On October 20, 2009, the Israeli and U.S. militaries began the major joint air defense exercise code named Juniper Cobra. The exercise is held every two years, is the largest of its kind ever conducted in Israel and is based on a long-term cooperation agreement between the the participating nations' armies.
The exercise tested the countries' missile defense systems and included approximately 1,000 military personnel of the US Military's European Command (EUCOM) and a similar number of officers and soldiers serving in the IDF. The U.S. also deployed 17 warships equipped with radar systems to detect surface-to-surface missiles. Radar sites were also set up along the Israeli coast and dummy missiles were launched from the sea to test the system's performance. The exercise also included the use of X-band radar technology which is used to detect incoming missiles from hundreds of miles away.