Israel-Lebanon Relations: Peace Agreement
(May 17, 1983)
The Government of the State of Israel and the Government of the Republic of Lebanon:
Bearing in mind the importance of maintaining and strengthening international peace based on freedom, equality, justice, and respect for fundamental human rights;
Reaffirming their faith in the aims and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and recognizing their right and obligation to live in peace with each other as well as with all states, within secure and recognized boundaries;
Having agreed to declare the termination of the state of war between them;
Desiring to ensure lasting security for both their States and to avoid threats and the use of force between them;
Desiring to establish their mutual relations in the manner provided for in this Agreement;
Having delegated their undersigned representative plenipotentiaries, provided with full powers, in order to sign, in the presence of the representative of the United States of America, this Agreement;
Having agreed to the following provisions:
1. The Parties agree and undertake to respect the sovereignty, political independence and territorial integrity of each other. They consider the existing international boundary between Israel and Lebanon inviolable.
2. The Parties confirm that the state of war between Israel and Lebanon has been terminated and no longer exists.
3. Taking into account the provisions of paragraphs I and 2, Israel undertakes to withdraw all its armed forces from Lebanon in accordance with the Annex of the present Agreement.
The Parties, being guided by the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and of international law, undertake to settle their disputes by peaceful means in such a manner as to promote international peace and security, and justice.
In order to provide maximum security for Israel and Lebanon, the Parties agree to establish and implement security arrangements, including the creation of a Security Region, as provided for in the Annex of the present Agreement.
1. The territory of each Party will not be used as a base for hostile or terrorist activity against the other Party, its territory, or its people.
2. Each Party will prevent the existence or organization of irregular forces, armed bands, organizations, bases, offices or infrastructure, the aims and purposes of which include incursions or any act of terrorism into the territory of the other Party, or any other activity aimed at threatening or endangering the security of the other Party and safety of its people. To this end all agreements and arrangements enabling the presence and functioning on the territory of either Party of elements hostile to the other Party are null and void.
3. Without prejudice to the inherent right of self-defense in accordance with international law, each Party will refrain:
a. from organizing, instigating, assisting, or participating in threats or acts of belligerency, subversion, or incitement or any aggression directed against the other Party, its population or property, both within its territory and originating therefrom, or in the territory of the other Party.
b. from using the territory of the other Party for conducting a military attack against the territory of a third state. c. from intervening in the internal or external affairs of the other Party.
4. Each Party undertakes to ensure that preventive action and due proceedings will be taken against persons or organizations perpetrating acts in violation of this Article.
Consistent with the termination of the state of war and within the framework of their constitutional provisions, the Parties will abstain from any form of hostile propaganda against each other.
Each Party will prevent entry into, deployment in, or passage through its territory, its air space and, subject to the right of innocent passage in accordance with international law, its territorial sea, by military forces, armament, or military equipment of any state hostile to the other Party.
Except as provided in the present Agreement, nothing will preclude the deployment on Lebanese territory of international forces requested and accepted by the Government of Lebanon to assist in maintaining its authority. New contributors to such forces shall be selected from among states having diplomatic relations with both Parties to the present Agreement.
1. a. Upon entry into force of the present Agreement, a Joint Liaison Committee will be established by the parties, in which the USA will be a participant, and will commence its functions. This Committee will be entrusted with the supervision of the implementation of all areas covered by the present Agreement. In matters involving security arrangements, it will deal with unresolved problems referred to it by the Security Arrangements Committee established in subparagraph c below. Decisions of this Committee will be taken unanimously.
b. The Joint Liaison Committee will address itself on a continuing basis to the development of mutual relations between Israel and Lebanon, inter alia the regulation of the movement of goods, products and persons, communications, etc.
c. Within the framework of the Joint Liaison Committee, there will be a Security Arrangements Committee whose composition and functions are defined in the Annex of the present Agreement.
d. Subcommittees of the Joint Liaison Committee may be established as the need arises.
e. The Joint Liaison Committee will meet in Israel and Lebanon, alternately.
f. Each Party, if it so desires and unless there is an agreed change of status, may maintain a liaison office on the territory of the other Party in order to carry out the above-mentioned functions within the framework of the Joint Liaison Committee and to assist in the implementation of the present Agreement.
