SCHAFER, STEPHEN (1911–1976), criminologist and sociologist. Born in Hungary, Schafer was professor of criminology at Budapest University (1947–51), chairman of the Hungarian prison commission, and president of the supervising board of delinquency. He left Hungary in 1956 and became a consultant to the British Home Office research unit. In 1961, Schafer immigrated to the U.S. and taught successively at the Florida State, Ohio, and Northeastern universities, and served as a consultant to the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice.
Schafer's principal book in English was Restitution to Victims of Crime (1960), a problem on which he became a leading expert. Some of his other works, as a preeminent researcher in the field of victimology, include The Victim and His Criminal (1968), Theories in Criminology (1969), Juvenile Delinquency (1970), The Political Criminal: The Problem of Morality and Crime (1974), Social Problems in a Changing Society (1975), and Introduction to Criminology (19762).