April 7

Maccabi Tel Aviv basketball team wins European championship for the first time.

May 10

A Yassur helicopter crashes during exercise near Jericho and 54 paratroops are killed.
  The United States adopts anti-boycott legislation.

May 17

Likud party wins elections held for the Ninth Knesset. This markes the first loss of power for the Labor Party.
  Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years of Labor rule. Menachem Begin becomes Prime Minister.

July 6

The U.S. rejects Israeli request to sell 24 Kfir fighter-bombers to Ecuador.

July 13

Sadat says he will end the state of war with Israel only after complete Israeli withdrawl and will consider a peace treaty 5 years after last Israeli soldier leaves the territories.

July 19-21

Prime Minister Begin and President Carter confer in Washington and reach agreement on the need for Israel to negotiate with the Arab states in the framwork of a Geneva conference in the fall of 1977.

August 8

Carter says that if PLO accepts Resolution 242 in its entirety, the U.S. would then start discussions with this organization.

August 9

Israel rejects any idea of PLO participation in the peace negotiations even if it accepts Resolution 242.

August 9

Jewish serial killer David Berkowitz, known as the Son of Sam, is caught.

October 1

U.S. and the Soviet Union issue a joint communique on the Middle East, which is welcomed by Arabs and criticized by Israel.

October 13

Jewish-American physicist Rosalyn Yalow wins the Nobel prize in Physiology/Medicine for her work dealing with insulin research and diabetes.

October 28

Israel government launches new economic program, floats the pound and makes it freely convertible, controls on foreign currency abolished.

November 9

Israeli jets attack PLO base near Tyre. President Sadat announces his readiness to come to Jerusalem to address the Knesset.

November 11

Begin broadcasts to the Egyptian people and invites Sadat to Jerusalem for peace talks.

November 15

Begin sends written invitation to Sadat to come to Jerusalem. Sadat says his trip is a holy mission.

November 19

Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.

November 20

After praying at the al Aksa mosque Egyptian President Sadat addresses the Knesset calling for Israeli withdrawal and the establishment of a Palestinain state.

November 21

Sadat meets with Knesset factions and in a press conference with Begin calls on Israel to make drastic decisions to reciprocate his visit. Begin-Sadat agreed communique says “no more wars.” Sadat leaves for Cairo.

December 5

Egypt severs diplomatic relations with Jordan, Iraq, Libya, Algeria and South Yemen in retaliation for their decision to suspend relations with Egypt in protest against Sadat's initiative. The “rejectionist” Arab states conclude a 5-day summit meeting in Tripoli.

December 14

Cairo conference opens. PM Begin arrives in U.S. for talks with President Carter on the Israel peace plan.

December 16-17

Begin and Carter confer in Washington. Sadat invites Begin for talks with him in Egypt

December 25

Prime Minister Menachem Begin confers with Egyptian President Sadat in Ismailiya, Egypt.

December 26

Ismaliya summit concluded with a joint Begin-Sadat press conference. Disagreement over the Palestinian issue prevented a joint communique.

December 28

Carter praises Begin peace plan, but prefers a Palestinian homeland or entity linked to Jordan.


1978

  Israel wins the Eurovision Song Contest.

January 1

Karnei Shomron settled by Gush Emunim.

January 4

Carter and Sadat meet in Aswan, issue the “Aswan proclamation” calling for the recognition of the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people and their participation in the determination of their future.

February 2

Carter administration will propose to Congress a package deal for the sale of jet plans to Israel, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

February 15

U.S. threatens to withdraw Israel request for jet planes if Congress blocks sale to Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

March 11

Coastal Road Massacre: Arab terrorists hijack buses on the Haifa-Tel Aviv road leaving 37 civilians dead and scores injured. Begin postpones his U.S. visit and Weizman returns home.

March 13

PLO forces flee Southern Lebanon. Beirut calls on UN to ward off an Israeli attack, U.S. declines to cite PLO as responsible for the bus attack.

March 14

Israel Defense Force crosses the Lebanese border, seizes a strip of 7 miles along the border. Begin says IDF will remain in Lebanon until an agreeement reached ensuring the area no longer serve as terrorist base.

March 16

Operation Litani launched in southern Lebanon

March 19

IDF takes over entire Southern Lebanon to the Litani River as U.S. seeks Security Council Resolution that will dispatch an international force to replace the IDF. Security Council adopts Resolution 425 calling for immediate withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon and the stationing of a UN force there.

March 21-22

Begin and Carter hold two days of talks in White House. U.S. and Israel are in disagreement over a number of issues. UN forces arrive in Southern Labnon.

April 11

IDF starts withdrawl from Lebanon
  Peace Now is founded.

April 19

Yizhak Navon become Israel's fifth president.
  Yiddish writer Isaac Bashevis Singer receives Nobel Prize.

