Memorandum of Understanding
between the Government of the United States
and the Government of Israel
on Strategic Cooperation
(November 30, 1981)
This memorandum of understanding reaffirms the common
bonds of friendship between the United States and Israel
and builds on the mutual security relationship that
exists between the two nations. The parties recognize
the need to enhance strategic cooperation to deter all
threats from the Soviet Union to the region. Noting
the longstanding and fruitful cooperation for mutual
security that has developed between the two countries,
the parties have decided to establish a framework for
continued consultation and cooperation to enhance their
national security by deterring such threats to the whole
The parties have reached the following agreements in
order to achieve the above aims.
United States-Israel strategic cooperation, as set
forth in this memorandum, is designed against the threat
to peace and security of the region caused by the Soviet
Union or Soviet-controlled forces from outside the region
introduced into the region. It has the following broad
A. To enable the parties to act cooperatively
and in a timely manner to deal with the above-mentioned
B. To provide each other with military assistance
for operations of their forces in the area that may
be required to cope with this threat.
C. The strategic cooperation between the parties
is not directed at any state or group of states within
the region. It is intended solely for defensive purposes
against the above-mentioned threat.
1. The fields in which strategic cooperation
will be carried out to prevent the above-mentioned threat
from endangering the security of the region include:
A. Military cooperation between the parties, as
may be agreed by the parties.
B. Joint military exercise, including naval and
air exercises in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea,
as agreed upon by the parties.
C. Cooperation for the establishment and maintenance
of joint readiness activities, as agreed upon by
D. Other areas within the basic scope and purpose
of this agreement, as may be jointly agreed.
2. Details of activities within these fields
of cooperation shall be worked out by the parties in
accordance with the provisions of Article III below.
The cooperation will include, as appropriate, planning,
preparations, and exercises.
1. The Secretary of Defense and the Minister
of Defence shall establish a coordinating council to
further the purpose of this memorandum.
A. To coordinate and provide guidance to joint
B. To monitor the implementation of cooperation
in the fields agreed upon by the parties within
the scope of this agreement.
C. To hold periodic meetings, in Israel and the
United States, for the purposes of discussing and
resolving outstanding issues and to further the
objectives set forth in this memorandum. Special
meetings can be held at the request of either party.
The Secretary of Defense and Minister of Defence
will chair these meetings whenever possible.
2. Joint working groups will address the following
3.The future agenda for the work of the joint working
groups, their composition and procedures for reporting
to the coordinating council shall be agreed upon by the
A. Military cooperation between the parties, including
joint U.S.-Israel exercises in the Eastern Mediterranean
B. Cooperation for the establishment of joint readiness
activities including access to maintenance facilities
and other infrastructure, consistent with the basic
purposes of this agreement.
C. Cooperation in research and development, building
on past cooperation in this area.
D. Cooperation in defence trade.
E. Other fields within the basic scope and purpose
of this agreement, such as questions of prepositioning,
as agreed by the coordinating council.
This memorandum shall enter into force upon exchange
of notification that required procedures have been completed
by each party. If either party considers it necessary
to terminate this memorandum of understanding, it may
do so by notifying the other party six months in advance
of the effective date of termination.
Nothing in the memorandum shall be considered as derogating
from pervious agreements and understandings between
The parties share the understanding that nothing in
this memorandum is intended to or shall in any way prejudge
the rights and obligations which devolve or may devolve
upon either government under the charter of the United
Nations or under international law. The parties reaffirm
their faith in the purposes and principles of the charter
of the United Nations and their aspiration to live in
peace with all countries in the region.