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[By: David Shyovitz]

Of all the countries in Europe, Germany is one of the richest in Jewish history and tradition. Though Germany is most famous - or rather infamous - in Jewish history for being the epicenter of the Nazi “Final Solution,” even the Holocaust was unable to bring to an end the 1,600 years of continuous habitation and cultural flourishing the Jewish community has had in Germany.

Ashkenazi Jewry has been shaped for a millennia and a half in the tumultuous, ever-changing German political, social and economic landscape. Today, there are approximately 119,000 Jews in Germany - making it the eigth largest Jewish community in the world - and Germany is one of Israel's closest allies among the European nations. The German government also works hard to preserve the memories of the Holocaust.

- Early History (4-11th Century)
- The Crusades & Middle Ages
- German Jews in the Modern World
- The Holocaust
- Rebuilding a Modern Community

Early History (4th - 11th Century)

Evidence of Jews in the area now known as Germany dates back to the early 4th century; in the 1930s, a Jewish graveyard from that era was found in the city of Cologne. When the first Jews migrated to the “barbarian lands,” Christianity had not yet arrived in Western Europe, and the Roman Empire was still the continent’s dominant power. Little is known about the early German Jews, but by the 8th century, Jews were flourishing among the German tribes along the banks of the Rhine. The Jews, for the most part, lived in harmony with their newly Christian neighbors. Jews could hold public office, own land, and work in whatever industries they chose; they spoke the same languages and often had the same names as the Germans. Many Germans even converted to Judaism.

That is not to say that life in Germany was stable. Like all countries at this point, there was no unified German state. Early on, Germany had consisted of a number of tribes, often vying with one another for territorial control. Later the tribes joined into a loose confederation, which resulted in a semi-autonomous “Kingdom of Germany.” Nonetheless, frequent civil wars and bids for power quickly destroyed any semblance of national unity. After Charlemagne united much of western Europe in the eighth century, Germany was a part of the Holy Roman Empire, which itself fell victim to occasional civil wars and fragmentation after Charlemagne’s death. The turmoil of the frequent wars and political disputes among the Empire, Kingship and various feudal estates was compounded by the emergence of the Roman Catholic Church as a force.

The Church had, by this point, codified much of its doctrine, including the attitude that the Jews were a rejected people, who must be separated decisively from the Christians. Appeals from the Church to the Christian world to shun the Jews economically and socially date back to the Theodosian Code of the fifth century, and were periodically reissued by Church synods. In Germany, however, the Church’s efforts to prejudice the Christian rulers and people against the Jews largely failed in this era – people were too concerned about the political fluctuations, and simply surviving in the harsh frontier conditions, to heed the call to discriminate.


Ancient Jewish Cemetary in Worms

An additional factor that endeared the Jews to the rest of society was their economic role. While the Jews also worked as farmers and artisans, like the rest of society, they came to acquire a special reputation as merchants. Rulers and populace alike, desperate for the goods that only the Jews could provide, were unable and unwilling to obey the dictums of the church; the very fact that so many decrees were issued is evidence of the apathy of Christendom in responding to them. The emerging Jewish merchant class created a vast international network that traversed the Ashkenazi world. Jews would meet at regional fairs to learn about the fates of other communities, to network, and, of course, to trade. The economic and social connections that the Jews formed throughout the continent made them much more valuable than non-Jewish merchants, whose influence seldom reached beyond their immediate surroundings

The “Golden Age” that resulted for European Jews was interrupted occasionally by anti-Semitism, but, for the most part, Jews lived happily. In the tenth century, European Jewry’s most important intellectual movement began to thrive when Rabbenu Gershom ben Judah (960-1028) founded a yeshiva in Mainz, Germany. Gershom’s school attracted Jews from all over Europe, including the famous Rashi; Gershom became so renowned for his genius and prominence that he posthumously acquired the moniker “light of the exile.” Study of the Talmud increased, and the German yeshivas in Mainz and Worms came to overshadow those in Persia, the previous center of Jewish intellectualism.

The Crusades & Middle Ages


A 15th century German painting of a Jewish wedding.

