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Anti-Semitism: State Anti-BDS Legislation

To date, 38 states have adopted laws, executive orders, or resolutions designed to discourage boycotts against Israel. Separately, the U.S. Congress has considered anti-boycott legislation in reaction to the BDS movement. The Senate passed S.1, which contained anti-boycott provisions, on January 28, 2019, by a vote of 74-19. The House passed a resolution condemning the boycott of Israel on July 24, 2019, by a vote of 398-17. No federal law was adopted. In May 2023.

Senators Marco Rubio (R-FL), Bill Cassidy (R-LA), Mike Braun (R-IN), Rick Scott (R-FL), Bill Hagerty (R-TN), and Steve Daines (R-MT) reintroduced the Combating BDS Act of 2023 in May 2023.

The main objection to such laws was that they might violate the First Amendment. The Supreme Court, however, effectively rejected this argument when it refused to hear a challenge to an appeals court ruling that the anti-boycott law in Arkansas was not unconstitutional. Other challenges to state laws have also been dismissed by appeals courts. States are listed below by the date they adopted anti-BDS measures.





April 21, 2015
April 8, 2022


The Tennessee General Assembly formally condemned the BDS movement in a 123-1 vote with the passing of SJR-170, becoming the first state in the country to do so. Although the legislation does not order Tennessee public institutions to divest from entities involved in the BDS movement, it refers to BDS as, “one of the main vehicles for spreading anti-Semitism and advocating the elimination of the Jewish state.” The legislation also stated that BDS is, “deeply damaging to the causes of peace, justice, equality, democracy and human rights for all the peoples in the Middle East.”

Governor Bill Lee signed into law  SB 1993, which decreed that state contracts must include “a written certification that the company is not currently engaged in, and will not for the duration of the contract engage in a boycott of Israel.” An amendment added that “Israel” includes Israeli-controlled territories in addition to the State of Israel.

South Carolina

June 4, 2015

South Carolina’s state legislature passed legislation banning the state from entering into contracts with companies that participate in certain boycotts. Unlike the Illinois measure, South Carolina’s H-3583 bill is in no way limited to companies that boycott Israeli firms. Instead, the legislation refers to companies that boycott “a person or an entity based in or doing business with a jurisdiction with whom South Carolina can enjoy open trade.” South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed this legislation on June 4, 2015.


July 23, 2015

The Illinois state legislature unanimously passed landmark anti-BDS legislation on May 18, 2015, and Illinois Governor Bruce Rauner became the first state leader to sign anti-BDS legislation into law on July 23, 2015. The bill, SB-1761, targets taxpayer-funded public pension funds that invest in companies that have adopted a BDS stance toward Israel. Per the legislation, companies that boycott Israel in Illinois were added to restricted company lists that undergo periodic review and are sent to managers at all taxpayer-funded public pension funds. The passage of this bill was hailed as the first state-based, concrete action taken against the BDS movement in the United States. The Governor approved the legislation on July 23, 2015.

Illinois’ state pension announced in December 2021 that it will divest from Unilever, the parent company of Ben and Jerry’s, over the ice cream company’s decision to stop selling ice cream in the West Bank.


February 16, 2016

Alabama Governor Robert Bentley signed SJR-6 into law on February 16, 2016, after it had been unanimously passed by the state legislature the previous week. The legislation states that the activities of the BDS movement in Alabama are, “harmful to the State’s relationships with Alabama’s Jewish citizens.” It expresses unconditional support for Israel’s right to exist as a Jewish state. The legislation goes on to “unequivocally denounce and reject the international Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement and any furtherance of this movement in this state.”

Governor Bentley signed the anti-discrimination bill SB81 on May 10, 2016, preventing Alabama government entities from contracting with companies engaged in boycotts of Israel.