g. The members of the Joint Liaison Committee from each of the Parties will be headed by a senior government official.
h. All other matters relating to these liaison offices, their personnel and the personnel of each Party in connection with the implementation of the present Agreement will be the subject of a protocol to be concluded between the Parties in the Joint Liaison Committee. Pending the conclusion of this protocol, the liaison offices and the above-mentioned personnel will be treated in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the Convention on Special Missions of 8 December 1969, including those provisions concerning privileges and immunities. The foregoing is without prejudice to the positions of the Parties concerning that Convention.
2. During the six-month period after the withdrawal of all Israeli forces from Lebanon
in accordance with Article I of the present Agreement and the simultaneous restoration of Lebanese governmental authority along the international boundary between Israel and Lebanon, and in light of the termination of the state of war, the Parties shall initiate, within the Joint Liaison Committee, bona fide negotiations in order to conclude agreements on the movement of goods, products and persons and their implementation on a non-discriminatory basis.
1. [Lines missing] abrogation of treaties, laws and regulations deemed in conflict with the present Agreement, subject to and in conformity with its constitutional procedures.
2. The Parties undertake not to apply existing obligations, enter into any obligations, or adopt laws or regulations in conflict with the present Agreement.
1. The present Agreement shall be ratified by both Parties in conformity with their respective constitutional procedures. It shall enter into force on the exchange of the instruments of ratification and shall supersede the previous agreements between Israel and Lebanon.
2. To Annex, the Appendix and the Map attached thereto, and the Agreed Minutes to the present Agreement shall be considered integral parts thereof.
3. The present Agreement may be modified, amended, or superseded by mutual agreement of the Parties.
1. Disputes between the Parties arising out of the interpretation or application of the present Agreement will be settled by negotiation in the Joint Liaison Committee. Any dispute of this character not so resolved shall be submitted to conciliation and, if unresolved, thereafter to an agreed procedure for a definitive resolution.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, disputes arising out of the interpretation or application of the Annex shall be resolved in the framework of the Security Arrangements Committee and, if unresolved, shall thereafter, at the request of either Party, be referred to the Joint Liaison Committee for resolution through negotiation.
The present Agreement shall be communicated to the Secretariat of the United
Nations for registration in conformity with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Done at Kiryat Shmona and Khaldeh this seventeenth day of May, 1983, in
triplicate in four authentic texts in the Hebrew, Arabic, English, and French languages. In case of any divergence of interpretation, the English and French texts will be equally authoritative.
For the Government of the State of Israel
For the Government of Republic of Lebanon
For the Government of the United States of America
1. Security Region
a. A Security Region in which the Government of Lebanon undertakes to implement the security arrangements agreed upon in this Annex is hereby established.
b. The Security Region is bounded, as delineated on the Map attached to this Annex, in the north by a line constituting "Line A", and in the south and east by the Lebanese international boundary.
2. Security Arrangements
The Lebanese authorities will enforce special security measures aimed at detecting and preventing hostile activities as well as the introduction into or movement through the Security Region of unauthorized armed men or military equipment.
The following security arrangements will apply equally throughout the Security Region except as noted:
a. The Lebanese Army, Lebanese Police, Lebanese Internal Security Forces, and the Lebanese Auxiliary Force (ANSAR), organized under the full authority of the Government of Lebanon, are the only organized armed forces and elements permitted in the Security Region except as designated elsewhere in this Annex. The Security Arrangements Committee may approve the stationing in the Security Region of other official Lebanese armed elements similar to ANSAR.
b. Lebanese Police, Lebanese Internal Security Forces, and ANSAR may be stationed in the Security Region without restrictions as to their numbers. These forces and elements will be equipped only with personal and light automatic weapons and, for the Internal Security Forces, armored scout or commando cars as listed in the Appendix.