The Golden Age ended for the Jews of Western Europe on November 26, 1095. In Clermont, France, Pope Urban II made a public appeal to the Christians of Europe to liberate the city of Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks, who had closed it to pilgrims. This appeal marked the inception of the First Crusade. One result of the Crusade, whether intended or otherwise, was that the era of cooperation between Christians and Jews immediately ceased. With Christendom unified in a single purpose, the Jews were now viewed as outsiders, and were rumored to be allied with the Muslims. Crusaders would routinely massacre whole Jewish communities on their way to the Holy Land. Communities in Worms, Mainz and Cologne were devastated; in Mainz, for example, 1,100 Jews were killed in one day in 1096, and the synagogue and other communities buildings were razed. It is important to note that while the Pope occasionally condemned these attacks on Jews, the condemnations were neither vocal nor frequent. Moreover, the lack of any punishment or reprisals against the violators of the Pope’s orders gave the rioters implicit approval, and the attacks continued during the next seven crusades in the 12th and 13th centuries.


A German illuminated Passover Haggada, 14th century.

While none of these future Crusades were as devastating to the German Jews as the first, which caught them unaware, their lives and communities were nonetheless changed irrevocably. Jews ceased to be exclusively a merchant class; much of Europe was now accessible after having been traversed by Crusaders, and international trade could be performed by non-Jews. Instead, in line with the Jew’s newfound subjugation at the hands of the Church, Jews became known as moneylenders. Because Christians could not lend money at interest, Jews had a niche waiting for them. Of course, such a profession did little to endear the Jews to their neighbors, some of whom would just as soon kill the moneylender as repay his loan.

Jews’ community lives changed as well. No longer could Jews hold public office, or blithely interact with their Christian neighbors. Instead, the Jews of each city banded together in ghettos. While the word has in our times acquired a decisively negative connotation in the aftermath of the Holocaust, the ghettos of Medieval Germany were locked from the inside as well as from the outside. No Jew could wander around the city without risking taunts and attacks, but few Jews had a reason or desire to leave the ghetto in the first place. The Jewish community, or kahal, was mostly autonomous – sometimes the ruler of the surrounding city would set limits on inhabitants of the ghetto, and they would always impose a heavy tax burden, but the collecting of taxes and enforcing of population quotas was all done by the Jewish governing board, the kehilla. Any interaction with non-Jewish rulers, businessmen, or neighbors was handled by the shtadlan, a community representative

The collective isolation of the Jews also led to the rise of Yiddish. The Jews continued speaking a medieval dialect of German, even as the language was advancing and changing in the outside world. The language gradually incorporated elements of Hebrew, and eventually became a language unto itself, which was often incomprehensible to the non-Jewish Germans.

The centuries that followed the Crusades were difficult ones for the Jews of Western Europe. In the thirteenth century, the Catholic Church instituted the Inquisition. Secular and religious rulers alike attacked “heretics” – a category that sometimes included Jews – with savagery, subjecting them to imprisonment, forced conversion and often death. At the same time, the Jews were accused of killing children for ritual purposes (blood libels), of host desecration, and, during the Black Plague in the fourteenth century, of poisoning wells. These accusations, and the violence that followed them (Juddenschlacht, or “Jews slaughter”), led to the repeated expulsion of the Jews of Germany from their towns. The evictions continued through the Middle Ages and the Reformation, and were the result of the uncertain status of Jews as citizens of the cities they lived in. Within each German city, the ruler granted the Jews a certain number of rights in a charter. This charter set the taxes that the Jews would pay, outlined the area of the city they could live in, and guaranteed them protection; the remainder of the laws were left in the hands of the kehilla. In essence, the Jews agreed to become the property of whichever ruler granted them a protective charter. This agreement occurred on the largest scale in 1236, when Emperor Frederick II issued the Servi Camerae Nostrae (“Servants of the Treasury”), which formally made the Jews the property of the empire. Implicit in the charter agreements was the fact that the charter could be rescinded whenever the ruler of the region wished – and the regional rulers frequently did so.


A geniza collection stored at a museum in Worms, which stands on the spot of what was once Rashi's house.

Nonetheless, the Jews never fully abandoned Germany. Even when a city-state expelled the Jewish population, the disunified character of Germany ensured that another autonomous city would extend them a charter. Their reason for doing so was generally economic – the Jews could be counted on to fill the role of moneylender, and, despite the gains made by Christians in international trade, Jews were still considered excellent merchants. The Jews would thus settle in a new location; eventually, the economic role they served would become unnecessary, as Christians began to be crowded out of their industries. When this happened, violence against the Jews inevitably ensued, and expulsion followed. In this way, the Jews were constantly wandering through Europe, residing in each city only temporarily. In general, they moved east. As a result, by the late fifteenth century, the center of world Jewry had moved from Western Europe to Eastern Europe, with Jews especially concentrated in Poland.

