Of all the countries in Europe, Germany is one of the richest in Jewish history and tradition. Though Germany
is most famous - or rather infamous - in Jewish
history for being the epicenter of the Nazi “Final
Solution,” even the Holocaust was unable to bring to an end the 1,600 years of continuous habitation
and cultural flourishing the Jewish community has had in Germany.
Ashkenazi Jewry has been shaped for a millennia and a half in the tumultuous,
ever-changing German political, social and economic landscape. Today, there are approximately 119,000 Jews in Germany - making it the eigth largest Jewish community in the world - and Germany is one of Israel's closest allies among the European nations. The German government also works hard to preserve the memories of the Holocaust.
- Early History (4-11th Century)
- The Crusades & Middle Ages
- German Jews in the Modern World
- The Holocaust
- Rebuilding a Modern Community
Early History (4th - 11th Century)
Evidence of Jews in the area now known as Germany
dates back to the early 4th century; in the 1930s, a Jewish graveyard
from that era was found in the city of Cologne. When the first Jews
migrated to the “barbarian lands,” Christianity had not yet arrived in Western Europe, and the Roman
Empire was still the continent’s dominant power. Little is known
about the early German Jews, but by the 8th century, Jews were flourishing
among the German tribes along the banks of the Rhine. The Jews, for
the most part, lived in harmony with their newly Christian neighbors.
Jews could hold public office, own land, and work in whatever industries
they chose; they spoke the same languages and often had the same names
as the Germans. Many Germans even converted to Judaism.
That is not to say that life in Germany was stable. Like
all countries at this point, there was no unified German state. Early
on, Germany had consisted of a number of tribes, often vying with
one another for territorial control. Later the tribes joined into
a loose confederation, which resulted in a semi-autonomous “Kingdom
of Germany.” Nonetheless, frequent civil wars and bids for power
quickly destroyed any semblance of national unity. After Charlemagne
united much of western Europe in the eighth century, Germany was a
part of the Holy Roman Empire, which itself fell victim to occasional
civil wars and fragmentation after Charlemagne’s death. The turmoil
of the frequent wars and political disputes among the Empire, Kingship
and various feudal estates was compounded by the emergence of the
Roman Catholic Church as a force.
The Church had, by this point, codified much of
its doctrine, including the attitude that the Jews were a rejected
people, who must be separated decisively from the Christians. Appeals
from the Church to the Christian world to shun the Jews economically
and socially date back to the Theodosian Code of the fifth century,
and were periodically reissued by Church synods. In Germany, however,
the Church’s efforts to prejudice the Christian rulers and people
against the Jews largely failed in this era people were too
concerned about the political fluctuations, and simply surviving in
the harsh frontier conditions, to heed the call to discriminate.
Ancient Jewish Cemetary in
An additional factor that endeared the Jews to the
rest of society was their economic role. While the Jews also worked
as farmers and artisans, like the rest of society, they came to acquire
a special reputation as merchants. Rulers and populace alike, desperate
for the goods that only the Jews could provide, were unable and unwilling
to obey the dictums of the church; the very fact that so many decrees
were issued is evidence of the apathy of Christendom in responding
to them. The emerging Jewish merchant class created a vast international
network that traversed the Ashkenazi world. Jews would meet at regional fairs to learn about the fates
of other communities, to network, and, of course, to trade. The economic
and social connections that the Jews formed throughout the continent
made them much more valuable than non-Jewish merchants, whose influence
seldom reached beyond their immediate surroundings
The “Golden Age” that resulted for European
Jews was interrupted occasionally by anti-Semitism,
but, for the most part, Jews lived happily. In the tenth century,
European Jewry’s most important intellectual movement began to thrive
when Rabbenu Gershom
ben Judah (960-1028) founded a yeshiva in Mainz, Germany. Gershom’s
school attracted Jews from all over Europe, including the famous Rashi;
Gershom became so renowned for his genius and prominence that he posthumously
acquired the moniker “light of the exile.” Study of the Talmud increased,
and the German yeshivas in Mainz and Worms came to overshadow those
in Persia, the previous center of Jewish intellectualism.
The Crusades & Middle Ages
A 15th century German painting
of a Jewish wedding.