February 26, 2016

The Colorado House of Representatives passed HB-16-284 on February 26, 2015. The legislation orders the state Public Employee Retirement Association (PERA) to identify all companies participating in the BDS movement and add their names to a list of restricted companies. The bill then requires PERA to send notice to the company alerting them of their status. If the company does not stop supporting BDS activities within 180 days of notification, the legislation requires PERA to divest from that company. This list of restricted companies is to be reviewed on an annual basis. The legislation was signed into law by Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper on March 18, 2016.

In March 2022, Colorado’s state pension fund announced it would divest a $42 million investment in Unilever PLC after the company’s Ben and Jerry’s subsidiary took economic action against Israel by halting ice cream sales in West Bank settlements.


March 1, 2016

In a 47-3 vote, the Indiana State Senate approved anti-BDS legislation on March 1, 2016. The House approved the legislation in January. The law requires mandatory state divestment from any company that participates in, “the promotion of activities to boycott, divest from, or sanction Israel,” including “territories controlled by the Jewish State of Israel.”


March 10, 2016

Florida’s State Legislature passed SB-86 on February 24, 2016, with bipartisan support, sending a message that they benefit from their relations with Israel and do not support the BDS movement, companies associated with it, or its agenda. In early March, the Florida Senate passed an adjusted version of the bill calling for repealing U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s “West Bank country of origin marking requirements,” which prevent West Bank products from being labeled as “Made in Israel.”

On March 10, 2016, the Florida House of Representatives passed HB-527, directing the State Board of Administration to create a list of companies that engage in boycotts of Israel and instructing all government entities to divest from companies listed. On the same date, Florida governor Rick Scott signed SB-86.

Florida Governor Rick Scott signed HB-545 into law in a ceremony at the Orlando Torah Academy on March 30, 2018. The anti-BDS bill prevents companies that engage in boycotts of Israel from bidding on local or state government contracts.  


March 10, 2016

Both Virginia Houses of Delegates passed identical resolutions condemning the actions of the BDS movement in early March 2016. The legislation supports a negotiated 2-state solution and states that Virginia “oppose[s] all attempts to economically and politically isolate Israel within the international arena, including promoting economic, cultural, and academic boycotts.” Virginia lawmakers referred to the BDS movement as “inherently antithetical and deeply damaging to the causes of peace, justice, equality, democracy, and human rights for all peoples in the Middle East.” Virginia’s Jewish community issued a statement thanking the legislators for passing the resolution.


March 18, 2016

On March 14, 2016, Arizona’s House of Representatives passed legislation prohibiting state investment in companies that participate in the BDS movement and requiring all entities contracting with the state to certify that they are not involved in boycotts of Israel. HB-2617 passed the House with a 42-16-2 vote after having passed the Senate the previous week. The legislation was signed into law by Arizona Governor Doug Ducey on March 18, 2016.

In September 2018, a federal judge issued an injunction, blocking enforcement of the measure. The state appealed the ruling. Rather than go through with the appeal, the legislature passed a new law in April 2019, which “limits the anti-boycott certification to for-profit companies with more than 10 employees and government contracts worth more than $100,000,” according to the ACLU. The change means that many individuals and businesses who contract with the government are no longer subject to certification. 

A federal appeals court upheld the constitutionality of the law in June 2022 on the grounds that it does not infringe on free speech. The 9-1 ruling reversed a February 2021 decision. Judge Jonathan Kobe said the law did not prevent criticism of Israel or the law. “It only prohibits economic decisions that discriminate against Israel. Because those commercial decisions are invisible to observers unless explained, they are not inherently expressive and do not implicate the First Amendment.”

Arizona sold $93 million in Unilever bonds and planned to sell the remaining $50 million invested in the company because subsidiary Ben & Jerry’s stopped selling its ice cream in the West Bank.


April 26, 2016

(Revised 2022)

Georgia’s SB-327 was approved by the State Senate on February 26, 2016, in a 45-6 vote. The bill prohibits the state, “including all of its subdivisions and instrumentalities,” from entering into contracts or agreements with companies involved with the BDS movement. This legislation passed the State House of Representatives on March 24, 2016, and was sent to the governor to sign. Governor Nathan Deal signed the legislation on April 26, 2016.

