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Agriculture

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

EREẒ ISRAEL:

J. Schwarz, Tevu'ot ha-Areẓ (19003); M. Zagorodsky, Avodat Avoteinu (1949); B. Cizik, Oẓar ha-Ẓemaḥim (1952); Alon, Toledot; S.D. Jaffe, Ha-Ḥakla'ut ha-Ivrit ha-Kedumah be-Ereẓ Yisrael (1959); S. Hurwitz, Torat ha-Sadeh, 3 (1959); Y. Feliks, Olam ha-Zome'aḥ ha-Mikra'i (1968); idem, Ha-Ḥakla'ut be-Ereẓ Yisrael bi-Tekufat ha-Mishnah ve-ha-Talmud (1963), incl. bibl.; idem, Kilei Zera'im ve-Harkavah (1967); idem, in: Sefer ha-Emek (1957), 123–33; Aharoni, ibid., 107–14; Yeivin, ibid., 115–22; H. Vogelstein, Die Landwirtschaft in der Zeit der Mischna (1894); Krauss, Tal Arch 2 (1911); Loew, Flora; Dalman, Arbeit; A.L.E. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (1952). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Horowitz, "Pollen: Key to Negev Climate in Prehistoric Times," in: ILN, 4 (1978–79), 62–63; A. Horowitz, The Quaternary of Israel. (1979); U. Baruch, "The Late Holocene Vegetational History of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel," in: Paleorient, 12 (1986), 37–48; R. Gophna, N. Liphshitz, and S. Lev-Yadun, "Man's Impact on the Natural Vegetation of the Central Coastal Plain of Israel during the Chalcolithic Period and the Bronze Age," in: Tel Aviv, 13–14 (1986–87), 71–84; Y. Weisel, N. Liphschitz, and S. Lev-Yadun, "Flora in Ancient Eretz-Israel," in: A. Kasher et al. (eds.), Man and Land in EretzIsrael in Antiquity. (1986); A. Rosen, "Environmental Change and Settlement at Tel Lachish, Israel," in: BASOR, 263 (1986), 55–60; A. Rosen, Cities of Clay: The Geoarchaeology of Tells. (1986); idem, "Phytolith Studies at Shiqmim," in: T.E. Levi (ed.), Shiqmim I: Studies Concerning Chalcolithic Societies in the Northern Negev Desert, Israel (19821984). BAR International Series (1987), 243–49; D. Zohary and M. Hopf, Domestication of Plants in the Old World (1988); I. Drori and A. Horowitz, "Tel Lachish: Environment and Subsistence During the Middle Bronze, Late Bronze and Iron Age," Tel Aviv, 15–16 (1988–89), 206–11; I. Rovner, "Fine-Tuning Floral History with Plant Poal Phytolith Analysis," in: W.M. Kelso and R. Most (eds.), Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology (1990), 297–308; U. Baruch, "Palynological Evidence for Human Impact Upon the Flora of the Land of Israel in Antiquity," Qadmoniot, 27 (1994), 47–63. BABYLON: J. Newman, Agricultural Life of the Jews in Babylonia (1933), 136–40. MIDDLE AGES: S.D. Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, 1 (1967), 116–27, 425–30; G. Caro, Sozialund Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Juden im Mittelalter und der Neuzeit, 2 vols. (1920–24); Ashtor, Korot; Baer, Spain; Baron, Social; B. Blumenkranz, Juifs et Chretiens dans le monde occidental (1960); H.Z. Hirschberg, Yisrael be-Arav (1946); Hirschberg, Afrikah; A. Milano, Vicende economiche degli Ebret nell Italia meridionale ed insulare durante il Medioevo (1954); Neuman, Spain; S. Saige, Les Juifs du Languedoc (1881); O. Stobbe, Die Juden in Deutschland (1866). TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS: Baer, Spain, index, s.v. Commerce; G. Caro, Sozial-und Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Juden im Mittelalter und in der Neuzeit, 2 vols. (1908–20); Kosover, in: YIVO Bleter, 12 (1937), 533–45; I. Schipper (ed.), Dziee handlu źydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1938); Roth, England, 73, 115; H.G. Richardson, English Jewry under Angevin Kings (1960), index, s.v. Corn dealing: S.D. Goitein, A Mediterranean Society (1967), 116–26, 265. MODERN EUROPE: V. Niktin, Yevreyskiya poseleniya severo i yugozapadnogo kraya (1894); Yevreyskoye kolonizatsionnoye obshchestvo, Sbornik ob ekonomicheskom polozheniyu Yevreyev v Rossii (1904); S.Y. Borovoi, Yevreyskaya zemledelcheskaya kolonizatsiya v staroy Rossii (1928); B. Brutzkus, Di Yidishe Landvirtshaft in Mizrakh-Erope (1926); Jewish Agricultural Society, Der Yidisher Landvirt (1932–39); S. Tapuach, in: YIVO Bleter, 10 (1936), 19–25; idem, in: Przeglǎd Socjologiczny; 5 (1937); I. Schipper et al. (eds.), Żydzi w Polsce odrodzone, 2 vols. (1932–33), index; J. Babicki, Yidishe Landvirtshaft in Stanislaver Voyevodshaft (19482); idem, in: Yidishe Ekonomik, 1–3 (1937–39); L. Babicki, in: Sprawy Narodowościowe, no. 4–5 (1932); Bartis, in: Zion. 32 (1967), 46–75; A. Tartakower, Megillat ha-Hityashevut (1958); Kh. Schmeruk, Ha-Kibbutz ha-Yehudi ve-ha-Hityashevut ha-Ḥakla'it be-Byelorusyah ha-Sovyetit 191832 (1961); Ḥakla'im Yehudim be-Arvot Rusyah (1965). UNITED STATES: H.J. Levine and B. Miller, American Jewish Farmer in Changing Times (1966); E. Lifshutz, in: AJHSQ, 56 (1966), 151–62. CANADA: Belkin, in: A.D. Hart (ed.), Jew in Canada (1926); Sack, ibid.; A. Rhinewine, Looking Back a Century (1932); L. Rosenberg, Agriculture in Western Canada (1932); idem, Canada's Jews (1939); A.A. Chiel, Jewish Experiences in Early Manitoba (1955); idem, Jews in Manitoba (1961).