There are four minor fasts on the Jewish calendar that were instituted by the Sages to commemorate a specific national
tragedy. These minor fasts last from before sunrise
to nightfall, as opposed to Yom Kippur and Tisha B'Av that last for from sundown to sundown the following day. There is a great deal of
leniency in the minor fasts for people who have medical conditions or
other difficulties fasting and date of the fast is moved to Sunday
if the calendar date falls on a Sabbath.
The following is a list of minor fasts required by
Jewish law, their dates, and the events they commemorate:
Fast of Gedaliah
Commemorates the killing of the Jewish governor of Israel, a critical
event in the downfall of the first commonwealth. (Tishrei 3)
Tenth of Tevet
Also known by its Hebrew name, Assara B'Tevet, it marks the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem. It has also been proclaimed
a memorial day for the six million Jews who died in the Holocaust.
Commemorates the three days that Esther fasted before approaching
King Ahasuerus on behalf of the Jewish people. The fast is connected
with Purim and falls on Adar 13. If Adar 13
falls on a Friday or Saturday, it is moved to the preceding Thursday,
because it cannot be moved forward a day (it would fall on Purim).
Is the date when the walls of Jerusalem were breached.