In May 2021, a federal judge ruled that the law is unconstitutional. There was no immediate reaction from state officials who could appeal the ruling or revise the language in the legislation.

An updated version of the bill was adopted in 2022. The original version of the bill applied the ban to companies and individuals. The revised bill limits the rule to businesses with more than five employees, and the contract must be valued at more than $100,000.

Under the measure, a boycott of Israel “means engaging in refusals to deal with, terminating business activities with, or other actions that are intended to limit commercial relations with Israel or individuals or companies doing business in Israel.”


May 10, 2016

March 24, 2022

On February 24, 2016, the Iowa House of Representatives voted to block the state from investing in or contracting with companies that support the BDS movement. The legislation, SB-3087, was approved with a 70-24 vote and six abstentions.

The Iowa State Senate approved SF-2281 in a 38-9 vote on April 27, 2016. The bill makes it illegal for a public entity in Iowa to invest or enter into a contract worth over $1,000 with a company that boycotts Israel. The State Senate also approved a resolution with a voice vote expressing support for Israel and a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Iowa HF-2331 was signed into law by Governor Terry Branstad on May 10, 2016, after being approved in April 2016 by the State Senate and in February 2016 by the State House of Representatives.

In 2022, the anti-boycott legislation was expanded to include wholly-owned subsidiaries, majority-owned subsidiaries, parent companies, or affiliates. It appeared to be aimed at Unilever, the parent company of Ben & Jerry’s, which announced it would not sell its products in the West Bank. The law would require an estimated $2.7 million to be divested from the state retirement system.

New York

June 5, 2016

The New York State Assembly passed an anti-BDS resolution with a near-unanimous vote in t on June 22, 2015. The resolution denounced the BDS movement, stating, “this legislative body is concerned that the international Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions movement and its agenda are damaging to the causes of peace, justice, equality, democracy, and human rights for all peoples in the Middle East.” The legislation also reiterated the close ties that New York shares with the Jewish state.

The New York State Senate approved a bill that prohibits the state and state entities from doing business with companies that support the BDS movement on January 20, 2016. This legislation would prohibit state contracting with or investments in companies or individuals that engage in boycott, divestment, or sanctioning activities against Israel.

On June 5, 2016, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo issued an executive order requiring state agencies to divest from organizations and companies that participate in Israel boycotts. Cuomo described BDS as an “economic attack” on Israel during a speech at Manhattan’s Harvard Club, stating, “If you boycott against Israel, New York will boycott you.” The Governor chose to issue an executive order instead of bringing the issue to the state legislature because passing legislation can be “a tedious affair,” and he wanted to take “immediate action,” against the BDS movement. Under the order, the Commissioner of the Office of General Services of New York was commanded to put together a list of businesses and groups involved in the BDS movement based on “credible information available to the public.”

In 2021, New York announced it would divest from Unilever, the parent company of Ben and Jerry’s, over the ice cream company’s decision to stop selling ice cream in the West Bank.

Rhode Island July 2016

The Anti-discrimination in State Contracts law prohibits any company that seeks to do business with Rhode Island from engaging in economic warfare with Israel or any other trading partner with favored nation status.

New Jersey

August 16, 2016

New Jersey Governor Chris Christie signed S-1923 into law on August 16, 2016, requiring the state’s public worker pension funds to dive from companies that engage in boycotts of Israel. The measure enjoyed wide bipartisan support in the State Senate and Assembly in May and June, where it passed with votes of 39-0, and 70-3, respectively.

In December 2021, the state announced it was divesting $182 million in Unilever plc stocks and bonds after its subsidiary, Ben & Jerry’s, decided to boycott Israeli-controlled territories.