One positive result of the Jews’ new economic station was the rise of the court Jew. Because Jews controlled the loan of money, the feudal lords in Germany, and elsewhere in Europe, became dependent on the more prominent Jews for funds. Often, the Jewish advisors were single-handedly responsible for helping a Lord to raise an army, build a palace or furnish some public facility. These advisors were sometimes able to help a community escape a riot or an expulsion. For example, Joseph Oppenheimer (1699-1739), one of the most prominent court Jews in Germany, used his position to convince the duke of Wurttemberg to rescind an expulsion order that had barred Jews from living in his duchy in the south of Germany.

In general, the Jews migrated within Germany in the Middle Ages from the towns on the Rhine in the south to the east and the north. By the thirteenth century, communities were forming in Munich, Vienna and Berlin, which would become important Jewish cities in Germany in the modern era.

In the Reformation period, Jews continued to be oppressed both physically and economically – those who were not expelled shouldered a crippling tax burden. Additionally, Martin Luther, after failing to convert the Jews to Protestantism, savagely denounced them, which led to more religiously-inspired violence against them.

German Jews in the Modern World

The status of the Jews began to change in the seventeenth century, when absolutist (and later, enlightened absolutist) states became common. The rulers of these kingdoms viewed the interests of the state as supreme, and began to realize that the Jews were a valuable commodity that was wasted when expelled. The rulers of Prussia, Hamburg, Bradenburg and Pomerania, to name just a few, therefore welcomed Jews into their territories; however, the invitation came with numerous strings attached. The life of the Jews was highly regulated to ensure that the state extracted as much value as possible from them; laws were issued addressing employment, family life, residency and communal affairs. The expulsions that the Jews had become accustomed to became increasingly rare as this era progressed.

The readmission of the Jews to many German states continued in the eighteenth century, when the charters extended to them granted them rights more and more similar to those of citizens. At the same time, however, the autonomy that had been a hallmark of Jewish communal life for centuries began to decline. As the Jews became more like citizens, their independent governance was withdrawn by the rulers. For example, when Frederick II revised the charter of the Jews of Prussia in 1750, he included strict rules regarding the workings of the kahal.


The tombstone of Moses Mendelsohn is the only one still standing in Berlin's Jewish cemetary.

The appearance soon afterward of the Haskalah, the Jewish reaction to the enlightenment, furthered the gradual dissolution of the Jewish semi-autonomy. Jewish thinkers and authors began to criticize the insularity of the Jewish community and to emphasize secular and worldly pursuits in place of the traditional Jewish lifestyle and religion. As a result, many Jews left the ghetto to pursue education (if and when a school would admit Jews), brought their disputes to secular as opposed to religious courts and befriended non-Jews. The most well-known example of this latter phenomena was the friendship of Moses Mendelsohn (1729-1786) and G.E. Lessing in Berlin. However, it was an atypical example, for while Mendelson remained scrupulously observant, most maskilim did not, which seriously eroded Jewish unity in Germany.

The decline of the kahal continued in the aftermath of the French Revolution. When the leaders of the revolution declared, in 1789, that all the French would be granted “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity,” they included the Jews. Thus, the Jews became full citizens of France, a status that was later withdrawn, and then reinstated by Napoleon. This emancipation, along with the revolution against the British happening in the New World, set a precedent that began to be followed throughout Europe. Various cities and states granted the Jews full equality, or else instituted reforms that were meant to culminate in emancipation at a later date. In 1812, Prussia became the first German state to grant citizenship to its Jewish inhabitants, after years of lobbying by the maskil David Friedlander (1750-1834), Mendelsohn's protege. Soon, the kahal ceased to exist as an important institution; eventually, it ceased to exist at all.

The new status of the Jews, however, was not achieved without opposition. In 1819, the masses gave vent to their frustration at the Jews’ rapid economic and political rise in the “Hep Hep” riots. Many peasants were less willing to let go of their conception of the Jews than the Jews were to let go of their conceptions of themselves.


The recently renovated "New Synagogue" in East Berlin.