c. Two Lebanese Army brigades may be stationed in the Security Region. One will be the Lebanese Army Territorial Brigade stationed in the area extending from the Israeli-Lebanese boundary to "Line B" delineated on the attached Map. The other will be a regular Lebanese Army brigade stationed in the area extending from "Line B" to "Line A". These brigades may carry their organic weapons and equipment listed in the Appendix. Additional units equipped in accordance with the Appendix may be deployed in the Security Region for training purposes, including the training of conscripts, or, in the case of operational emergency situations, following coordination in accordance with procedures to be established by the Security Arrangements Committee.
d. The existing local units will be integrated as such into the Lebanese Army, in conformity with Lebanese Army regulations. The existing local civil guard shall be integrated into ANSAR and accorded a proper status under Lebanese law to enable it to continue guarding the villages in the Security Region. The process of extending Lebanese authority over these units and civil guard, under the supervision of the Security Arrangements Committee, shall start immediately after the entry into force of the present Agreement and shall terminate prior to the completion of the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.
e. Within the Security Region, Lebanese Army units may maintain their organic anti-aircraft weapons as specified in the Appendix. Outside the Security Region, Lebanon may deploy personal, low, and medium altitude air defense missiles. After a period of three years from the date of entry into force of the present Agreement, the provision concerning the area outside the Security Region may be reviewed by the Security Arrangements Committee at the request of either Party.
f. Military electronic equipment in the Security Region will be as specified in the Appendix. Deployment of ground radars within ten kilometers of the Israeli-Lebanese boundary should be approved by the Security Arrangements Committee. Ground radars throughout the Security Region will be deployed so that their sector of search does not cross the Israeli-Lebanese boundary. This provision does not apply to civil aviation or air traffic control radars.
g. The provision mentioned in paragraph e. applies also to anti-aircraft missiles on Lebanese Navy vessels. In the Security Region, Lebanon may deploy naval elements and establish and maintain naval bases or other shore installations required to accomplish the naval mission. The coastal installations in the Security Region will be as specified in the Appendix.
h. In order to avoid accidents due to misidentification, the Lebanese military authorities will give advance notice of all flights of any kind over the Security Region according to procedures to be determined by the Security Arrangements Committee. Approval of these flights is not required.
i. (1) The forces, weapons and military equipment which may be stationed, stocked, introduced into, or transported through the Security Region are only those mentioned in this Annex and its Appendix.
(2) No infrastructure, auxiliary installations, or equipment capable of assisting the activation of weapons that are not permitted by this Annex or its Appendix shall be maintained or established in the Security Region. (3) These provisions also apply whenever a clause of this Annex relates to areas outside the Security Region.
3. Security Arrangements Committee
a. Within the framework of the Joint Liaison Committee, a Security Arrangements Committee will be established.
b. The Security Arrangements Committee will be composed of an equal number of Israeli and Lebanese representatives, headed by senior officers. A representative of the United States of America will participate in meetings of the Committee at the request of either Party. Decisions of the Security Arrangements Committee will be reached by agreement of the Parties.
c. The Security Arrangements Committee shall supervise the implementation of the security arrangements in the present Agreement and this Annex and the timetable and modalities, as well as all other aspects relating to withdrawals described in the present Agreements and this Annex. To this end, and by agreement of the Parties, it will:
(1) Supervise the implementation of the undertakings of the Parties under the present Agreement and this Annex.
(2) Establish and operate Joint Supervisory Teams as detailed below.
(3) Address and seek to resolve any problems arising out of the implementation of the security arrangements in the present Agreement and this Annex and discuss any violation reported by the Joint Supervisory Teams or any complaint concerning a violation submitted by one of the Parties.
d. The Security Arrangements Committee shall deal with any complaint submitted to it not later than 24 hours after submission.
e. Meetings of the Security Arrangements Committee shall be held at least once every two weeks in Israel and in Lebanon, alternately. In the event that either Party requests a special meeting, it will be convened within 24 hours. The first meeting will be held within 48 hours after the date of entry into force of the present Agreement.
f. Joint Supervisory Teams
(1) The Security Arrangements Committee will establish Joint Supervisory Teams (Israel-Lebanon) subordinate to it and composed of an equal number of representatives from each Party.
(2) The teams will conduct regular verification of the implementation of the provisions of the security arrangements in the Agreement and this Annex. The teams shall report immediately any confirmed violations to the Security Arrangements Committee and ascertain that violations have been rectified.