September 24, 2016 California Assembly Bill 2844 was signed into law by Governor Jerry Brown on September 24, 2016. The law requires those who enter into contracts with state agencies to certify that they are not involved in activities that violate the Unruh Civil Rights Act, including support for the BDS movement and its programs.  


November 4, 2016

Governor Tom Wolf of Pennsylvania signed HB2107 into law on November 4, 2016. The bill, sponsored by Representative Matthew Baker, prohibits the government of the state of Pennsylvania from contracting with any entity that engages in BDS activities.


December 19, 2016

Ohio HB-476 was introduced to the state legislature on February 24, 2016. The legislation, if approved, would ban “state agents” from entering into or renewing contracts with companies, unless it is contractually declared that the company is not boycotting or disinvesting from Israel. The bill was signed into law by Ohio Governor John Kasich on December 19, 2016.


January 10, 2017

Michigan Governor Rick Snyder signed his state’s anti-BDS legislation on January 10, 2017, making Michigan the first state to stand against the BDS movement that year. The bills, HB 5821 and 5822, were passed by the state House and Senate during the previous month. Michigan state agencies,  “may not enter into a contract with a person to acquire or dispose of supplies, services, or information technology unless the contract includes a representation that the person is not currently engaged in, and an agreement that the person will not engage in, the boycott of a person based in or doing business with a strategic partner.”

Arkansas March 22, 2017

Governor William Hutchinson signed a law, Act 710, to prohibit Arkansas agencies from investing in or contracting with companies that boycott Israel. The legislation was adopted by a vote of 69-3 in the state House and 29-0 in the Senate.

The new act ensures that Arkansas taxpayer funds will not finance the anti-Semitic tactics of the BDS movement. Boycotts have “become a tool of economic warfare” in Arizona that “threatens the sovereignty and security of key allies and trade partners,” namely, the State of Israel. Act 710 maintains that the strategic refusal to engage in commercial relations with Israeli trade partners is discriminatory and unsound. The legislation guarantees state divestment of companies that “support or promote actions to boycott, divest from, or sanction Israel.”

The law also law requires state contractors to pledge not to boycott Israel or reduce their fees by 20 percent if they don’t sign the pledge.

In January 2019, a federal judge dismissed a lawsuit filed by the Arkansas Times challenging the law. A three-judge panel reversed that decision on appeal; however, the full 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the Arkansas anti-boycott law did not violate the First Amendment. The newspaper asked the U.S. Supreme Court to hear the case, but the appeal was rejected, letting the appeals court decision stand validating the position that the boycott of Israel is discriminatory conduct rather than political speech.

Texas May 2, 2017

Texas Governor Greg Abbott signed HB89, an act relating to state contracts with and investments in companies that boycott Israe, on May 2, 2017. The bill prohibits the State of Texas from contracting or enterring into business with companies or entities involved in the BDS movement against Israel. The law ensures that public funds will not go to companies that participate in BDS. 

In 2019, Texas started to divest $72 million worth of stock in the Norwegian financial services firm DNB ASA. Two state pension funds – the Employees Retirement System of Texas and Texas Permanent School Fund — own $68 million and $4 million, respectively, in stock in the company. This is the first action taken under the anti-boycott legislation.

In April 2019, a U.S. District Judge ruled in favor of Bahia Amawi, a former speech pathologist who sued the state over the law after she was fired from her job for supporting BDS. The court found “the statute to be a viewpoint-based restriction intended not to combat discrimination on the basis of national origin, but to silence speech with which Texas disagrees.”

In response, the legislature rewrote the language limiting the application of the law to companies with more than ten full-time employees and contracts of more than $100,000 with the state. The governor signed the bill, which “primarily makes our original intent clear, which is that it was not to pertain to small contracts and individuals,” according to Texas Sen. Brandon Creighton.

The ACLU of Texas maintains the bill is still unconstitutional, despite its narrowed scope.

In April 2020, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit dismissed a lawsuit challenging the original law, ruling that the lawsuit is moot because the legislation was modified.