The Golden Age ended for the Jews of Western Europe on November
26, 1095. In Clermont, France,
Pope Urban II made a public appeal to the Christians of Europe to
liberate the city of Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks, who had closed it to pilgrims. This appeal
marked the inception of the First
Crusade. One result of the Crusade, whether intended or otherwise,
was that the era of cooperation between Christians and Jews immediately
ceased. With Christendom unified in a single purpose, the Jews were
now viewed as outsiders, and were rumored to be allied with the Muslims.
Crusaders would routinely massacre whole Jewish communities on their
way to the Holy Land. Communities in Worms, Mainz and Cologne were
devastated; in Mainz, for example, 1,100 Jews were killed in one day
in 1096, and the synagogue and other communities buildings were razed. It is important to note
that while the Pope occasionally condemned these attacks on Jews,
the condemnations were neither vocal nor frequent. Moreover, the lack
of any punishment or reprisals against the violators of the Pope’s
orders gave the rioters implicit approval, and the attacks continued
during the next seven crusades in the 12th and 13th centuries.
A German illuminated Passover
Haggada, 14th century.
While none of these future Crusades were as devastating
to the German Jews as the first, which caught them unaware, their
lives and communities were nonetheless changed irrevocably. Jews ceased
to be exclusively a merchant class; much of Europe was now accessible
after having been traversed by Crusaders, and international trade
could be performed by non-Jews. Instead, in line with the Jew’s newfound
subjugation at the hands of the Church, Jews became known as moneylenders.
Because Christians could not lend money at interest, Jews had a niche
waiting for them. Of course, such a profession did little to endear
the Jews to their neighbors, some of whom would just as soon kill
the moneylender as repay his loan.
Jews’ community lives changed as well. No longer could Jews hold public
office, or blithely interact with their Christian neighbors. Instead,
the Jews of each city banded together in ghettos. While the word has
in our times acquired a decisively negative connotation in the aftermath
of the Holocaust, the ghettos of
Medieval Germany were locked from the inside as well as from the outside.
No Jew could wander around the city without risking taunts and attacks,
but few Jews had a reason or desire to leave the ghetto in the first
place. The Jewish community, or kahal, was mostly autonomous
sometimes the ruler of the surrounding city would set limits
on inhabitants of the ghetto, and they would always impose a heavy
tax burden, but the collecting of taxes and enforcing of population
quotas was all done by the Jewish governing board, the kehilla.
Any interaction with non-Jewish rulers, businessmen, or neighbors
was handled by the shtadlan, a community representative
The collective isolation of the Jews also led to
the rise of Yiddish. The Jews continued speaking a medieval dialect
of German, even as the language was advancing and changing in the
outside world. The language gradually incorporated elements of Hebrew,
and eventually became a language unto itself, which was often incomprehensible
to the non-Jewish Germans.
The centuries that followed the Crusades were difficult
ones for the Jews of Western Europe. In the thirteenth century, the
Catholic Church instituted the Inquisition.
Secular and religious rulers alike attacked “heretics”
a category that sometimes included Jews with savagery, subjecting
them to imprisonment, forced conversion and often death. At the same
time, the Jews were accused of killing children for ritual purposes
(blood libels), of host desecration,
and, during the Black Plague in the fourteenth century, of poisoning
wells. These accusations, and the violence that followed them (Juddenschlacht,
or “Jews slaughter”), led to the repeated expulsion of the Jews
of Germany from their towns. The evictions continued through the Middle
Ages and the Reformation, and were the result of the uncertain status
of Jews as citizens of the cities they lived in. Within each German
city, the ruler granted the Jews a certain number of rights in a charter.
This charter set the taxes that the Jews would pay, outlined the area
of the city they could live in, and guaranteed them protection; the
remainder of the laws were left in the hands of the kehilla.
In essence, the Jews agreed to become the property of whichever ruler
granted them a protective charter. This agreement occurred on the
largest scale in 1236, when Emperor Frederick II issued the Servi
Camerae Nostrae (“Servants of the Treasury”), which
formally made the Jews the property of the empire. Implicit in the
charter agreements was the fact that the charter could be rescinded
whenever the ruler of the region wished and the regional rulers
frequently did so.
A geniza collection stored
at a museum in Worms, which stands on the spot of what was once
Nonetheless, the Jews never fully abandoned Germany.