(3) The Security Arrangements Committee shall assign a Joint Supervisory Team, when requested, to check border security arrangements on the Israeli side of the international boundary in accord with Article 4 of the present Agreement.
(4) The teams will enjoy freedom of movement in the air, sea, and land as necessary for the performance of their tasks within the Security Region.
(5) The Security Arrangements Committee will determine all administrative and technical arrangements concerning the functioning of the teams including their working procedures, their number, their meaning, their armament, and their equipment.
(6) Upon submission of a report to the Security Arrangements Committee or upon confirmation of a complaint of either Party by the teams, the respective Party shall immediately, and in any case not later than 24 hours from the report or the confirmation, rectify the violation. The Party shall immediately notify the Security Arrangements Committee of the rectification. Upon receiving the notification, the teams will ascertain that the violation has been rectified.
(7) The Joint Supervisory Teams shall be subject to termination upon 90 days notice by either Party given at any time after two years from the date of entry into force of the present Agreement. Alternative verification arrangements shall be established in advance of such termination through the Joint Liaison Committee. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Joint Liaison Committee may determine at any time that there is no further need for such arrangements.
g. The Security Arrangements Committee will ensure that practical and rapid contacts between the two Parties are established along the boundary to prevent incidents and facilitate coordination between the forces on the terrain.
4. It is understood that the Government of Lebanon may request appropriate action in the United Nations Security Council for one unit of the United Nations Interim forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) to be stationed in the Sidon area. The presence of this unit will lend support to the Government of Lebanon and the Lebanese Armed Forces in asserting governmental authority and protection in the Palestinian refugee camp areas. For a period of 12 months, the unit in the Sidon area may send teams to the Palestinian refugee camp areas in the vicinity of Sidon and Tyre to surveil and observe, if requested by the Government of Lebanon, following notification to the Security Arrangements Committee. Police and security functions shall remain the sole responsibility of the Government of Lebanon, which shall ensure that the provisions of the present Agreement shall be fully implemented in these areas.
5. Three months after completion of the withdrawal of all Israeli forces from Lebanon, the Security Arrangements Committee will conduct a full-scale review of the adequacy of the security arrangements delineated in this Annex in order to improve them.
6. Withdrawal of Israeli Forces
a. Within 8 to 12 weeks of the entry into force of the present Agreement, all Israeli forces will have been withdrawn from Lebanon. This is consistent with the objective of Lebanon that all external forces withdraw from Lebanon.
b. The Israel Defense Forces and the Lebanese Armed Forces will maintain continuous liaison during the withdrawal and will exchange all necessary information through the Security Arrangements Committee. The Israel Defense Forces will cooperate during the withdrawal in order to facilitate the reassertion of the authority of the Government of Lebanon as the Israeli armed forces withdraw.
In accordance with the provisions of the Annex, the Lebanese Armed Forces may carry, introduce, station, stock, or transport through the Security Region all weapons and equipment organic to each standard Lebanese Armed Force brigade. Individual and crew-served weapons, including light automatic weapons normally found in a mechanized infantry unit, are not prohibited by this Appendix.
1. Weapon systems listed below presently organic to each brigade in the Security Region are authorized in the number shown:
- 40 tanks
- 4 medium tracked recovery vehicles
- 10 AML-90/Saladin/etc.
