HARO


HARO (Faro), city in Castile, northern Spain. A charter (fuero) given to the city by Alfonso VIII (1158–1214) granted the Jews in Haro, who had aided him during the war against Navarre, a series of privileges which included arrangements concerning their security, the indemnity to be paid for the murder of a Jew, and release from various taxes. In the 13th century the community of Haro was the largest in the region of La Rioja. Around 1,000 Jews lived then in the town. Jews were permitted to fish in the river, to establish mills, and to engage in dyeing. Many Jews owned land, particularly vineyards. The fuero was later endorsed by Sancho IV (1284–95) and Ferdinand IV (1295–1312). Alfonso settled some Jews in the fortress but they also lived in the unwalled sections of the city. In 1305 they were authorized to choose their own judges in suits involving members of different faiths. The Jews of Haro were not directly hit by the 1391 massacres, but following the persecutions and the war of succession between Pedro I and Enrique of Trastámara the community declined drastically. An organized community continued to exist throughout the 15th century. In the second half of the 15th century some 250–300 Jews lived in Haro constituting no less than 10% of the general population. Jews owned lands and vineyards which they leased to Christians and Muslims. Some were potters. Prominent in the 15th century were the tax farmer Don Solomon Zadik and Samuel Cubo who represented the community in 1476 in a dispute with the town council regarding pasture land and the slaughterhouse. A census in 1492 at the time of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain showed that the community numbered 48 taxpayers who possessed 55 houses in the Mota quarter.

From the 12th century the Jews lived in the castle called "de la Mota." In the course of time it expanded and included adjacent areas. There are no remains of the Jewish quarter.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Baer, Spain, index; Baer, Urkunden, index; D. Hergueta, Noticias históricas de la Ciudad de Haro (1906), 61, 208, 242, 267; Cantera, in: Sefarad, 2 (1942), 327; 22 (1962), 87ff.; León Tello, ibid., 15 (1955), 157–69; Suárez Fernández, Documentos, 68, 76. G. Martínez Díez, ed. "Fueros de la Rioja," in: Anuario de historia del derecho español, 49 (1979), 373–74; 437–39.

[Haim Beinart]


Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.