Rasmy Hassouna, the owner of Houston-based A&R Engineering and Testing Inc., refused to sign a renewal of his contract with Houston after lawyers demanded he agree to its terms prohibiting any BDS activity. He filed suit and on January 28, 2022, a federal court blocked Texas from enforcing its law against the Palestinian-American contractor. The injunction, however, did not apply to the entire breadth of the law.

In 2023, the Fifth Circuit said a suit challenging the law that required state-sponsored retirement plans to divest holdings in companies that don’t support Israel was properly dismissed. In April, the Court of Appeals also rejected the appellant’s claim the law violated his First Amendment rights, ruling he lacked standing because he wasn't injured by the law.

In July 2023, the Fifth Circuit dismissed another lawsuit challenging the law. 

May 3, 2017 Minnesota Governor Mark Dayton signed his state’s anti-BDS legislation into law on May 3, 2017, after it had passed the State House and Senate with respective votes of 98 - 28 and 57 - 8. The Minnesota legislation prohibits state dealings with entities that participate in boycotts of Israel.  
Nevada June 2, 2017

After it unanimously passed the Nevada State Legislature a week earlier and the State Senate the month before, Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval signed Nevada’s anti-BDS legislation on June 2, 2017, prohibiting state institutions and government bodies from doing business with those who unfairly boycott Israel.

Kansas June 16, 2017

Kansas Governor Sam Brownback signed HB 2409 into law on June 16, 2017, prohibiting state agencies from contracting with entities that engage in Israel boycotts. The legislation passed both the Kansas Senate and House during the previous week, in respective votes of 39-3 and 99-13.

In February 2018, a federal judge temporarily blocked the law in response to a lawsuit. Subsequently, in April, the legislature amended the law so the anti-boycott certification requirement no longer applies to individuals or sole proprietors and only to companies that conduct more than $100,000 worth of business with the state. Those companies must now state that they are “not engaged in a boycott of goods or services from Israel that constitute an integral part of business conducted or sought to be conducted with the state.”

Following the changes in the law, the ACLU dropped its objection to the law.

North Carolina July 31, 2017

After passing the State House of Representatives by a vote of 96-19, and the State Senate in a 45-3 vote, North Carolina Governor Roy Cooper signed his state’s anti-BDS legislation into law on July 31, 2017. The legislation requires complete divestment from and prohibits state agencies from contracting with companies that engage in BDS campaigns against Israel.

October 23, 2017

Maryland Governor Larry Hogan signed executive order 01.01.2017.25 into law on October 23, 2017, which prohibits all executive branch agencies from contracting with any entity unless that entity certifies that they will not engage in a boycott of Israel for the duration of said contract. Hogan stated that all future contract requests for state bids must include language that the applicant has not refused to do business with any person or entity based on Israeli origin. The order also calls for all current state contracts to be evaluated and possibly terminated if they exist with companies that engage in the boycott of Israel. The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) went to court in 2019 to overturn the ban.

On October 26, 2020, a federal judge threw out a lawsuit in which a Muslim civil rights group sought to block Maryland from enforcing its ban on contracting with businesses that boycott Israel. In 2022, an appeals court upheld the lower court decision holding that the order does not infringe on the First Amendment because it addresses “actions” taken against Israel by the contractor in the bidding process and does not interfere with an individual’s “beliefs or political ideology.”

October 27, 2017

Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker signed Executive Order #261 into law on October 27, 2017, prohibiting state agencies from entering into contracts with entities that participate in Israel boycotts. The Executive Order also stipulates that any state agencies reserve the right to terminate existing contracts with entities that are found to violate the order.  

Walker signed Assembly Bill 553 into law on April 3, 2018, which prevents “state agencies and governmental units” from adopting rules, policies, or procedures, that engage in a boycott of Israel.  