May 15

The Diaspora Museum opens in Tel Aviv

May 16

Senate approves the sale of warplanes to Israel, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Israel expresses its regret, Arab leaders are pleased.

July 9

Egypt transmits to Israel its Six Point Peace Plan based on the return of Gaza to Egypt and the West Bank to Jordan. Israel rejects the plan.
  Camp David Accords include framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.

September 6-17

The Camp David conference ends in the signing, at the White House, of two agreements: the first dealing with an Israel-Egypt peace treaty and the restoration of Sinai to the latter; the second, a framework agreement establishing a format for negotions on a five-year autonomy regime in the West Bank and Gaza region. Israel-Egypt peace talks to begin shortly with the aim of signing the treaty no later than 17 December.

September 9

Jewish film pioneer Jack Warner dies.

September 25

The Israeli Government approves the Camp David agreements by an 11-2 vote. Commerce and Industry Minister Hurwitz resigns.

September 27

The Knesset approves the Camp David agreement by a vote of 84 for, 19 against, 17 abstentations.

October 12

Opening of the talks at Blair House on the Israel-Egypt peace treaty. Talks run into difficulties over teh linkage between the treaty and developments in teh West Bank and Gaza; oil supply for Israel, a target date for teh establishment of the autonomy and Egypt's demands for early Israeli withdrawal.

November 21

The Israel Government adopts the text of the Peace Treaty, but Egypt introduces new demands regarding teh stages of withdrawal from Sinai and the oil rights Israel is to have on wells it discovered and developed in Sinai.
  American neo-Nazis receive permission to march in Skokie. After Supreme Court denies Skokie's request to cancel the march, the Nazis hold a rally in Marquette Park, Chicago instead.
  Natan Sharansky is convicted of espionage and receives a 13 year sentence.

December 10

Prime Minister Begin and Egyptian President Sadat are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

December 14

Funeral of Golda Meir.


1979

  The Hebrew University returns to its rebuilt pre-1948 campus on Mount Scopus.
  JTS Faculty Senate tables issue of ordaining women because of “provoking unprecedented divisions . . . . The bitter divergence of opinion threatens to inflict irreparable damage.”
  A revolution in Iran forces the Shah to flee and an Islamic Republic is created under Ayatollah Khomeini. Americans are taken hostage and held for 444 days in the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.

March 1-4

Begin-Carter talks in the White House. After initial serious disagreement, a last minute solution is reached on some remaining issues.

March 10-13

President Carter visits Israel and wins additional concessions from Israel.

March 14

President Sadat accepts the last minute changes brought from Jerusalem by President Carter, thus paving the way for teh signing of the peace treaty.

March 19

The Israel Government approves the text of the peace treaty.

March 22

The Knesset approves the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty, by a vote of 95 for, 18 against, 2 abstentations, 3 absent.

March 26

Peacy treaty between Egypt and Israel signed in Washington, D.C.
  Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed and Arab relations with Egypt are severed.

April 2-3

Prime Minister Begin pays an official visit to Cairo, meets with President Sadat.

April 30

The first Israeli vessel flying the Israeli flag sails through the Suez Canal. President Carter again terms Israeli settlements in Judea and Samaria an obstacle to peace and contrary to international law.

May 25

El Arish is handed over to Egypt within the implementation of the first phase of Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Israeli and Egyptian negotiators meet in Beersheba for the first round of the autonomy talks in the presence of Secretary of State Vance.

June 27

In an air battle over Lebanon, Israeli air force plans down six Syrian MIG 21's.

July 2-3

Newly appointed U.S. special envoy for the autonomy talks, Robert Strauss, meets with Prime Minister Begin in Jerusalem and President Sadat in Alexandria.

July 10-12

Prime Minister Begin and President Sadat meet for two days of talks in Alexandria.

July 19

The U.S. and the USSR agree to replace UNEF in Sinai by UNTSO. Three days later Israel announces its objections to the plan.

July 24

The Security Council terminates the mandate of UNEF. Members of this force will be replaced by UNTSO. Israel opposes the plan saying it is not an acceptable alternative multi-national force. Israel's objections are termed by the U.S. as “misconceptions.”

August 3

The IDF destroys three terrorist bases in southern Lebanon.

September 24

Israel air force planes, on a reconnaissance flight over Lebanon, clash with and down four Syrian MIG 21's.

November 7

Ambassador Sol Linowitz succeeds Robert Strauss as the U.S. special envoy for the autonomous talks.

November 15

Mt. Sinai and the Saint Catharine region are returned to Egypt two months ahead of schedule.

November 25

Israel returns the Alma oil field in A-Tour to Egypt.

December 31

Following a meeting between President Carter and Defense Minister Weizman, the U.S. announces the addition of $200 million to the $2.2 billion loan included in the special aid to Israel in teh wake of the Israel-Egypt peace treaty
  Saddam Hussein becomes Iraq's head of state.