Memorandum of Agreement between Israel and the United States

(April 21, 1988)


The results of much discussion, and separated from the Middle East peace process disagreements, Israel and the U.S. signed simultaneously in Jerusalem and Washington the following memorandum regarding joint political, security and economic cooperation. Israel was highly pleased to be considered as "a major non-NA TO ally of the United States." The agreement established a comprehensive framework for continued consultation and cooperation and appointed a number of officials to meet regularly for joint discussions of current issues. The agreement was one of the most comprehensive ever signed between the two countries and marked a major turning point in their relations, in spite of ongoing differences of opinion on the peace process. Text:


Preamble

The parties to this Memorandum of Agreement reaffirm the close relationship between Israel and the United States of America, based upon common goals, interests, and values; welcome the achievements made in strategic, economic, industrial and technological cooperation; recognize the mutual benefits of the Israel-United States Free Trade Agreement; take note of United States economic and security assistance to Israel; and note that Israel is currently designated, for the purposes of Section 1105 of the 1987 National Defense Authorization Act, as a major non-NATO ally of the United States. The parties wish to enhance their relationship through the establishment of a comprehensive framework for continued consultation and cooperation and have reached the following agreements in order to achieve this aim.

Article I

Israel and the United States recognize the value of their unique dialogue and agree to continue frequent consultations and periodic meetings between the president and the prime minister, between the secretary of state and the minister of foreign affairs, between the secretary of defense and the minister of defense, and between other Cabinet-level officials. In these meetings, international and bilateral issues of immediate and significant concern to both countries will be discussed as appropriate.

Article II

A. The director general of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the undersecretary of state for political affairs will meet regularly, for a Joint Political Consultation (JPQ to discuss a wide range of international issues of mutual interest with a view toward increasing their mutual understanding and appreciation of these issues.

B. The United States Agency for International Development and Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Division of International Cooperation (Mashav) meet periodically to coordinate and facilitate, as appropriate, programs of cooperative assistance to developing countries.

Article III

Israel and the United States reaffirm the importance of the following Israeli-U.S. Joint Groups:

A. The Joint Political Military Group (JPMG) is the forum in which the two states discuss and implement, pursuant to existing arrangements, joint cooperative efforts such as combined planning, joint exercises, and logistics. The JPMG also discusses current political-military issues of mutual strategic concern.

1. The JPMG is a binational, interagency group co-chaired by the director general of the Israeli Ministry of Defense and the U.S. assistant secretary of state for politico-military affairs.

2. The JPMG normally meets biannually, alternating between Israel and the United States.

B. The Joint Security Assistance Planning Group (JSAP) is the forum in which the two states review Israel's requests for security assistance in light of current threat assessments and U.S. budgetary capabilities, and agree upon proposed levels of security assistance. The JSAP also discusses issues related to security assistance, such as industrial and technological cooperation, as well as issues related to Israel's inclusion among those countries currently designated as major non-NATO allies of the United States for the purpose of cooperative research and development under Section 1105 of the 1987 National Defense Authorization Act.

1. The JSAP is a binational, interagency group co-chaired by the director general of the Ministry of Defense and the undersecretary of state for security assistance, science and technology.

2. The JSAP currently meets annually, in Washington, D.C.

C. The Joint Economic Development Group (JEDG) is the forum which discusses developments in Israel's economy. With a view to stimulating economic growth and self-reliance, the JEDG exchanges views on Israeli economic policy planning, stabilization efforts, and structural reform. The JEDG also evaluates Israel's requests for U.S. economic assistance.

1. The JEDG is a binational, interagency group co-chaired by the director general of the Ministry of Finance and the undersecretary of state for economic affairs. The group includes private U.S. and Israeli economists invited by their respective countries.

2. The JEDG currently meets biannually, alternating between the United States and Israel.

Article IV

This Memorandum of Agreement does not derogate from any existing agreements or undertakings between the two states nor in any way prejudices the rights and obligations of either state under the Charter of the United Nations or under international law. In accordance with the above, the parties reaffirm their aspirations to live in peace with all countries. This agreement shall come into effect upon signature, shall be valid for an initial period of five years, and shall thereafter be renewed for additional periods of five years unless either party notifies the other prior to the expiration of a five-year period that it wishes to terminate the agreement.

DONE at Jerusalem and at Washington, in duplicate, in the English language, the fourth day of Iyar, 5748, the twenty-first of April, 1988.

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL:
Yitzhak Shamir
Prime Minister of Israel

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
Ronald Reagan
President of the U.S.A."


Source: Israeli Foreign Ministry