Even when a city-state expelled the Jewish population, the disunified
character of Germany ensured that another autonomous city would extend
them a charter. Their reason for doing so was generally economic
the Jews could be counted on to fill the role of moneylender, and,
despite the gains made by Christians in international trade, Jews
were still considered excellent merchants. The Jews would thus settle
in a new location; eventually, the economic role they served would
become unnecessary, as Christians began to be crowded out of their
industries. When this happened, violence against the Jews inevitably
ensued, and expulsion followed. In this way, the Jews were constantly
wandering through Europe, residing in each city only temporarily.
In general, they moved east. As a result, by the late fifteenth century,
the center of world Jewry had moved from Western Europe to Eastern
Europe, with Jews especially concentrated in Poland.
One positive result of the Jews’ new economic station
was the rise of the court Jew. Because Jews controlled the loan of
money, the feudal lords in Germany, and elsewhere in Europe, became
dependent on the more prominent Jews for funds. Often, the Jewish
advisors were single-handedly responsible for helping a Lord to raise
an army, build a palace or furnish some public facility. These advisors
were sometimes able to help a community escape a riot or an expulsion.
For example, Joseph Oppenheimer (1699-1739), one of the most prominent
court Jews in Germany, used his position to convince the duke of Wurttemberg
to rescind an expulsion order that had barred Jews from living in
his duchy in the south of Germany.
In general, the Jews migrated within Germany in
the Middle Ages from the towns on the Rhine in the south to the east
and the north. By the thirteenth century, communities were forming
in Munich, Vienna and Berlin, which would become important Jewish
cities in Germany in the modern era.
In the Reformation period, Jews continued to be
oppressed both physically and economically those who were not
expelled shouldered a crippling tax burden. Additionally, Martin
Luther, after failing to convert the Jews to Protestantism, savagely denounced them,
which led to more religiously-inspired violence against them.
German Jews in the Modern World
The status of the Jews began to change in the seventeenth
century, when absolutist (and later, enlightened absolutist) states
became common. The rulers of these kingdoms viewed the interests of
the state as supreme, and began to realize that the Jews were a valuable
commodity that was wasted when expelled. The rulers of Prussia, Hamburg,
Bradenburg and Pomerania, to name just a few, therefore welcomed Jews
into their territories; however, the invitation came with numerous
strings attached. The life of the Jews was highly regulated to ensure
that the state extracted as much value as possible from them; laws
were issued addressing employment, family life, residency and communal
affairs. The expulsions that the Jews had become accustomed to became
increasingly rare as this era progressed.
The readmission of the Jews to many German states
continued in the eighteenth century, when the charters extended to
them granted them rights more and more similar to those of citizens.
At the same time, however, the autonomy that had been a hallmark of
Jewish communal life for centuries began to decline. As the Jews became
more like citizens, their independent governance was withdrawn by
the rulers. For example, when Frederick II revised the charter of
the Jews of Prussia in 1750, he included strict rules regarding the
workings of the kahal.
The tombstone of Moses Mendelsohn
is the only one still standing in Berlin's Jewish cemetary.
appearance soon afterward of the Haskalah,
the Jewish reaction to the enlightenment, furthered the gradual dissolution
of the Jewish semi-autonomy. Jewish thinkers and authors began to
criticize the insularity of the Jewish community and to emphasize
secular and worldly pursuits in place of the traditional Jewish lifestyle
and religion. As a result, many Jews left the ghetto to pursue education
(if and when a school would admit Jews), brought their disputes to
secular as opposed to religious courts and befriended non-Jews. The
most well-known example of this latter phenomena was the friendship
of Moses Mendelsohn (1729-1786) and G.E. Lessing in Berlin. However, it was an atypical
example, for while Mendelson remained scrupulously observant, most maskilim did not, which seriously eroded Jewish unity in Germany.
The decline of the kahal continued in the
aftermath of the French Revolution. When the leaders of the revolution
declared, in 1789, that all the French would be granted “Liberty,
Equality and Fraternity,” they included the Jews. Thus, the Jews
became full citizens of France, a status that was later withdrawn,
and then reinstated by Napoleon. This emancipation, along with the
revolution against the British happening in the New World, set a precedent
that began to be followed throughout Europe. Various cities and states
granted the Jews full equality, or else instituted reforms that were
meant to culminate in emancipation at a later date. In 1812, Prussia
became the first German state to grant citizenship to its Jewish inhabitants,
after years of lobbying by the maskil David Friedlander (1750-1834),
Mendelsohn's protege. Soon, the kahal ceased to exist as an
important institution; eventually, it ceased to exist at all.
