The Moscow Conference
(October 30, 1943)
In their declaration, the ministers discussed what measures needed to be taken to end the war with the Axis powers as well as how to cooperate peacefully throughtout this period. A decision in favor of restoring democracy in Italy was also passed.
JOINT FOUR-NATION DECLARATION
The governments of the United States of America, United Kingdom,
the Soviet Union, and China;
United in their determination, in accordance with the
declaration by the United Nations of January, 1942, and subsequent declarations,
to continue hostilities against those Axis powers with which they respectively
are at war until such powers have laid down their arms on the basis
of unconditional surrender;
Conscious of their responsibility to secure the liberation
of themselves and the peoples allied with them from the menace of aggression;
Recognizing the necessity of insuring a rapid and orderly
transition from war to peace and of establishing and maintaining international
peace and security with the least diversion of the world's human and
economic resources for armaments;
1. That their united action,
pledged for the prosecution of the war against their respective enemies,
will be continued for the organization and maintenance of peace and
2. That those of them at war
with a common enemy will act together in all matters relating to the
surrender and disarmament of that enemy.
3. That they will take all measures
deemed by them to be necessary to provide against any violation of
the terms imposed upon the enemy.
4. That they recognize the necessity
of establishing at the earliest practicable date a general international
organization, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of
all peace-loving states, and open to membership by all such states,
large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and security.
for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security pending
the re-establishment of law and order and the inauguration of a system
of general security they will consult with one another and as occasion
requires with other members of the United Nations, with a view to
joint action on behalf of the community of nations.
6. That after the termination
of hostilities they will not employ their military forces within the
territories of other states except for the purposes envisaged in this
declaration and after joint consultation.
7. That they will confer and
cooperate with one another and with other members of the United Nations
to bring about a practicable general agreement with respect to the
regulation of armaments in the post-war period.
DECLARATION REGARDING ITALY
The Foreign Secretaries of the United States, the United Kingdom
and the Soviet Union have established that their three governments are
in complete agreement that Allied policy toward Italy must be based
upon the fundamental principle that Fascism and all its evil influence
and configuration shall be completely destroyed and that the Italian
people shall be given every opportunity to establish governmental and
other institutions based on democratic principles.
The Foreign Secretaries of the United States and the
United Kingdom declare that the action of their governments form the
inception of the invasion of Italian territory, in so far as paramount
military requirements have permitted, has been based upon this policy.
In furtherance of this policy in the future the Foreign
Secretaries of the three governments are agreed that the following measures
are important and should be put into effect:
1. It is essential that the
Italian Government should be made more democratic by inclusion of
representatives of those sections of the Italian people who have always
2. Freedom of speech, of religious
worship, of political belief, of press and of public meeting, shall
be restored in full measure to the Italian people, who shall be entitled
to form anti-Fascist political groups.
3. All institutions and organizations
created by the Fascist regime shall be suppressed.
4. All Fascist or pro-Fascist
elements shall be removed from the administration and from institutions
and organizations of a public character.
5. All political prisoners of
the Fascist regime shall be released and accorded full amnesty.
6. Democratic organs of local
government shall be created.
7. Fascist chiefs and army generals
known or suspected to be war criminals shall be arrested and handed
over to justice.
In making this declaration the three Foreign Secretaries
recognize that so long as active military operations continue in Italy
the time at which it is possible to give full effect to the principles
stated above will be determined by the Commander-in-Chief on the basis
of instructions received through the combined chiefs of staff.
The three governments, parties to this declaration,
will, at the request of any one of them, consult on this matter. It
is further understood that nothing in this resolution is to operate
against the right of the Italian people ultimately to choose their own
form of government.
DECLARATION ON AUSTRIA
The governments of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and
the United States of America are agreed that Austria, the first free
country to fall a victim to Hitlerite aggression, shall be liberated
from German domination.
They regard the annexation imposed on Austria by Germany
on March 15, 1938, as null and void. They consider themselves as in
no way bound by any charges effected in Austria since that date. They
declare that they wish to see re-established a free and independent
Austria and thereby to open the way for the Austrian people themselves,
as well as those neighboring States which will be face with similar
problems, to find that political and economic security which is the
only basis for lasting peace. Austria is reminded, however that she
has a responsibility, which she cannot evade, for participation in the
war at the side of Hitlerite Germany, and that in the final settlement
account will inevitably be taken of her own contribution to her liberation.
STATEMENT ON ATROCITIES
Signed by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Stalin
The United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union
have received from many quarters evidence of atrocities, massacres and
cold-blooded mass executions which are being perpetrated by Hitlerite
forces in many of the countries they have overrun and from which they
are now being steadily expelled. The brutalities of Nazi domination
are no new thing, and all peoples or territories in their grip have
suffered from the worst form of government by terror. What is new is
that many of the territories are now being redeemed by the advancing
armies of the advancing armies of the liberating powers, and that in
their desperation the recoiling Hitlerites and Huns are redoubling their
ruthless cruelties. This is now evidenced with particular clearness
by monstrous crimes on the territory of the Soviet Union which is being
liberated from Hitlerites, and on French and Italian territory.
Accordingly, the aforesaid three Allied powers, speaking
in the interest of the thirty-two United Nations, hereby solemnly declare
and give full warning of their declaration as follows:
At the time of granting of any armistice to any government
which may be set up in Germany, those German officers and men and members
of the Nazi party who have been responsible for or have taken a consenting
part in the above atrocities, massacres and executions will be sent
back to the countries in which their abominable deeds were done in order
that they may be judged and punished according to the laws of these
liberated countries and of free governments which will be erected therein.
Lists will be compiled in all possible detail from all these countries
having regard especially to invaded parts of the Soviet Union, to Poland
and Czechoslovakia, to Yugoslavia and Greece including Crete and other
islands, to Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France
Thus, Germans who take part in wholesale shooting of
Polish officers or in the execution of French, Dutch, Belgian or Norwegian
hostages of Cretan peasants, or who have shared in slaughters inflicted
on the people of Poland or in territories of the Soviet Union which
are now being swept clear of the enemy, will know they will be brought
back to the scene of their crimes and judged on the spot by the peoples
whom they have outraged.
Let those who have hitherto not imbrued their hands
with innocent blood beware lest they join the ranks of the guilty, for
most assuredly the three Allied powers will pursue them to the uttermost
ends of the earth and will deliver them to their accusors in order that
justice may be done.
The above declaration is without prejudice to the case
of German criminals whose offenses have no particular geographical localization
and who will be punished by joint decision of the government of the
Sources: A Decade of American Foriegn Policy : Basic Documents, 1941-49,
Prepared at the request of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations By
the Staff of the Committe and the Department of State. Washington, DC
: Government Printing Office, 1950: The