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Folklore

This entry is arranged according to the following outline:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

FOLK NARRATIVE: W. Anderson, Kaiserund Abt (1923); A. Aarne, The Types of Folktale (1961 = AT in text); T. Benfey, Pantschatantra (1962); M. Epstein, Tales of Sendebar (1967); D. Flusser, in: Tarbiz, 26 (1956/57), 165–84; T.H. Gaster, The Oldest Stories in the World (1952); idem, Thespis (1966); Ginzberg, Legends; F.M. Goebel, Juedische Motive im maerchenhaften Erzaehlungsgut (1932); C.H. Gordon, in: HUCA, 26 (1955), 43–108; idem, The Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations (1962); H. Gunkel, Das Maerchen im Alten Testament (1917); B. Holbek, Notes to Chr. Pederson's Danish Aesop, A esops levned og fabler (1962); S.H. Hooke (ed.), Myth, Ritual and Kingship (1958); E.O. James, The Ancient Gods … (1960); S.N. Kramer (ed.), Mythologies of the Ancient World (1961); Pritchard, Texts; D.G. Maeso, in: Miscelanea de Estúdios árabes y Hebráicos, 5 (1956), 225–48; S. Thompson, Motif Index of Folk-Literature, 6 vols. (1955–58) (= Motif in text); H. Peri (Pflaum), Der Religionsdisput der Balaam-Legende … (1959); D. Noy, in: Maḥanayim, 115 (1967), 80–99; S.Z. Pipe, in: Yivo Annual of Jewish Social Studies, 1 (1946), 294–304; E.C. Quinn, The Quest of Seth for the Oil of Life (1962); Ch. Schwarzbaum, in: Sefarad, 21 (1961), 267–99; 22 (1962), 17–59; 321–44; 23 (1963), 54–73; S. Thompson, The Folktale (1951); H. Varnhagen, Ein indisches Maerchen auf seiner Wanderung (1882); G. Widengren, in: S.H. Hooke (ed.), Myth, Ritual and Kingship (1958), 149–203; idem, in: Acta Orientalia, 23 (1959), 201–62. RIDDLE: S. An-Ski, Gezamlte Shriftn, 15 (1925), 225–9; S. Bastomski, Yidishe Folksreteishn (1917); S. Einhorn, in: Edoth, 2 (1947), 278–81; 3 (1948), 95–98; Ginzberg, Legends; D. Noy, in: Maḥanayim, 83 (1963), 64–71; Y. Ratzhabi, in: Sinai, 22 (1948), 36–44; idem, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 2 (1954), 36–41; S. Schechter, in: Folk-Lore, 1 (1890), 349–58; N.H. Tur-Sinai, Ha-Lashon veha-Sefer, 2 (1951), 58–93; A. Wuensche, Die Raetselweisheit bei den Hebraeern, mit Hinblick auf andere Voelker (1883). FOLK DRAMA: Y.L. Cahan (ed.), Yidisher Folklor (1938), 219–24, 310–18; E. Lahad, Yiddish Folkplays (1920), bibliography. FOLK SONG: L. Algazi, Chants Sephardies (1958); M. Alvar, in: Boletín de la Universidad de Granada, 23 (1951), 127–44; idem, Endechas judeo-españoles (1955); S. An-Ski, Folklor un Etnografye (1925), 171–91, 195–214; S.G. Armistead and J.H. Silvermann, in: Sefarad, 28 (1968), 395–98; M. Attias, Romancero Sefaradi (1956); idem, La Romanza Sefaradi (1958); idem, in: Sefunot, 2 (1958), 331–76; H. Avenary, in: Sefarad, 20 (1960), 377–94; S. Bastomski, Baym Kval (1923); B. Bayer, in: M. Zmona (ed.), Yesodot Mizraḥiyyim u-Ma'arviyyim ba-Musikah be-Yisrael (1968), 74–78; M.I. Bergovski, Yidisher Muzik-Folklor (1934); idem, Yevreyskiye narodnye pesny (1962); idem and I. Feffer, Yidishe Folks-Lider (1938); Y.L. Cahan, Shtudyes vegn Yidisher Folksshafung, ed. by M. Weinreich (1952); idem, Yidishe Folkslider mit Melodyes (1957); 1. Dobrushin and A. Yuditski, Yidishe Folkslider (1940); Y. Dworkin, in: Studies in Biblical and Jewish Folklore (1960), 201–21; I. Edel, Ha-Shir ha-Ereẓ Yisre'eli (1946); idem