The new status of the Jews, however, was not achieved
without opposition. In 1819, the masses gave vent to their frustration
at the Jews’ rapid economic and political rise in the “Hep
Hep” riots. Many peasants were less willing to let go of
their conception of the Jews than the Jews were to let go of their
conceptions of themselves.
The recently renovated "New
Synagogue" in East Berlin.
new open, cosmopolitan atmosphere had its impact on religion as well.
Frustrated with traditional observance, which they viewed as overly
restrictive and irrelevant to modern life, many Jews joined the Reform movement. The first Reform Temple was founded in Hamburg in 1817,
and it marked a dramatic departure from the traditional prayer service.
Soon, Reform Temples opened elsewhere too, and Berlin became the center
of the movement. Reform was opposed by the “Neo-orthodox” school, the brainchild of Samson
Raphael Hirsch (1808-1888) of Frankfort, which emphasized strict
traditionalism combined with worldly pursuits. Meanwhile, in Breslau,
Zecharias Frankel (1801-1875) laid the groundwork for the Conservative movement.
The Jews of Germany were by now an overwhelmingly
urban, professional class. Many of them took part in the German revolution
of 1848, and in the resulting Frankfort parliament. The “Basic
Laws of the German People” advanced by the parliament reinforced
that Jews were citizens in full, regardless of their religious leanings.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, anti-Semitism became more visible, and even manifested itself in politics, but was
dismissed by the urbane, assimilated Jews as merely a passing social
phenomenon. The anti-Semitism became more pronounced in the aftermath
of World War I in Weimar Germany. For the most part, however, the
prosperity and legal equality of the Jews continued unabated until Hitler’s rise to power
in 1933, and the legal discrimination and violence that ensued.
Jewish social life in the inter-war period consisted
of a struggle between Jewish nationalism and assimilationism. While
many Jews tried as hard as they could to assimilate, and to distinguish
themselves from their “Eastern” counterparts i.e.,
the Jews in Eastern Europe who were still largely observant and traditional
others advocated a return to Jewish autonomy, either within Europe
or in Palestine. The foremost proponent of Jewish autonomy was Theodor
Herzl (1860-1904), the founder of political
Zionism, who lived in Vienna,
Austria. In terms of scholarship, German Jews enjoyed a “Jewish
Renaissance” in the early twentieth century. Many books and treatises
were published, the Hebrew
language was resurrected as a living language and Yiddish drama
and newspapers flourished.
Some Jews immigrated in this period, mostly to America
or Palestine; many more did so after the rise of Nazism in 1933. The
majority of Jews, however, remained in Germany, with catastrophic
(The following is a stub of the full Holocaust section, found here)
A synagogue burns in Memel
Nazi takeover of 1933, which resulted in Adolph
Hitler (1889-1945), a virulent anti-Semite,
becoming chancellor, was a stunning blow to German Jews. In 1935,
the Nuremberg Laws were adopted; these laws officially defined Judaism in terms of race, and withdrew the citizenship of all Jews. The situation
escalated in 1938 when Austria was annexed by Germany. The atrocities
perpetrated there against Jews soon became common in Germany proper
as well. On November 9, 1938, Kristallnacht,
Jewish businesses and synagogues were razed, and Jews were hurt and
killed in rioting.
The government persecution led to an increased solidarity
among German Jewry. Communities banded together to promote immigration,
and to provide many of the services that had been stripped away by
the government. After the war began, these communal organizations
were transformed into the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland ("Reich Union of Jews in Germany"), headed by Leo
March, 1941, Hitler officially ordered the implementation of the “Final
Solution,” which resulted in Jews being forced to wear a yellow star as identification,
and being transferred en masse to ghettos and camps throughout Europe.
The biggest of these camps was Auschwitz,
located in Poland, where Jews were
put to work as slave laborers, and eventually killed in gas chambers
and crematoria. The Reichsvereinigung was sometimes forced
to assist the Germans in the implementation of the final solution.
On May 19, 1943, Germany was declared Judenrein (“free of Jews”), though it is estimated that as many as
19,000 Jews remained in Germany underground.
Learn more about the Holocaust in Germany - CLICK HERE
Rebuilding a Modern Community
Following the Holocaust,
Jews settled in Germany once again. The Jewish population consisted
of three types: Those who lived in Germany before the war and returned
to their homes; displaced persons from elsewhere in Europe
who took refuge in Germany; and those Germans who had never been discovered
by the Nazis and had remained in Germany throughout World War II.
