The Deportation and Killing
of the Jews of Kislovodsk

(July 5, 1943)


Destruction of the Jewish Population of Kislovodsk

Protocol

Kislovodsk, July 5, 1943

 

We, the undersigned, citizens of the city of Kislovodsk: Pyotr Aleksandrovich Ostankov, Professor of Leningrad Medical Institute No. 1, distinguished scientist, living at Clara Zetkin Street 4; Timofei Yefremovich Gnilorybov, professor, Head Surgeon at the convalescent home of Kislovodsk, living at Paris Commune Street No. 9; Mikhail Yefimovich Gontaryov, assistant at the Medical Institute in Leningrad, living at Paris Commune Street No. 9; Mikhail Zakharovich Fingerut, living at Ch’kalov 42a; Naum Mikhaylovich Gorelik, living at Ch’kalov No. 45; Yevgenya Terentyevna Kovnatnaya, living at Volodarskaya No. 3; and Boris Yakovlevich Khshive, living at Terski Square No. 1/4, have compiled this protocol on the crimes of the Jewish nationality, residents of the city of Kislovodsk, in the region of Stravropol.

On August 16, 1942, the German Command and its representatives, the military commander of the city of Kislovodsk, Pohl, and the head of the Gestapo, Welben, set up a Jewish Committee in the city of Kislovodsk, under the chairmanship of Moisey Samoylovich Beninson, born 1878 (dentist, who lived at Stalin Street 22). He was told by the German Command to collect from the Jewish population and hand over immediately such valuables as gold, diamonds, silver, carpets, clothing, linens and shoes.

In the hope of saving Jewish lives by handing over the above valuables to the Germans, the Jewish Committee collected and delivered to the German Commander, Pohl, 100,000 rubles in cash, 530 articles made of gold or silver, rings, watches, cigarette cases, 105 dozen silver spoons, 230 pairs of shoes, men’s suits, coats, and carpets. According to market prices this contribution [forced levy] was worth about 5,000,000 rubles.

On August 18, 1942, the military commander of the City of Kislovodsk, Pohl, ordered a register to be made of the Jewish population without regard to sex or age. After the registration all persons of Jewish nationality were ordered to wear an identifying mark on the right side of the chest a six-cornered star which they call the "Star of David."

The Jewish population between the ages of 16 through 60 was rounded up by the German Command for various forms of forced labor: for the building of the airfield, and the paving of the roads. The doctors and professors were made to sweep and clean the streets. The work was done without any payment.

On September 7, 1942, the German Command No. 12 issued an order requiring the Jews to report to the railway station (at the freight station) on September 9, to take with them baggage not exceeding 20 kgs. in weight, valuables, and food for two days, in order, it was indicated, to travel from there to "sparsely populated" places in the Ukraine. They were ordered to hand in to Command No. 12 the keys of their apartments, each key to be marked with a label with the address.

On September 9, 1942, 2,000 Jews assembled at the freight station in Kislovodsk, including aged people, women and children. The Nazis took the hand baggage and also the food from the Jews, who were loaded onto 18 open freight cars and two covered cars, which stood ready for this purpose. The train then pulled out with a reinforced German guard in the direction of the railway station of Mineralnya Vody, where, according to eye-witnesses, the Jews were shot.

Among those deported and shot by the Germans were many medical workers including: Professor Baumholtz, Dr. Chatzki and his family, Dr. Schwarzman, the physician Sokolski, Dr. Mereynes, Dr. Drivinski and the Jewish writer Bregman. Altogether 117 medical workers perished.

Many of the Jews committed suicide because of the danger of brutality by the German Command against the Jews; these included Dr. Wilenski and his wife; Dr. Bugayevskaya and the nurse Pokrovskaya.

Dr. Feinberg, his wife and daughter tried to commit suicide by taking morphine and cutting their arteries, but the vile Germans did not let them die; they moved them to the clinic, cured them and shot them afterwards.

Among the Jews deported from Kislovodsk and shot in Mineralnya Vody were 9 Jewish children from the Children’s Home No. 18, aged 4-6 years. These were Olya Nimerovskaya, aged 6; Rosa Steinberg, aged 6; Grisha Shops, aged 7; Vova Shops, aged 5; Lyusik Shmaroner, aged 5; Ella Uritzkaya, aged 6; Yasha Uritzki, aged 4; Pavel Uritzki, aged 4; and Kolya Klunger, aged 5.

The citizen Fingerut, who escaped the shooting of the Jews, gave detailed evidence on the course of the shooting.

The train with the deported Jews arrived at the glass factory. The Germans who accompanied the transport ordered the Jews to get down from the freight cars, hand over their money and valuables, and then ordered them to undress.

With heart-rending cries the women, children and old people took off their clothing and stood dressed only in their underwear. Afterwards this mass of people, almost out of its mind with fear, was taken away to the anti-tank ditches, surrounded by German guards carrying submachine-guns. Anyone who tried to escape was shot dead.

At the ditches the Germans shot the Jews with submachine-guns and machine-guns.

The Germans took out 40 persons men and forced them to collect and load on the freight cars all the possessions of those who had been shot and afterwards took them, too, to the ditch and shot them.

As a result it has been established that the Military Commander of the city of Kislovodsk, Pohl, the head of the Gestapo Welben, and his assistant Weber, on September 9, 1942, carried out a cruel slaughter of the Jews of the city of Kislovodsk, 2,000 in number, including old people, women and children.

The facts stated above are confirmed by the following:

1. The printed decree of German Command No. 12 of September 2, 1942, given in the city of Kislovodsk, concerning the deportation of the Jews;

2. The official list of valuables handed over to the German Command;

3. The printed announcement by the German Supreme Commander "to the Civilian Population of the Caucasus" in Russian and German;

4. The evidence of M.Z. Fingerut, Y.T. Kovnatnaya, B.Y. Khshive, L.R. Lipman, Ch. R. Gertzber, E.I. Parkhomenko, L.I. Pavlova, A.M. Mirzoyan, Z.I. Kovina;

5. The document of Hospital No. 5404;

6. The document of Children’s Home No. 18;

7. The list of Jews killed, numbering 894 persons.

 

Signed:

P.A. Ostankov, T.Y. Gnilorybov, M.Y. Gontaryov, M.Z. Fingerut, N.M. Gorelik, Y.T. Kovnatnaya, B.Y. Khshive.

 

Dokumenty Obviniayut ("Documents Accuse"), II, Moscow, 1945, pp. 140-142.


Source: Yad Vashem