Moshe Kahlon was born in Israel in 1960. He served in the army as a training instructor. He holds an L.L.B. from Netanya Law College and a B.A. in political science and general studies from Haifa University.
Kahlon served as Director of the Scientific Industrial Center (1993-1999) and was the personal representative of the Defense Minister in the Haifa and North Region (1996-1999). He was a public representative in the Haifa Labor Court (1999-2001) and served as Bureau Chief and Senior Advisor to the Minister of Public Security (2000-2002). He has also been a member of the Council and Directorate of the Aguda Lemaan Hachayal, a member of the Council of Maccabi Haifa, Director of Matzila, a community for the prevention of crime (2001-2002), and Chairman of Ethos, a company for Art, Culture and Sport in Haifa (2005-2006).
First elected to the Knesset in 2003, Moshe Kahlon has served on the Knesset Economic Affairs, Ethics, Labor, Welfare, and Health, Internal Affairs and Environment, Committees, and the Committee on the Rights of the Child. He also served as Deputy Speaker of the Knesset (16th Knesset) and chaired the Knesset Economic Affairs Committee and the Parliamentary Inquiry Committee on Bank Fees. An active lobbyist, he chaired the lobbies for Haifa and nearby towns, for the Israeli Police and Prisons Services, and for closing the social gaps. He has also been a member of various lobbies, among them the war against drugs, the environment, and Ethiopian immigrants.
In March 2009 Moshe Kahlon was appointed Minister of Communications and later also as Minister of Welfare and Social Services (January 2011), serving until March 2013. He was appointed Minister of Finance following the March 2015 election.
He is married and the father of three children.