The total number barely reached five percent of the Jewish population
before the war.
Memorial marking the spot
where Berlin's 55,000 Jews were gathered for deportation.
This number decreased further as many German Jews
immigrated to Israel in the 1950s. By the mid-1960s, communities were
solidified in West Berlin, Munich, Frankfurt, Dusseldorf, Hamburg and Cologne consisting of about 20,000 Jews. Less than a thousand
Jews lived in East Germany and those who did were concentrated in East
Berlin. Other Jews unaffiliated with the established communities
lived in Germany as well, but it is impossible to know precisely how
For a long time, the communities were primarily elderly men
and women, and opportunities for Jewish life were minimal: few communities
conducted daily prayer services, only two Jewish schools existed, and the
two Jewish weekly newspapers had only modest circulations. Intermarriage
became rampant. Because of reparations paid to Holocaust survivors
and their descendants by the German government, however, the communities
in Germany were among the richest in the world. The reunification
of Germany, which repatriated Jews in East and West Germany, also
went a long way to increasing Jewish opportunities and unity in the
Beginning in the late 1980s and continuing through
2004, the long-stagnant communities began to change. Huge numbers
of immigrants came from the former Soviet Union. The influx of Soviet
Jews revitalized community life, kosher food and restaurants, and grass-root
organizations. Germany’s open door policy also created problems and
tensions with Israel. Nearly 250,000 ex-Soviet Jews applied for entry
to the country, and approximately 190,000 were allowed in. More than
half vanished after acquiring financial aid from the government and
social support from Jewish agencies. Israel became concerned in 2004 when twice as many ex-Soviet Jews immigrated
to Germany as went to Israel. After Israel complained, the Germans
began to tighten the criteria for Jewish immigration from the former
Soviet Union, insisting on an age limit of 45 and requiring the ability
to speak, read, and write German.
Today, the number of Jews in Germany is estimated to
exceed 200,000, a number including non-affiliated Jews and decendents
of mixed marriages. While the German Jewish communities have traditionally
observant members, the population has become increasingly liberal;
in 1995, the founding of the Association of Conservative and Reform
Jews successfully challenged the einheitsgemeinde, the unified,
traditional communities that had existed since the 1950s. Assimilation
and intermarriage remain significant social problems.
On November 9, 2006, the 68th anniversary of Kristallnacht (or “Night of Broken Glass”), Munich’s Jewish community celebrated the rededication of Munich’s main synagogue, which was destroyed on Hitler’s orders in 1938. The new synagogue and the accompanying Jewish community center opened to the public in 2007. Funding for the synagogue, which cost about $72 million, was provided by the city, the state of Bavaria, and Munich’s Jewish community.
The synagogue, called Ohel Jakob, is built of glass and steel, and the base is made of a white stone similar to the Jerusalem stone of the Kotel, symbolizing the Temple. The top of the synagogue represents the tent that housed the tabernacle during the years of wandering in the desert. The building is located in St. Jakobs Square, only a few blocks from where the original synagogue stood.
The museum and community center also house an elementary school, library and function halls. Between the community center and the synagogue, there is a memorial passageway. On one side, inscribed in layers of glass are 4,500 names of some of Munich’s Jews who were murdered in the Holocaust. A book accompanies the display, with photos and biographical information.
Today, the Munich Jewish community has reached over 9,000 members, the same sixe as before World War II.
There are four synagogues in the city, including a separate liberal congregation with around 250 members. This growth is largely due to the influx of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s.
In May 2005, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Germany's official Holocaust memorial museum, opened in the center of Berlin. The memorial consists of a Field of Stelae covering an area of 19,000 square meters and containing 2,711 concrete blocks together with an information center. The exhibition about the persecution and extermination of the European Jews and the historical crime sites was designed by Dagmar von Wilcken and attracts nearly half a million visitors each year.
Holocaust memorial on the
site of what was the Jewish cemetary in Berlin.
On September 15, 2006, The Adam Geiger College ordained the first rabbis trained in Germany since the country’s last seminary closed in 1942. The three men were trained for four years at the Potsdam school, which is affiliated with the World Union of Progressive Judaism. While Chabad has ordained Orthodox rabbis in Berlin since the Holocaust, none had received their training in Germany. There are 120 Jewish congregations in Germany, but only twenty have full-time rabbis. Two of the newly ordained Reform rabbis plan to stay in Germany.