The new open, cosmopolitan atmosphere had its impact on religion as well. Frustrated with traditional observance, which they viewed as overly restrictive and irrelevant to modern life, many Jews joined the Reform movement. The first Reform Temple was founded in Hamburg in 1817, and it marked a dramatic departure from the traditional prayer service. Soon, Reform Temples opened elsewhere too, and Berlin became the center of the movement. Reform was opposed by the “Neo-orthodox” school, the brainchild of Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808-1888) of Frankfort, which emphasized strict traditionalism combined with worldly pursuits. Meanwhile, in Breslau, Zecharias Frankel (1801-1875) laid the groundwork for the Conservative movement.

The Jews of Germany were by now an overwhelmingly urban, professional class. Many of them took part in the German revolution of 1848, and in the resulting Frankfort parliament. The “Basic Laws of the German People” advanced by the parliament reinforced that Jews were citizens in full, regardless of their religious leanings. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, anti-Semitism became more visible, and even manifested itself in politics, but was dismissed by the urbane, assimilated Jews as merely a passing social phenomenon. The anti-Semitism became more pronounced in the aftermath of World War I in Weimar Germany. For the most part, however, the prosperity and legal equality of the Jews continued unabated until Hitler’s rise to power in 1933, and the legal discrimination and violence that ensued.

Jewish social life in the inter-war period consisted of a struggle between Jewish nationalism and assimilationism. While many Jews tried as hard as they could to assimilate, and to distinguish themselves from their “Eastern” counterparts– i.e., the Jews in Eastern Europe who were still largely observant and traditional– others advocated a return to Jewish autonomy, either within Europe or in Palestine. The foremost proponent of Jewish autonomy was Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), the founder of political Zionism, who lived in Vienna, Austria. In terms of scholarship, German Jews enjoyed a “Jewish Renaissance” in the early twentieth century. Many books and treatises were published, the Hebrew language was resurrected as a living language and Yiddish drama and newspapers flourished.

Some Jews immigrated in this period, mostly to America or Palestine; many more did so after the rise of Nazism in 1933. The majority of Jews, however, remained in Germany, with catastrophic results.

The Holocaust

(The following is a stub of the full Holocaust section, found here)


A synagogue burns in Memel on Kristallnacht.

The Nazi takeover of 1933, which resulted in Adolph Hitler (1889-1945), a virulent anti-Semite, becoming chancellor, was a stunning blow to German Jews. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws were adopted; these laws officially defined Judaism in terms of race, and withdrew the citizenship of all Jews. The situation escalated in 1938 when Austria was annexed by Germany. The atrocities perpetrated there against Jews soon became common in Germany proper as well. On November 9, 1938, Kristallnacht, Jewish businesses and synagogues were razed, and Jews were hurt and killed in rioting.

The government persecution led to an increased solidarity among German Jewry. Communities banded together to promote immigration, and to provide many of the services that had been stripped away by the government. After the war began, these communal organizations were transformed into the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland ("Reich Union of Jews in Germany"), headed by Leo Baeck.

In March, 1941, Hitler officially ordered the implementation of the “Final Solution,” which resulted in Jews being forced to wear a yellow star as identification, and being transferred en masse to ghettos and camps throughout Europe. The biggest of these camps was Auschwitz, located in Poland, where Jews were put to work as slave laborers, and eventually killed in gas chambers and crematoria. The Reichsvereinigung was sometimes forced to assist the Germans in the implementation of the final solution.

On May 19, 1943, Germany was declared Judenrein (“free of Jews”), though it is estimated that as many as 19,000 Jews remained in Germany underground.

Learn more about the Holocaust in Germany - CLICK HERE

Rebuilding a Modern Community

Following the Holocaust, Jews settled in Germany once again. The Jewish population consisted of three types: Those who lived in Germany before the war and returned to their homes; displaced persons from elsewhere in Europe who took refuge in Germany; and those Germans who had never been discovered by the Nazis and had remained in Germany throughout World War II.

The total number barely reached five percent of the Jewish population before the war.


Memorial marking the spot where Berlin's 55,000 Jews were gathered for deportation.

This number decreased further as many German Jews immigrated to Israel in the 1950s. By the mid-1960s, communities were solidified in West Berlin, Munich, Frankfurt, Dusseldorf, Hamburg and Cologne consisting of about 20,000 Jews. Less than a thousand Jews lived in East Germany and those who did were concentrated in East Berlin. Other Jews unaffiliated with the established communities lived in Germany as well, but it is impossible to know precisely how many.