et al., Zemer Am (1946); I. Fater, Yidishe Muzik in Poyln (1970); E. Gerson-Kiwi, in: Edoth, 1 (1946), 227–33; 3 (1948), 73–78; idem, in: Studies in Biblical and Jewish Folklore (1960), 225–32; M.S. Geshuri, Ha-Niggun ve-ha-Rikkud ba-Hasidut, 3 vols. (1957–59); idem, in: Yedi'ot ha-Makhon ha-Yisre'eli le-Musikah Datit, 4 (1963), 141–6; S.M. Ginzburg and P.S. Marek, Yevreyskiya narodniya pesnya v Rossii (1901); Y. Goldberg, in: Tsaytshrift (Minsk), 1 (1926), 105–16; 2–3 (1927–28), 589–606; A.L. Holde, Jews in Music (1959); B. Hrushovski, in: The Field of Yiddish, 1 (1954), 224–32; E. Hurvitz, Min ha-Meẓar (1949); Idelsohn, Melodien; idem, The Jewish Song Book (1961); S. Katsherginski, Lider fun di Getos un Lagern (1948); F.M. Kaufmann, Das juedische Volkslied (1919); S.J. Katz, in: Western Folklore, 21 (1962), 83–91; M. Kipnis, Hundert Folk-slider (1949); R. Lachman, Jewish Cantillation and Song in the Isle of Djerba (1940); S. Lehman, A rbayt un Frayhayt (1921), idem, Ganovim Lider (1928); I. Levy, Chants judéo-espagnols (1959); L. Levy, in: Yeda Am, 3 (1955), 58–65, 5 (1958), 96f.; R.R. Mac-Curdy and D.P. Stanley, in: Southern Folklore Quarterly, 15 (1951), 221–38; E.G. Mlotek, in: The Field of Yiddish 1 (1954), 179–95; 2 (1965), 232–52; idem, in: For Max Weinreich (1964), 209–28; M. Molho, Literatura Sefardita de Oriente (1960); D. Noy, in: Haifa Yorbukh, 5 (1969), 177–224; A. de Larrea Palacin, Cancionero judío del Norte de Marruecos, 3 vols. (1952–54); M. Pelayo, in: Antología de poetas líricas castellanos, 9 (1945), 349–88; S.Z. Pipe, Yidishe Folkslider fun Galitsye, ed. by D. and M. Noy (1971); M. Prager, Min ha-Meẓar Karati (1956), N. Prilutski, Yidishe Folk-slider, 2 vols. (1911–13); I. Rabinovitch, Of Jewish Music … (1952); Y. Ratzaby, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 5 (1958), 85–89; Y.Y. Rivlin, Shirat Yehudei ha-Targum (1959); A. Rozentsvayg, Sotsyale Diferentsyatsye inem Yidishen Folklorlid (1934); R. Rubin, A Treasury of Jewish Folksong (1950); idem, Voices of People (1963); idem, Jewish Folksongs in Yiddish and English (1965); idem, in: Tatzlil, 8 (1968), 39–48; D. Sadan, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 1 no. 2 (1948), 33–35; no. 3–4 (1949), 30–32; no. 5–6 (1950), Studies in Jewish and World Folklore (1968), 409–17; E. Seculets, Yidishe Folkslider (1959); Sendrey, Music; A. Shiloah, in: Folklore Research Center Studies, 1 (1970), 349–68; K.Y. Silman, Lekhu Nerannenah (1928); A.I. Simon, The Songs of the Jews of Cochin (1947); Z. Skuditski, Folklor-Lider, ed. by M. Viner, 2 vols. (1933–36); J. Spector, in: Reconstructionist, 24 (1958), 11–16; idem, in: Studies in Biblical and Jewish Folklore (1960), 225–84; idem, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 3 (1955), 101–3; vol. 4 (1956), 24–28; Y. Stutshevski, Folklor Muzikali shel Yehudei Mizrah Eiropaḥ (1958); idem, Ha-Kleizmerim, Toledoteihem, Oraḥ Ḥayyeihem vi-Yziroteihem (1959); B. Uziel, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 2 (1954), 75f., 172–7; ider, in: Le Judaïsme Sephardi, 18 (1959), 769–99; Ch. Vinaver, in: Commentary, 2 (1951), 85–87; U. Weinreich, in: Yivo Bleter, 34 (1950), 282–8; U. and B. Weinreich, Yiddish Language and Folklore (1959), nos. 294–347 (bibl.); E. Werner, in: HJS, 6 (1944), 175–88; idem, in: L. Finkelstein (ed.), The Jews, 2 (1949), 950–83; idem, The Sacred Bridge (1959); L. Wiener, in: Germanica, 2 (1898), 1–26, 33–59; A. Yaari, in: KS, 35 (1960), 109–26; 36 (1961), 264–72 (bibl. on Badḥanim). VISUAL FOLKLORE: Mayer, Art; D. Davidovitch, Battei Keneset be-Polin ve-Ḥurbanam (1960); B. Goldman, The Sacred Portal, A Primary Symbol in Ancient Jewish Art (1966); M. Golnitzki, Be-Maḥazor ha-Yamim (1963); Goodenough, Symbols; J. Gutmann, Juedische Zeremonialkunst (1963); S.S. Kayser, Jewish Ceremonial Art (1959); F. Landsberger, A History of Jewish Art (1946); idem, in: HUCA, 31 (1960), 149–66; G.K.L. Loukomski, Jewish Art in European Synagogues (1947); M. Narkiss, in: M. Davis (ed.), Israel, Its Role in Civilization (1956), 194ff.; J. Pinkerfeld, Bi-Shevilei Ommanut Yehudit (1957); Roth, Art; A. Rubens, A Jewish Iconography (1954); idem, A History of Jewish Custom (1967); Ch. Schwarzbaum, Studies in Jewish and World Folklore (1968), 435–40, 484f.; H. Volavková, The Synagogue Treasures of Bohemia and Moravia (1949); idem, The Pinkas Synagogue in Prague (1955); R. Wischnitzer, Symbole und Gestalten der juedischen Kunst (1935); idem, in: L. Finkelstein (ed.), The Jews (1949), 984–10 l 0; idem, The Architecture of the European Synagogue (1964). COGNITIVE FOLKLORE: I. Abrahams, Jewish Customs and Ceremonies (1954); I. Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages (1960); J. Bazak, Le-Ma'lah min ha-Ḥushim (1968); Y. Bergman, in: Edoth, 3 (1947/48), 58–66; L. Blau, Das altjuedische Zauberwesen (1898); R. Brasch, The Star of David (1955); Y.L. Cahan, Shtudyes vegn Yidisher Folksshafung (1952), 275–8; S. Daiches, Babylonian Oil Magic in the Talmud and in Later Jewish Literature (1913); A. Daron, in: Transactions of the 11th International Congress of Orientalists (1897), 259–70; Eisenstein, Dinim; L. Finkelstein (ed.), The Jews, 2 (1949), 1327–89; A.S. Freidus,, Studies in Jewish Bibliography and Related Subjects in Memory of Abraham Solomon Freidus (1929), lxxviiiff.; T.H. Gaster, The Holy and the Profane: Evolution of Jewish Folkways (1955); J. Jacobs, Customs and Traditions of Israel (1955); E, Tov, Sefer ha-Toda'ah (1960); E, Langton, Essentials of Demonology: A Study of Jewish and Christian Doctrine (1949); S.M. Lehrran, Jewish Customs and Folklore (1949); R. Lilienthal, in; Yidishe Filologye, 1 (1924), 245–71; A. Marmorstein, in: Edoth, 1 (1945/46), 76–89; J. Nacht, Simlei Ishah (1959); D. Noy, in: Onot ha-Shanah, 1 (1959); R. Patai, Adam va-Adamah, 2 vols. (1942–43); idem, Man and Temple in Ancient Jewish Myth and Ritual (1947), 4f.; S. Raskin, Aron-hakodesh.. Jewish Life and Lore (1955); I. Rivkind, Yidishe Gelt (1959); J. Soetendorp, Symbolik der juedischen Religion; Sitte und Brauchtum im juedischen Leben (1963); I. Sperling, Sefer Ta'amei ha-Minhagim u-Mekorei ha-Dinim (1957); J. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition (1939, repr. 1961); idem, The Devil and the Jews (19612). YEAR CYCLE BELIEFS AND CUSTOMS: A. Ben Ezra, Minhagei Hagim (1963); T.H. Gaster, Festivals of the Jewish Year: A Modern Interpretation and Guide (1956); P. Goodman, Rejoice in Thy Festival (1956); S. Goren, Torat ha-Mo'adim (1964); H. Leshem, Shabbat u-Mo'adei Yisrael (1965); Y.T. Lewinski (ed.), Sefer ha-Mo'adim, 3 (1953); J. Morgenstern, in: JQR, 8 (1917/18), 34–37; N. Wahrman, Ḥagei Yisrael u-Mo'adav (1961); M. Zobel, Das