Throughout the post-war period, anti-Semitism has continued and neo-Nazi groups flourished throughout Germany. Recently,
hate crimes and membership in neo-Nazi groups have skyrocketed, and
even taken on some political forms in far-right political parties.
These parties, however, have been generally unsuccessful in recruiting
members from among the German populace, and several have been outlawed
by the government. Hate crimes are very strictly punished by the German
In 2012, however, a study published by an independent committee of experts appointed by the Bundestag, the German parliament, found that anti-Semitism is now on the rise in Germany, and not just from the neo-Nazi and Islamic fundamentalist parties. "Anti-Semitism in our society is based on widespread prejudices, cliches with deep roots and pure ignorance about everything to do with Jews and Judaism," wrote one of the report's authors, Dr. Peter Longerich. The study also criticized the way Germany deals with anti-Semitism. "There is no comprehensive strategy for fighting anti-Semitism in Germany," said another of the authors, Dr. Juliane Wetzel. But despite the grim situation in Germany, the report noted that anti-Semitism is much worse in many other European countries, including Poland, Hungary and Portugal.
In March 2012, Peter Feldmann was elected as mayor of Frankfurt and became the first Jew to hold the position since the Holocaust. Feldmann, who ran as a member of the Social Democratic Party, ran on a platform that advocated social reform but also confirmed that he is a strong advocate of Israel's security and a supporter of Frankfurt-Tel Aviv relations. Frankfurt is Tel Aviv’s partner city, Feldmann said, adding “Israel and Frankfurt have good contacts,” citing the “regular school exchange programs.” The mayor-elect is an economist who has vast experience in the social service field, and has served as director of a senior citizen home and even volunteered in his youth on a kibbutz in Israel. Frankfurt previously had one Jewish mayor, Ludwig Landmann, who was in office for nine years until the Nazis came to power in 1933.
Today, Germany is one of the most reliable allies
of the State of Israel. Limited
diplomatic relations were established between the two states in 1956;
in 1965, relations were fully normalized, even though the move led
to the severance of relations between Germany and most Arab states.
In subsequent years, Germany has become second only to the United
States in its economic relations with Israel, by importing and exporting,
and providing assistance in the form of grants and loans. Additionally,
Germany has played a leading role in shaping the pro-Israel attitudes
of many European countries.
General Council of Jews in Germany
Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland
President: Dieter Graumann
Postfach 04 02 07
Phone: +49 30 28 44 56 - 0
Fax: +49 30 28 44 56 - 13
Jüdische Gemeinde Aachen
Phone: +49 241 25770
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Amberg
Phone: +49 9621 131 40
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Schwaben-Augsburg
Phone: +49 8215099313
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Baden-Baden
Phone: +49 7221 391 021
Sources: “Germany,” Encyclopedia
Nicholas De Lange, The
Illustrated History of the Jewish People. Harcourt Brace and
Co.: New York, 1997.
Paul Mendes-Flohr and Judah Reinharz, The
Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History. Oxford University
Press: New York, 1995.
Chaim Potok, Wanderings:
History of the Jews. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1978.
Geoffery Wigoder, Jewish
Art and Civilization. Walker and Co.: New York, 1972.
Jay Bushinksy, “Germany’s New Jews,” (JTA, February
Synagogue to Open in Munich,” The Jerusalem Post (November 9, 2006).
Dresden,” The Jerusalem Report (October 16, 2006).
Melanie Lidman, “Munich’s Jews are there to stay,” Washington Jewish Week (January 24, 2008).
Ofer Aderet, "Anti-Semitism is Still Flourishing in Germany,
Study Shows," Haaretz (January 24, 2012).
Benjamin Weinthal, "Frankfurt Elects First Jewish Mayor Since
Post, (March 29, 2012).
European Jewish Congress, "The Jewish Community of Germany," EJC
World Jewish Congress, "Germany," WJC
Photo Credits:>Worms Cemetery
photo courtesy of Aaron
Wedding and Hagadda illustrations courtesy
Fragments photo courtesy of Juedisches
Mendelsohn’s grave, and Berlin monument
photos courtesy of Philip
New Synagogue photo courtesy of David