For a long time, the communities were primarily elderly men and women, and opportunities for Jewish life were minimal: few communities conducted daily prayer services, only two Jewish schools existed, and the two Jewish weekly newspapers had only modest circulations. Intermarriage became rampant. Because of reparations paid to Holocaust survivors and their descendants by the German government, however, the communities in Germany were among the richest in the world. The reunification of Germany, which repatriated Jews in East and West Germany, also went a long way to increasing Jewish opportunities and unity in the country.

Beginning in the late 1980s and continuing through 2004, the long-stagnant communities began to change. Huge numbers of immigrants came from the former Soviet Union. The influx of Soviet Jews revitalized community life, kosher food and restaurants, and grass-root organizations. Germany’s open door policy also created problems and tensions with Israel. Nearly 250,000 ex-Soviet Jews applied for entry to the country, and approximately 190,000 were allowed in. More than half vanished after acquiring financial aid from the government and social support from Jewish agencies. Israel became concerned in 2004 when twice as many ex-Soviet Jews immigrated to Germany as went to Israel. After Israel complained, the Germans began to tighten the criteria for Jewish immigration from the former Soviet Union, insisting on an age limit of 45 and requiring the ability to speak, read, and write German.

Today, the number of Jews in Germany is estimated to exceed 200,000, a number including non-affiliated Jews and decendents of mixed marriages. While the German Jewish communities have traditionally observant members, the population has become increasingly liberal; in 1995, the founding of the Association of Conservative and Reform Jews successfully challenged the einheitsgemeinde, the unified, traditional communities that had existed since the 1950s. Assimilation and intermarriage remain significant social problems.

On November 9, 2006, the 68th anniversary of Kristallnacht (or “Night of Broken Glass”), Munich’s Jewish community celebrated the rededication of Munich’s main synagogue, which was destroyed on Hitler’s orders in 1938. The new synagogue and the accompanying Jewish community center opened to the public in 2007. Funding for the synagogue, which cost about $72 million, was provided by the city, the state of Bavaria, and Munich’s Jewish community.

The synagogue, called Ohel Jakob, is built of glass and steel, and the base is made of a white stone similar to the Jerusalem stone of the Kotel, symbolizing the Temple. The top of the synagogue represents the tent that housed the tabernacle during the years of wandering in the desert. The building is located in St. Jakobs Square, only a few blocks from where the original synagogue stood. The museum and community center also house an elementary school, library and function halls. Between the community center and the synagogue, there is a memorial passageway. On one side, inscribed in layers of glass are 4,500 names of some of Munich’s Jews who were murdered in the Holocaust. A book accompanies the display, with photos and biographical information.

Today, the Munich Jewish community has reached over 9,000 members, the same sixe as before World War II. There are four synagogues in the city, including a separate liberal congregation with around 250 members. This growth is largely due to the influx of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s.

In May 2005, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Germany's official Holocaust memorial museum, opened in the center of Berlin. The memorial consists of a Field of Stelae covering an area of 19,000 square meters and containing 2,711 concrete blocks together with an information center. The exhibition about the persecution and extermination of the European Jews and the historical crime sites was designed by Dagmar von Wilcken and attracts nearly half a million visitors each year.


Holocaust memorial on the site of what was the Jewish cemetary in Berlin.

On September 15, 2006, The Adam Geiger College ordained the first rabbis trained in Germany since the country’s last seminary closed in 1942. The three men were trained for four years at the Potsdam school, which is affiliated with the World Union of Progressive Judaism. While Chabad has ordained Orthodox rabbis in Berlin since the Holocaust, none had received their training in Germany. There are 120 Jewish congregations in Germany, but only twenty have full-time rabbis. Two of the newly ordained Reform rabbis plan to stay in Germany.

Throughout the post-war period, anti-Semitism has continued and neo-Nazi groups flourished throughout Germany. Recently, hate crimes and membership in neo-Nazi groups have skyrocketed, and even taken on some political forms in far-right political parties. These parties, however, have been generally unsuccessful in recruiting members from among the German populace, and several have been outlawed by the government. Hate crimes are very strictly punished by the German courts.

