LIPMANN, OTTO (1880–1933), German psychologist and expert in vocational guidance. Lipmann was one of the pioneers in Germany of psychological counseling for the selection of a profession. According to Lipmann, effective counseling came from a knowledge of the individual's characteristics and this determined the profession suitable for him. Lipmann suggested a method of examining the individual by means of tests and questionnaires, followed by an analysis of professions. Lipmann was the first psychologist to employ statistics in his work. He prepared several "psychograms" of professions such as telegraphist, typesetter, businessman, metal worker, academic worker, etc. Lipmann was the founder of the Institute for Applied Psychology in Berlin and editor (together with William Stern) of the Zeitschrift fuer angewandte Psychologie. His works include Psychische Geschlechtsunterschiede (2 vols., 1917, 19242), Wirschaftspsychologie und psychologische Berufsberatung (1918, 19212), Die psychologische Analyse der hoeheren Berufe (1920), and Grundriss der Arbeitswissenschaft und Ergebnisse der arbeitswissenschaftlichen Statistik (1926).
American Journal of Psychology, 46 (1934), 152–4. Add. Bibliography: NDB, vol. 14 (1985), 645f.