Louisiana May 22, 2018

Louisiana Governor John Edwards issued an executive order on May 22, 2018, prohibiting the Louisiana state government from entering contracts to do business with entities that boycott Israel. The order directs the state’s Commissioner of Administration to terminate any existing state contracts with companies that engage in boycotts of Israel. The prohibition will not be applied to companies with contracts with the state that total less than $100,000 or fewer than five employees. 

Mississippi March 15, 2019 The Mississippi legislature passed, and the governor signed on March 15, 2019, the Israel Support Act of 2019. The bill requires “the executive director of the Department of Finance and Administration to develop and publish a list of scrutinized companies that boycott Israel; to prohibit the public employees’ retirement system and the state treasurer from investing with companies on such list; to hold harmless officers, employees and agents of the retirement system and state treasurer’s office for claims arising from decisions to restrict investments under this act; and for related purposes.” In addition, any investments that the state has in businesses boycotting Israel were to be divested by July 1, 2020.
Kentucky August 27, 2019

Kentucky Gov. Matt Bevin signed an executive order on November 15, 2018, banning the award of state contracts to companies that participate in campaigns to boycott Israel. The order states the “Commonwealth of Kentucky unequivocally rejects the BDS movement and stands firmly with Israel.”

Specifically, the order states that a governmental body “may not enter into a contract” unless it “includes a representation by the contractor that the contractor is not currently engaged, and will not for the duration of the contract engage in the boycott of a person or an entity” with which Kentucky “can enjoy open trade.”

Bevin subsequently signed a law that allows the Commonwealth to refuse to do business with companies that boycott other countries with which Kentucky has open trade.

South Dakota January 14, 2020

South Dakota Governor Kristi Noem signed an executive order that requires contractors and bidders to certify that they are not participating in the BDS movement when the subject of the state contract is related to the contractor’s boycott activities. Contractors and bidders who employ more than five people and are contracting for goods or services exceeding $100,000 must make the certification. The Order does not apply to individuals who choose to exercise a boycott by their own consumer purchases. Contractors and bidders should expect to see the certification requirement in new contracts or responses to requests for proposals in the next 30 days.

Oklahoma May 15, 2020

Oklahoma lawmakers introduced a bill requiring state contractors to certify in writing that they are not engaged in “a boycott of goods or services from Israel that constitutes an integral part of business conducted or sought to be conducted with the state.” The bill applies to contracts valued at more than $100,000; it does not apply to agreements with individuals. It also prohibits state entities from adopting policies that have “the effect of inducing or requiring” a boycott of Israel or a person doing business in Israel or territories under its jurisdiction “when such boycott is on the basis of such person’s location in such places.”

It passed the house in March and the Senate in May and was signed by the governor on May 21, 2020.

Missouri July 13, 2020

Gov. Mike Parson signed a bill that requires companies entering into a contract with the state to certify that they are not, and will not, engage in a boycott of Israel. The law applies to companies worth over $100,000 with 10 or more employees.

Utah March 17, 2021

Like other state legislation, the Utah law prohibits public entities from contracting “with a company to acquire or dispose of a good or service, including supplies, information technology, or construction services, unless: (a) the contract includes a written certification that the company is not currently engaged in a boycott of the State of Israel; and (b) the company agrees not to engage in a boycott of the State of Israel for the duration of the contract.” The law does not apply a “contract with a total value of less than $100,000; or with a company that has fewer than 10 full-time employees.”

Idaho April 22, 2021

The Anti-Boycott Against Israel Act bars public entities in Idaho from entering into contracts without a written certification that the company is not currently engaged in and will not, for the duration of the contract, engage in a boycott of goods or services from Israel. The law does not apply to contracts with a total potential value of less than $100,000 or contractors with fewer than ten employees.

West Virginia April 26, 2021

West Virginia’s “prohibition on contracting with companies that boycott Israel,” signed by Gov. Jim Justice, noted that the state “has an economic and a humanitarian obligation to denounce and reject the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions Movement against Israel, and to prevent the state or any of its instrumentalities from contracting with companies that engage in the movement.” Like other anti-BDS laws, this one says, “Effective July 1, 2022, a public entity may not enter into a contract with a company for goods or services valued at $100,000 or more unless the contract includes a written certification that the company is not currently engaged in, and will not for the duration of the contract, engage in a boycott of Israel.” The law allows contracts that violate the requirement to be voided.