Armored Personnel Carriers
- 127 M I 13A I/ VCC-L, plus 44 M 113 family vehicles
- 18 155MM towed howitzers (also 105MM/122MM)
- 12 120MM mortars
- 27 81MM mortars (mounted on M-125 tracked mortar carriers)
- 112 RPG
- 30 anti-tank weapons (106MM recoilless rifle/ TOW/ MILAN)
Air Defense Weapons
- 12 40MM or less guns (not radar-guided)
2. Brigade Communications Equipment:
- 482 AN/ GRC-160
- 74 AN/VRC-46
- 16 AN/VRC-47
- 9 AN/VRC-49
- 43 GRA-39
- 539 TA-312
- 27 SB-22
- 8 SB-993
- 4 AM/GRC-106
3. Brigade Surveillance Equipment:
- Mortar locating radars
- Artillery locating radars
- Ground surveillance radars
- Night observation devices
- Unattended ground sensors
4. In accordance with the provisions of the Annex, armored vehicles for the Internal Security Forces will be as follows:
- 24 armored wheeled vehicles with guns up to 40MM
5. In accordance with the provisions of the Annex, there will be no limitations on the coastal installations in the Security Region, except on the following four categories:
- Coastal sea surveillance radars: 5
- Coastal defense guns: 15 50MM or less
- Coastal air defense guns: 15 40MM or less (not radar-guided)
- Shore-to-sea missiles: None
6. The Lebanese Army Infantry Brigade and Territorial Brigade in the Security Region are each organized as follows:
1 Brigade Headquarters
and Headquarters Company Off: 14 Enl: 173
3 Infantry Battalions Off: 31 ea Enl: 654 ea
1 Artillery Battalion Off. 39 Enl: 672
1 Tank Battalion
1 Reconnaissance Company Off: 37 Enl: 579
1 Logistics Battalion Off: 26 Enl: 344
1 Engineer Company Off. 6 Enl: 125
1 Anti-Tank Company Off: 4 Enl: 117
1 Anti-Air Artillery Company Off: 4 Enl: 146
Total: 4,341 Off: 223 Enl: 4,118
Off: = Officers; Enl: = Enlisted men.
Lebanon affirms that Lebanese law includes all measures necessary to ensure implementation of this paragraph. ART.6 Without prejudice to the provisions of the Annex regarding the Security Region, it is agreed that non-combat military aircraft of a foreign state on non-military missions shall not be considered military equipment.
It is agreed that, in the event of disagreement as to whether a particular state is "hostile" for purposes of Article 6 of the Agreement, the prohibitions of Article 6 shall be applied to any state which does not maintain diplomatic relations with both Parties.
It is agreed that, at the request of either Party, the Joint Liaison Committee shall begin to examine the question of claims by citizens of either Party on properties in the territory of the other Party.
It is understood that each Party will certify to the other if one of its personnel was on official duty or performing official functions at any given time
It is agreed that the negotiations will be concluded as soon as possible.
It is understood that this provision shall apply mutatis mutandis to agreements concluded by the Parties pursuant to Article 8, paragraph 2.
It is agreed that both parties will request the United States of America to promote the expeditious resolution of disputes arising out of the interpretation or application of the present Agreement.
It is agreed that the phrase "an agreed procedure for a definite resolution" means an agreed third-party mechanism which will produce a resolution of the dispute which is binding on the Parties.
ANNEX PARA 1.b
It is agreed that, in the portion of Jabal Baruk shown on the map attachment to the Annex, only civilian telecommunications installations, such as television facilities and radars for air traffic control purposes, may be emplaced. The restrictions on weapons and military equipment that are detailed in the Appendix to the Annex will also apply in that area.
ANNEX PARA 2.d
The Government of Lebanon affirms its decision that the Territorial Brigade established on April 6, 1983, mentioned in subparagraph c, will encompass the existing local units which had been formed into a near brigade-sized unit, along with Lebanese Army personnel from among the inhabitants of the Security Region, in conformity with Lebanese Army regulations. This brigade will be in charge of security in the area extending from the Israeli-Lebanese boundary to "Line B" delineated on the map attachment to the Annex. All the Lebanese Armed Forces and elements in this area, including the Lebanese Police, Lebanese Internal Security Forces and ANSAR, will be subordinated to the brigade commander. The organization of the existing local units will be adapted, under the supervision of the Security Arrangements Committee, in conformity with the Table of Organization for the Territorial Brigade as shown in the Appendix.
ANNEX PARA 2.g
1. An area extending from:
33 degrees 15 minutes N 35 degrees 12.6 minutes E; to
33 degrees 05.5 minutes N 35 degrees 06.1 minutes E; to
33 degrees 15 minutes N 35 degrees 08.2 minutes E; to
33 degrees 05.5 minutes N 35 degrees 01.4 minutes E;
which is at present closed for civil navigation, will be maintained by Lebanon.