Jahr des Juden in Brauch und Liturgie (1936); H. Schauss, The Jewish Festivals (1938); idem, Guide to Jewish Holy Days (1962); M. Rabinovitch, Ḥol u-Mo'ed (1965). LIFE-CYCLE BELIEFS AND CUSTOMS: L.M. Epstein, Sex Laws and Customs in Judaism (1948); E. Ki-Tov, Ish u-Veito (1963); R. Patai, Sex and Family in the Bible and the Middle East (1959); H. Schauss, The Lifetime of a Jew throughout the Ages of Jewish History (1950); Ch. Schwarzbaum, Studies in Jewish and World Folklore (1968), 428ff. BIRTH AND CIRCUMCISION: E. Brauer, in: Edoth, 1 (1945/46), 129–138 (Kurdistan); W.F. Feldman, The Jewish Child (1917); M. Gaster, in: Folk-Lore, 11 (1900), 129–62; T.H. Gaster, The Holy and the Profane (1955), 3–41; A. Landau, in: Zeitschrift des Vereins fuer Volkskunde, 9 (1899), 72–77; J.Z. Lauterbach, in: CCARY, 42 (1932), 316–60; R. Lilienthal, in: MGJV, 25–26 (1908), 1–24, 41–53; M. Molho, in: Edoth, 2 (1946/47), 255–69 (Saloniki); R. Patai, in: Folklore, 54 (1943), 117–24; 56 (1945), 208–18; A.M. Posner, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 4 (1956), 41–44; A. Pritzker, ibid., vol. 1 no. 1 (1948–53), 87–90; vol. 2 (1954), 22–23, 215–8; H. Schauss, in: Yivo Bleter, 17 (1941), 47–63; M. Zobel, in: Almanach des Schocken Verlags (1939), 98ff.; I. Zoller, in; Filologishe Shriftn, 3 (1929), 121–42. BAR MITZVAH: A. Ben-Gurion (ed.), Yalkut Bar-Mitzvah (1967); T.H. Gaster, The Holy and the Profane (1955), 66–77; J, Nacht, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 3 (1955), 106–11; 1. Rivkind, Le-Ot u-le-Zikkaron (1942). MARRIAGE: L.M. Epstein, The Jewish Marriage Contract (1927), incl. bib I.; I.Z. Lauterbach, in: HUCA, 2 (1925), 35 1ff.; Y.T. Lewinski, in: Yeda-A m, vol. 3 (1955), 91–97; Maḥanayim, 83 (1963). DEATH: S. An-Ski, in: Filologishe Shriftn, 3 (1929), 89–100; J. Avida, in: Edoth, 2 (1946/47), 217–25; A.P. Bender, in: JQR, 6 (1934/35), 317–47, 667–71; T.H. Gaster, The Holy and the Profane (1955), 137–95; Ch. Chajes, in: Filologishe Shriftn, 2 (1928), 281–328; A. Pritsker, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 3 (1955), 20f., 115–17; 4 (1956), 38–40; 5 (1957), 26–28; Ch. Schwarzbaum, in: Yeda-Am, vol. 6 (1960), 14–18. FOLK MEDICINE: Y. Bergman, Ha-Folklor ha-Yehudi (1953), 178–94; M. Bernstein, in: Studies in Biblical and Jewish Folklore (1960), 289–305; M.M. Firestone, in: Journal of American Folklore, 75 (1962), 301–10; M. Grunwald, in: Jirbuch fuer juedische Volkskunde, 1 (1923), 222–6; M. Kosover, Yidishe Ma'akholim (1958); R. Patai, in: Folklore, 54 (1943), 117–24; 56 (1945), 208–18; H.J. Zimmels, Magicians, Theologians and Doctors (1952). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Ben Amos, "Jewish Studies and Jewish Folklore," in: Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies, Division D (Art, Folklore, and Music), II (1990), 1–20); G. Hasan-Rokem, "Jewish Folklore and Ethnography," in: M. Goodman (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies (2002), 956–74, incl. bibl. The Israeli Folktale Archive at Haifa University in Israel (founded by Dov Noy) houses 25,000 narrative texts. An archive for proverbs at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (founded by Galit Hasan-Rokem) houses 7,500 sayings. The Institute for Jewish Studies at the Hebrew University publishes the journal Jerusalem Studies in Folklore.