In 2012, however, a study published by an independent committee of experts appointed by the Bundestag, the German parliament, found that anti-Semitism is now on the rise in Germany, and not just from the neo-Nazi and Islamic fundamentalist parties. "Anti-Semitism in our society is based on widespread prejudices, cliches with deep roots and pure ignorance about everything to do with Jews and Judaism," wrote one of the report's authors, Dr. Peter Longerich. The study also criticized the way Germany deals with anti-Semitism. "There is no comprehensive strategy for fighting anti-Semitism in Germany," said another of the authors, Dr. Juliane Wetzel. But despite the grim situation in Germany, the report noted that anti-Semitism is much worse in many other European countries, including Poland, Hungary and Portugal.

In March 2012, Peter Feldmann was elected as mayor of Frankfurt and became the first Jew to hold the position since the Holocaust. Feldmann, who ran as a member of the Social Democratic Party, ran on a platform that advocated social reform but also confirmed that he is a strong advocate of Israel's security and a supporter of Frankfurt-Tel Aviv relations. Frankfurt is Tel Aviv’s partner city, Feldmann said, adding “Israel and Frankfurt have good contacts,” citing the “regular school exchange programs.” The mayor-elect is an economist who has vast experience in the social service field, and has served as director of a senior citizen home and even volunteered in his youth on a kibbutz in Israel. Frankfurt previously had one Jewish mayor, Ludwig Landmann, who was in office for nine years until the Nazis came to power in 1933.

Today, Germany is one of the most reliable allies of the State of Israel. Limited diplomatic relations were established between the two states in 1956; in 1965, relations were fully normalized, even though the move led to the severance of relations between Germany and most Arab states. In subsequent years, Germany has become second only to the United States in its economic relations with Israel, by importing and exporting, and providing assistance in the form of grants and loans. Additionally, Germany has played a leading role in shaping the pro-Israel attitudes of many European countries.

Contacts

General Council of Jews in Germany
Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland
President: Dieter Graumann
Leo-Baeck-Haus
Postfach 04 02 07
10061 Berlin
Phone: +49 30 28 44 56 - 0
Fax: +49 30 28 44 56 - 13
Email: info@zentralratdjuden.de

Jüdische Gemeinde Aachen
Synagogenplatz 23
52062 Aachen
Phone: +49 241 25770
Website: www.jgaachen.de
Email: info@jgaachen.de

Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Amberg
Salzgasse 5
92224 Amberg
Phone: +49 9621 131 40

Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Schwaben-Augsburg
Haldererstraße 6-8
86008 Augsburg
Phone: +49 8215099313
Website: www.ikg-augsburg.com
Email
: synagoge-augsburg@t-online.de

Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Baden-Baden
Werderstraße 2
76530 Baden-Baden
Phone: +49 7221 391 021


Sources: “Germany,” Encyclopedia Judaica.
Nicholas De Lange, The Illustrated History of the Jewish People. Harcourt Brace and Co.: New York, 1997.
Paul Mendes-Flohr and Judah Reinharz, The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press: New York, 1995.
Chaim Potok, Wanderings: History of the Jews. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1978.
Geoffery Wigoder, Jewish Art and Civilization. Walker and Co.: New York, 1972.
Jay Bushinksy, “Germany’s New Jews,” (JTA, February 2, 2005).
New Synagogue to Open in Munich,” The Jerusalem Post (November 9, 2006).
Dateline: Dresden,” The Jerusalem Report (October 16, 2006).
Melanie Lidman, “Munich’s Jews are there to stay,” Washington Jewish Week (January 24, 2008).
Ofer Aderet, "Anti-Semitism is Still Flourishing in Germany, Study Shows," Haaretz (January 24, 2012).
Benjamin Weinthal, "Frankfurt Elects First Jewish Mayor Since Holocaust," Jerusalem Post, (March 29, 2012).
European Jewish Congress, "The Jewish Community of Germany," EJC website, 2010.
World Jewish Congress, "Germany," WJC website, 2011.

Photo Credits:>Worms Cemetery photo courtesy of Aaron Hertzman.
Wedding and Hagadda illustrations courtesy of Alan Humm.
Fragments photo courtesy of Juedisches Museum Worms.
Mendelsohn’s grave, and Berlin monument photos courtesy of Philip Greenspun, www.photo.net.
New Synagogue photo courtesy of David Navarro.

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