2. In order to prevent incidents, there will be continuous communications between the southern command of the Lebanese Navy and the Israeli Navy in order to exchange information concerning suspected vessels. The procedures for the abovementioned exchange of information will be established by the Security Arrangements Committee.
3. The Lebanese Navy will act promptly in order to ascertain the identity of such suspected vessels. In emergency cases, there will be direct communications between vessels.
ANNEX PARA 3.f
1. The Joint Supervisory Teams will carry out their functions in recognition of the fact that the responsibility for military, police, and other control operations rests with the Lebanese Armed Forces, police, and other authorized Lebanese organizations, and not with the teams.
2. If the Joint Supervisory Teams uncover evidence of a violation or a potential violation, they will contact the proper Lebanese authorities through the Security Arrangements Supervision Centers created pursuant to the Agreed Minute to paragraph 3.f(5) of the Annex, in order to assure that Lebanese authorities take appropriate neutralizing and preventive action in a timely way. They will ascertain that the action taken rectified the violation and will report the results to the Security Arrangements Committee.
3. The Joint Supervisory Teams will commence limited activities as early as possible following the coming into force of the Agreement for the purpose of monitoring the implementation of the Israel Defense Forces withdrawal arrangements. Their other supervisory and verification activities authorized in the Annex will commence with the final withdrawal of the Israeli armed forces.
4. Joint Supervisory Teams will conduct daily verifications if necessary during day and night. Verifications will be carried out on the ground, at sea, and in the air.
5. Each Joint Supervisory Team will be commanded by a Lebanese officer, who will recognize the joint nature of the team when making decisions in unforseen situations, during the conduct of the verification mission.
6. While on a mission, the Joint Supervisory Team leader at his discretion could react to any unforseen situation which could require immediate action. The team leader will report any such situation and the action taken to the Security Arrangements Supervision Center.
7. The Joint Supervisory Teams will not use force except in self defense.
8. The Security Arrangements Committee will decide inter alia on the pattern of activity of the Joint Supervisory Teams, their weaponry and equipment, their mode of transport, and the areas in which the teams will operate on the basis of the rule of reason and pragmatic considerations. The Security Arrangements Committee will determine the overall pattern of activity with a view to avoiding undue disruption to normal civilian life as well as with a view to preventing the teams from becoming targets of attack.
9. Up to a maximum of eight Joint Supervisory Teams will function simultaneously.
ANNEX PARA 3.f.5
1. Two Security Arrangements Supervision Centers will be set up by the Security Arrangements Committee in the Security Region. The exact locations of the Centers will be determined by the Security Arrangements Committee in accord with the principle that the Centers should be located in the vicinity of Hasbaya and Mayfadun and should not be situated in populated areas.
2. Under the overall direction of the Security Arrangements Committee, the purpose of each Center is to:
a) Control, supervise, and direct Joint Supervisory Teams functioning in the sector of the Security Region assigned to it.
b) Serve as a center of communications connected to the Joint Supervisory Teams and appropriate headquarters.
c) Serve as a meeting place in Lebanon for the Security Arrangements Committee.
d) Receive, analyze, and process all information necessary for the function of the Joint Supervisory Teams, on behalf of the Security Arrangements Committee.
3. Operational Arrangements:
a) The Centers will be commanded by Lebanese Army Officers.
b) The Centers will function 24 hours a day.
c) The exact number of personnel in each Center will be decided by the Security Arrangements Committee.
d) Israeli personnel will be stationed in Israel when not engaged in activities in the Centers.
e) The Government of Lebanon will be responsible for providing security and logistical support for the Centers.
f) The Joint Supervisory Teams will ordinarily commence their missions from the Centers after receiving proper briefing and will complete their missions at the Centers following debriefing.
g) Each center will contain a situation room, communications equipment, facilities for Security Arrangements Committee meetings, and a briefing and debriefing room.
ANNEX PARA 3.g
In order to prevent incidents and facilitate coordination between the forces on the terrain, "practical and rapid contacts" will include direct radio and telephone communications between the respective military commanders and their staffs in the immediate border region, as well as direct face-to-face consultations.
Sources: Israeli Foreign Ministry