North Dakota April 13, 2023 Modeled after other laws, the North Dakota statute says the state may not adopt any investment policy that would have the effect of requiring or inducing any person to boycott Israel. It specifies that an expressive activity, alone, directed at a specific person or a governmental action may not be considered evidence of a boycott of Israel. The requirement can be waived in the best interest of the state. The law also does not apply to A contract with a value of less than $100,000 or a contract with a company that has fewer than ten full-time employees.
New Hampshire July 6, 2023 Gov. Chris Sununu signed an executive order aimed at preventing the state from doing business with companies participating in an international economic boycott against Israel. The executive order would also prohibit state investments in companies participating in the boycott, although Sununu said he is not aware of any business dealings the state has with such firms.
Alaska February 7, 2024 Governor Mike Dunleavy issued an administrative order directing state agencies to halt business transactions with entities that endorse a boycott of Israel. It exempts contracts valued under $100,000, companies with a workforce of fewer than ten employees, and certain state corporations and agencies such as the state’s pension funds and the University of Alaska.

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Saqib Ali v. Lawrence Joseph Hogan, Jr.; Brian E. Frosh, No. 20-2266, (4th Cir.), (February 18, 2022).
Greg Bluestein, “New Georgia law revives Israel oath for large state contracts,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, (February 21, 2022).
Stephen Gruber-Miller, “Iowa lawmakers pass Israel anti-boycott bill that could target Ben & Jerry’s ice cream,” Des Moines Register, (February 28, 2022).
Vincent Del Giudice, “Colorado Pension to Divest Unilever Shares Over Ben and Jerry’s,” Bloomberg, (March 18, 2022).
“Reynolds signs anti-BDS of Israel and anti-semitism bills into law,” Iowa Torch, (March 24, 2022).
SB1993, Tennessee General Assembly, (April 8, 2022).
Dion J. Pierre, “Two Tennessee Measures Target Israel Boycotts, Antisemitism in Classroom,” Algemeiner, (April 13, 2022).
Sharon Wrobel, “US Federal Appeals Court Upholds Arkansas Law Against Israel Boycotts,” Algemeiner, (June 22, 2022).
Max Brantley, “Arkansas Times loses challenge of state’s Israel boycott law,” Arkansas Times, (June 22, 2022); “Supreme Court Declines to Review Challenge to Law Restricting Israel Boycotts,” ACLU, (February 21, 2023); “Brandeis Center Statement on Supreme Court Action Letting Arkansas  Anti-BDS Law Stand,” Louis D. Brandeis Center for Human Rights Under Law, (February 21, 2023).
Bernie Pazanowski, “Texas Retirement-Plan Law Survives Suit Over Support for Israel,” Bloomberg Law, (April 12, 2023).
Michael Starr, “US court rejects challenge to Texas anti-BDS law over lack of standing,” Jerusalem Post, (April 20, 2023).
“North Dakota signs anti-BDS legislation,” JNS, (April 21, 2023); Bill Text: ND HB1368, LegiScan accessed April 24, 2023).
“Rubio, Colleagues Reintroduce Legislation to Combat Anti-Israel BDS Campaign,” Press Release, Marco Rubio, (May 18, 2023).
Rick Green, “Sununu signs an exec order against business with Israel's boycotters,” Keene Sentinel, (July 6, 2023).
Aaron Bandler, “Fifth Circuit Court Dismisses Lawsuit Challenging Texas Anti-BDS Law,” Jewish Journal, (July 11, 2023).
Momen Zellmi, “Alaska Governor Orders State to Sever Ties with BDS Supporters,” BNN, (February 7, 2024).